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Gyrofluid simulation on the nonlinear excitation and radial structure of geodesic acoustic modes in ITG turbulence

Li, J. Q.*; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Miyato, Naoaki; Miki, Kazuhiro*; Anderson, J.*; Shi, B. R.*

The nonlinear excitation and saturation mechanism of geodesic acoustic mode (GAM), as well as its radial structure, in tokamak plasmas are investigated by applying a newly well-benchmarked gyrofluid model. At first, an empirical closure relation for the conventional three-field gyrofluid modeling is presented for ion temperature gradient (ITG) fluctuations and the GAMs. The zonal flow (ZF) damping is precisely examined by comparing with theoretical predictions and other kinetic calculations. Then, a local code and the global version are advanced to simulate the nonlinear excitation of the GAMs by ITG fluctuations. It is found that the GAM instability can be nonlinearly excited under the competition between the nonlinear driving and the collisionless damping. The pump amplitude threshold of the GAM instability is higher than that of the ZF instability. Meanwhile, the unstable GAMs are mainly saturated by the intrinsic Landau damping. Furthermore, the radial structure of the GAMs is shown as $$k_rrho_ileq 1.0$$.

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