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Intrinsic ferroelectric instability in Pb(In$$_{1/2}$$Nb$$_{1/2}$$)O$$_{3}$$ revealed by changing B-site randomness

Owada, Kenji; Hirota, Kazuma*; Terauchi, Hikaru*; Fukuda, Tatsuo  ; Tsutsui, Satoshi*; Baron, A. Q. R.*; Mizuki, Junichiro; Owa, Hidehiro*; Yasuda, Naohiko*

Pb(In$$_{1/2}$$Nb$$_{1/2}$$)O$$_{3}$$ (PIN) varies among antiferroelectric (AFE), ferroelectric (FE) and relaxor states depending upon the perovskite B-site randomness. We studied the effects of this randomness on the dynamics of PIN by high resolution inelastic X-ray scattering using ordered PIN (AFE) and disordered PIN (relaxor) single crystals. We have found a clear softening of a transverse optic mode at the $$Gamma$$ point in both the samples, indicating a robust and intrinsic ferroelectric instability regardless of the actual ground state. We interpret that AFE is stabilized only when In and Nb ions are spatially ordered enough to overwhelm the FE instability. As the B-site randomness becomes larger, AFE is suppressed and the FE ground state starts appearing. Ultimately, the randomness competes with the development of FE regions and blocks a long range FE order, which we believe yields polar nanoregions resulting in relaxor behaviors.



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