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Short-range ferromagnetic interaction in a monolayer VSe$$_2$$ film revealed by element-specific X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

Sumida, Kazuki   ; Takeda, Yukiharu   ; Kusaka, Shotaro*; Kobayashi, Katsuyoshi*; Hirahara, Toru*

Since the discovery of graphene, atomically thin two-dimensional van der Waals (2D vDW) materials have attracted a great deal of attention due to their rich properties. In 2018, the presence of the long-range ferromagnetic ordering in the monolayer VSe$$_2$$ was reported. Remarkably, the recorded Curie temperature of the monolayer VSe$$_2$$ film exceeded the room temperature. However, soon after the discovery of strong ferromagnetism, a number of controversial results emerged. In this work, we investigated the intrinsic magnetic properties and electronic structures of the monolayer and multilayer VSe$$_2$$ films by means of ARPES, first-principles calculations, and XMCD measurements. We succeeded in detecting a clear XMCD signal from the atomically thin VSe$$_2$$ films under a magnetic field. By manipulating the incidence angle of the X-ray, we were able to disentangle the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetic properties and found a strong magnetic anisotropy. Moreover, temperature-dependent XMCD revealed that there is no long-range ferromagnetic ordering even at 6 K, but short-range ferromagnetic interactions between vanadium ions exist in the two-dimensional plane.



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