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Photoemission and X-ray absorption studies of valence states in (Ni,Zn,Fe,Ti)$$_3$$O$$_4$$ thin films exhibiting photoinduced magnetization

Kobayashi, Masaki*; Oki, Yasuhiro*; Takizawa, Masaru*; Song, G. S.*; Fujimori, Atsushi; Takeda, Yukiharu; Terai, Kota*; Okane, Tetsuo; Fujimori, Shinichi; Saito, Yuji; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Seki, Munetoshi*; Kawai, Tomoji*; Tabata, Hitoshi*

By means of photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we have studied the electronic structure of (Ni,Zn,Fe,Ti)$$_{3}$$O$$_{4}$$ thin films, which exhibits a cluster glass behavior with a spin-freezing temperature $$T_f$$ of $$sim 230$$ K and photo-induced magnetization (PIM) below $$T_f$$. The Ni and Zn ions were found to be in the divalent states. Most of the Fe and Ti ions in the thin films were trivalent (Fe$$^{3+}$$) and tetravalent (Ti$$^{4+}$$), respectively. While Ti doping did not affect the valence states of the Ni and Zn ions, a small amount of Fe$$^{2+}$$ ions increased with Ti concentration, consistent with the proposed charge-transfer mechanism of PIM.

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Category:Physics, Applied

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