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Report No.
 - 

Estimation of observables

Ogawa, Tatsuhiko ; Iwamoto, Yosuke  

Atomic Energy Society of Japan is going to compile a book entitled "The handbook of radiation shielding -Advanced Edition-" as the guideline for researchers and engineers working on radiation shielding in Japan. The authors are responsible for a chapter dedicated to "Evaluation of observables". Conventionally, in radiation shielding calculation, the quantities averaged over a lot of radiation particles are assessed; however, fluctuation around the average matters for detector response calculation, and radiation-induced damage. Therefore, algorithms to recover the details on fluctuations, such as the event generator mode of PHITS, are needed. This publication is intended to explain the significance of fluctuation evaluation in radiation transport, the principle to calculate the fluctuation, and the effect of the fluctuation on observables.

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