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Report No.

Hydrochemical Investigation and Status of Geochemical Modeling of Groundwater Evolution at the Kamaishi In-situ Tests Site, Japan

Sasamoto, Hiroshi   ; Yui, Mikazu; Arthur, R. C,*

The results of hydrochemical investigations of groundwaters in the Kurihashi granodiorite at JNC's Kamaishi in-situ tests site indicate that these solutions are: (1)meteoric in origin, (2)chemically reducing (at depths greater than a few hundreds meters), (3)relatively young [residence times in the Kurihashi granodiorite generally less than about 40 years, but groundwaters older than several thousand years BP (before present) are also indicated by preliminary carbon-14 dating of samples obtained from the KH-1 borehole], (4)Ca-HCO$$_{3}$$ type solutions near the surface, changing to Na-HCO$$_{3}$$ type groundwaters with increasing depth. The evolution of groundwater compositions in the Kurihashi granodiorite is modeled assuming local equilibrium for selected mineral-fluid reactions, taking into account the rainwater origin of these solutions. Results suggest it is possible to interpret approximately the "real" groundwater chemistry (i.e., pH, Eh, total dissolved concentrations of Si, Na, Ca, K, AI, carbonate and sulfate) in the Kurihashi granodiorite if the following assumptions are adopted: (1)CO$$_{2}$$ concentration in the gas phase contacting pore solutions in the overlying soil zone = 10$$^{-2}$$ bar, (2)minerals in the rock zone that control the solubility of respective elements in the groundwater include; chalcedony (Si), albite (Na), kaolinite (Al), calcite (Ca and carbonate), microcline (K) and pyrite (Eh and sulfate). Discussions with international experts suggest a systematic approach utilizing reaction-path models of irreversible water-rock interactions in open systems may be needed to more realistically model groundwater evolution at the Kamaishi test site. Detailed information characterizing certain site properties (e.g., fracture mineralogy) may be required to adequately constrain such models, however.



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