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Numerical evaluation of a multiple soil barrier system preventing water infiltration

降雨浸透抑制のための多重覆土層の数値シミュレーション

高山 裕介*; 生田 勇輝*; 飯塚 敦*; 河井 克之*; 瀧 富弘; 坂尾 亮太; 市川 康明*

Takayama, Yusuke*; Ikuta, Yuki*; Iizuka, Atsushi*; Kawai, Katsuyuki*; Taki, Tomihiro; Sakao, Ryota; Ichikawa, Yasuaki*

礫層,砂層とベントナイト混合土層からなる不飽和の多重覆土層では、ベントナイト混合土層の非常に低い透水性だけでなく、異なる保水能力を有する砂層-礫層間のキャピラリーバリアにより水の浸入を防止することが期待される。数値シミュレーションでは、植生層(まさ土), 上部フィルタ層(砂), 排水層(礫), 下部フィルタ層(まさ土), ベントナイト混合層(ベントナイト及びまさ土)からなる幅10m, 厚さ1.5mの不飽和の多重覆土層を考えており、これらの覆土層は5%の勾配で設置しているものとして飽和/不飽和、水/土連成の有限要素法を用いて多重覆土層による降雨浸透抑制の評価を行った。その結果、バリアシステムの長期性能を評価するうえでキャピラリーバリアが重要であり、また、本論文で検討した遮水機能は過去の最大降雨強度に対しても機能することを確認することができた。

In this paper, a multiple unsaturated soil barrier consisting of gravel, sand and bentonite-mixed soil layers is considered as a hardly permeable covering to prevent rainwater from infiltrating into waste deposits. Not only the quite low permeability of bentonite-mixed soil layer but also a function of capillary barrier between granular layers having different water-retention capabilities is expected to prevent water infiltration. A series of numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate performance of the multiple soil barrier using saturated/unsaturated soil/water coupled FE computation technique. The multiple unsaturated soil barrier system considered here is 10m long and 1.5 m thick consisting of sandy soil surface, sand filter, gravel layer, sand filter and bentonite-mixed clayey layer. And the soil barrier system is assumed to be placed as a covering with a 5% inclination on the waste deposit. The performance of the multiple soil barrier system is shown as a management chart to maintain impermeable ability associated with possible rainfall intensity. Particularly, in this paper, actual rainfall record in Okayama area is employed to determine the rainfall intensity which is imposed as a boundary condition in the computation. According to the simulation results, it is found that the capillary barrier is a key issue in evaluating the long term performance of the barrier system. And, it is confirmed that the barrier system considered in this paper can work well against the maximum intensity of the rainfall in the past record.

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