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N$$^+$$ ion-implantation-induced defects in ZnO studied with a slow positron beam

Chen, Z. Q.; Sekiguchi, Takashi*; Yuan, X. L.*; Maekawa, Masaki; Kawasuso, Atsuo

Undoped ZnO single crystals were implanted with multiple energy N$$^+$$ ions ranging from 50 to 380 keV with dose from 10$$^{12}$$/cm$$^2$$ to 10$$^{14}$$/cm$$^2$$. Positron annihilation measurements show that vacancy defects are introduced in the implanted layers. The concentration of the vacancy defects increases with increasing ion dose. Annealing behavior of the defects can be divided into four stages, which correspond to the formation and recovery of large vacancy clusters, formation and disappearance of vacancy-impurity complexes, respectively. All the implantation induced defects are removed by annealing at 1200$$^{circ}$$C. Cathodoluminescence measurements show that the ion implantation induced defects act as nonradiative recombination centers to suppress the ultraviolet emission. After annealing, these defects disappear gradually and the ultraviolet emission reappears, which coincides with positron annihilation measurement. The Hall measurements reveal that after N$$^+$$-implantation, the ZnO layer still shows n-type conductivity.

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Category:Physics, Condensed Matter

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