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Interaction of nitrogen with vacancy defects in N$$^{+}$$-implanted ZnO studied using a slow positron beam

Chen, Z. Q.; Maekawa, Masaki; Kawasuso, Atsuo; Suzuki, Ryoichi*; Odaira, Toshiyuki*

Zinc oxide crystals were implanted with N$$^+$$, O$$^+$$, and co-implanted with O$$^+$$/N$$^+$$ ions. Positron annihilation measurements show the introduction of vacancy clusters upon implantation. In the N$$^+$$-implanted sample, these vacancy clusters are only partially annealed at 800$$^{circ}$$C as compared to their full recovery in the O$$^+$$-implanted sample, suggesting a strong interaction between nitrogen and vacancy clusters. At 1000-1100$$^{circ}$$C, nitrogen also forms stable complexes with thermally generated vacancies. To remove all the detectable vacancy defects, a high temperature annealing at 1250$$^{circ}$$C is needed. Furthermore, Hall measurements of this sample show n-type conductivity though nitrogen is expected as acceptors. On the contrary, in the O$$^+$$/N$$^+$$ co-implanted sample, most vacancy clusters disappear at 800$$^{circ}$$C. Probably oxygen scavenges nitrogen to form N-O complexes and hence enhance the annealing of vacancy clusters. A highly compensated semi-insulating layer is formed in the co-implanted sample.

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Category:Physics, Applied

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