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Report No.
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Distinct element modeling for Class II behavior of rock and hydraulic fracturing

Shimizu, Hiroyuki*; Koyama, Tomofumi*; Murata, Sumihiko*; Ishida, Tsuyoshi*; Chijimatsu, Masakazu*; Fujita, Tomo ; Nakama, Shigeo

In this research, newly developed numerical approaches using the Distinct Element Method (DEM) were presented, and a series of DEM simulations were performed for better understanding the physical phenomena and mechanism for the following two fundamental issues in rock engineering field. The first issue is the Class II behavior of the brittle rocks under uniaxial compression. The radial strain control method for uniaxial compression tests was introduced in the DEM codes and the Class II behavior of rocks was simulated. The simulation results suggest that the DEM can reproduce the Class II behavior of the rock successfully and revealed that the loading condition of rocks will play an important role for the Class II behavior. The second issue is the hydraulic fracturing behavior in rocks. A series of simulations for hydraulic fracturing in rock was performed by using the flow-coupled DEM code. Simulation results clearly show that the fluid infiltration behavior depends on the fluid viscosity. The fluid infiltrates into the fracture immediately, when a low viscosity fluid is used and the fluid infiltrates slowly into the cracks after the fracture generation and propagation, when a high viscosity fluid is used. Moreover, the tensile cracks are dominantly generated in the DEM simulations as expected in the conventional theory. However, the energy released from tensile cracks becomes smaller due to the fact that the tensile strength of rock is usually smaller than the compressive one. Such a small AE events is not distinguishable from noise and hard to recognize during laboratory experiments. Therefore, in AE measurements, shear type AE events with large energy are dominantly observed.

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