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Fogwater deposition modeling for terrestrial ecosystems; A Review of developments and measurements

陸域生態系における霧沈着モデリング; 開発状況と観測のレビュー

堅田 元喜

Katata, Genki

植生地への霧沈着モデリングに関するここ数十年間の進展をレビューする。霧沈着の推定のためのいくつかの種類のモデルと簡易パラメタリゼーションをその仮定・入力データ・モデル化したプロセスを比較しながら概観する。モデル計算から得られる霧沈着速度($$V$$$$_{rm d}$$)と植生種・構造との関係は、モデルの検証のために本研究で収集した文献と一致する。しかし、森林での$$V$$$$_{rm d}$$の観測値は複雑地形における観測の不確定性のために大きくばらついており、モデル計算値との定量的な比較は極めて困難である。文献調査によると、$$V$$$$_{rm d}$$の観測値は草地で2.1-8.0cm s$$^{-1}$$、森林で7.7-92cm s$$^{-1}$$であった。霧沈着が大気-陸面相互作用に及ぼす影響や複雑地形における霧沈着に関する数値的研究を紹介する。最終的に、更なる研究の進展に必要と考えられる新しいモデリングおよび観測手法を議論する。

Recent progress in modeling fogwater (and low cloud water) deposition over terrestrial ecosystems during fogwater droplet interception by vegetative surfaces is reviewed. Several types of models and parameterizations for fogwater deposition are discussed with comparing assumptions, input parameter requirements, and modeled processes. The relationships among deposition velocity of fogwater ($$V$$$$_{rm d}$$) in model results, wind speed, and plant species structures associated with literature values were gathered for model evaluation. Quantitative comparisons between model results and observations in forest environments revealed differences as large as two orders of magnitude, which were likely caused by uncertainties in measurement techniques over heterogeneous landscapes. Results from the literature review showed that $$V$$$$_{rm d}$$ values ranged from 2.1-8.0 cm s$$^{-1}$$ for short vegetation, whereas $$V$$$$_{rm d}$$ = 7.7-92 cm s$$^{-1}$$ and 0-20 cm s$$^{-1}$$ for forests measured by through fall-based methods and the eddy covariance method, respectively. This review also discusses the current understanding of the impacts of fogwater deposition on atmosphere-land interactions and over complex terrain based on results from numerical studies. Lastly, future research priorities in innovative modeling and observational approaches for model evaluation are outlined.

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パーセンタイル:48.61

分野:Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences

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