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Report No.
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First ionization potentials of heavy actinides

Sato, Tetsuya; Asai, Masato; Kaneya, Yusuke*; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Toyoshima, Atsushi; Mitsukai, Akina*; Takeda, Shinsaku*; Vascon, A.*; Sakama, Minoru*; Sato, Daisuke*; Oe, Kazuhiro*; Miyashita, Sunao*; Shigekawa, Yudai*; Borschevsky, A.*; Makii, Hiroyuki; Osa, Akihiko; Ichikawa, Shinichi*; Nagame, Yuichiro; Sch$"a$del, M.*; Eberhardt, K.*; Runke, J.*; Th$"o$rle-Pospiech, P.*; Renisch, D.*; Eliav, E.*; Kaldor, U.*; Kratz, J. V.*; Stora, T.*; D$"u$llmann, Ch. E.*; Trautmann, N.*

The first ionization potential (IP$$_1$$) yields information on valence electronic structure of an atom. IP$$_1$$ values of heavy actinides beyond einsteinium (Es, Z = 99), however, have not been determined experimentally so far due to the difficulty in obtaining these elements on scales of more than one atom at a time. Recently, we successfully measured IP$$_1$$ of lawrencium (Lr, Z = 103) using a surface ionization method. The result suggests that Lr has a loosely-bound electron in the outermost orbital. In contrast to Lr, nobelium (No, Z = 102) is expected to have the highest IP$$_1$$ among the actinide elements owing to its full-filled 5f and the 7s orbitals. In the present study, we have successfully determined IP$$_1$$ values of No as well as fermium (Fm, Z = 100) and mendelevium (Md, Z = 101) using the surface ionization method. The obtained results indicate that the IP$$_1$$ value of heavy actinoids would increase monotonically with filling electrons up in the 5f orbital like heavy lanthanoids.

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