Photoelectron diffraction for probing valency and magnetism of 4-based materials; A View on valence-fluctuating EuIrSi
Usachov, D. Yu*; Tarasov, A. V.*; Schulz, S.*; Bokai, K. A.*; Tupitsyn, I. I.*; Poelchen, G.*; Seiro, S.*; Caroca-Canales, N.*; Kliemt, K.*; Mende, M.*; Kummer, K.*; Krellner, C.*; Muntwiler, M.*; Li, H.*; Laubschat, C.*; Geibel, C.*; Chulkov, E. V.*; Fujimori, Shinichi ; Vyalikh, D. V.*
Using photoelectron diffraction (PED) and magnetic dichroism measurements, we explore the electronic and magnetic properties of the near-surface region of the valence-fluctuating material EuIrSi. We present and discuss the methodology for modeling of the 4 photoemission spectra, PED patterns and magnetic dichroism for rare-earth-based materials. For the Eu-terminated surface we found that the topmost Eu layer is divalent and exhibits a ferromagnetic order below 10 K. The valency of the next Eu layer, that is the 5th atomic layer, is about 2.8 at low temperature that is close to the valency in the bulk. The properties of the Si-terminated surface are drastically different. The first subsurface Eu layer (4th atomic layer below the surface) behaves divalently and orders ferromagnetically at much higher temperature. Experimental data indicate, however, that there is an admixture of trivalent Eu in this layer, resulting in its valency of about 2.1. The next deeper lying Eu layer (8th atomic layer below the surface) behaves mixed-valently, but the estimated valency of 2.4 is notably lower than the value in the bulk. The obtained results create a background for further studies of exotic surface properties of 4-based materials, and allow to derive information related to valency and magnetism of individual rare-earth layers in a rather extended area near the surface.