Saturated pool nucleate boiling on heat transfer surface with deposited sea salts
Uesawa, Shinichiro ; Koizumi, Yasuo; Shibata, Mitsuhiko ; Yoshida, Hiroyuki
The progress of the accident of Fukushima Daiichi NPS has been calculated by severe accident analysis codes, for example, MAAP, SAMPSON and so on. However, the effects of the seawater on thermal-hydraulic behavior have not been considered in these calculations, although the seawater was injected into the reactors to cool down the nuclear fuels. Saturated pool nucleate boiling heat transfer experiments with on NaCl solution, natural seawater and artificial seawater were performed to examine the effects of salts on boiling heat transfer. The experimental results indicated that boiling curves were well predicted with the Rohsenow correlation although large coalescent bubble formation was inhibited in the NaCl solution, natural seawater and artificial seawater experiments. However, calcium sulfate was deposited on the heat transfer surface in the experiments with artificial seawater. After the formation of a deposit layer, a slow surface-temperature excursion was initiated at a heat flux lower than the usual critical heat flux. We confirmed that the relationship between the salt concentrations of the artificial seawater in the bulk fluid and the vaporization rate at the surface at which the slow surface-temperature excursion initiated. This relationship suggested that if the salt concentration of the seawater exceeded 11 wt%, the deposition of calcium sulfate on the heat transfer surface occurred even if the heat flux was zero.