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論文

A BWR control blade degradation observed in situ during a CLADS-MADE-02 test under Fukushima Dai-Ichi Unit 3 postulated conditions

Pshenichnikov, A.; 倉田 正輝; 永江 勇二

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(9), p.1025 - 1037, 2021/09

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.02(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The paper summarizes the results of the control blade degradation test CLADS-MADE-02 performed in JAEA. The test focused at the beginning phase of the accident at Fukushima Dai-Ichi (1F) Unit 3. The investigation provided important data, especially on the temperature history, exhaust gas measurement and in situ video of metallic debris formation and relocation to the colder elevations under the test scenario, which reproduced oxidizing conditions during the initial phase of the 1F Unit 3 reactor heat-up. Based on the test results, some decommissioning related conclusions concerning the formation of new B-rich phases containing Cr and Fe were made.

論文

Steam oxidation of silicon carbide at high temperatures for the application as accident tolerant fuel cladding, an overview

Pham, V. H.; 倉田 正輝; Steinbrueck, M.*

Thermo (Internet), 1(2), p.151 - 167, 2021/09

Since the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in 2011, a considerable number of studies have been conducted to develop accident tolerant fuel (ATF) claddings for safety enhancement of light water reactors. Among many potential ATF claddings, silicon carbide is one of the most promising candidates with many superior features suitable for nuclear applications. In spite of many potential benefits of SiC cladding, there are some concerns over the oxidation/corrosion resistance of the cladding, especially at extreme temperatures (up to 2000$$^{circ}$$C) in severe accidents. However, the study of SiC steam oxidation in conventional test facilities in water vapor atmospheres at temperatures above 1600$$^{circ}$$C is very challenging. In recent years, several efforts have been made to modify existing or to develop new advanced test facilities to perform material oxidation tests in steam environments typical of severe accident conditions. In this article, the authors outline the features of SiC oxidation/corrosion at high temperatures, as well as the developments of advanced test facilities in their laboratories, and, finally, give some of the current advances in understanding based on recent data obtained from those advanced test facilities.

論文

Comparison of the observed Fukushima Dai-ichi Unit 2 debris with simulated debris from the CLADS-MADE-01 control blade degradation test

Pshenichnikov, A.; 永江 勇二; 倉田 正輝

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(4), p.416 - 425, 2021/04

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The paper describes the attempt of comparison of the simulated test CLADS-MADE-01 debris with the observed in the Unit 2. Similarities between them allowed to make conclusions on their possible source. During the test under postulated 1F Unit 2 simulated conditions a complex behaviour of the test sample with formation of mostly three types of debris was observed. A possible mechanism of stone-like debris formation in 1F case is discussed. The results of this paper broaden our understanding of the metallic debris properties after core degradation for a special case of steam-starved conditions at 1F Unit 2.

論文

On the degradation progression of a BWR control blade under high-temperature steam-starved conditions

Pshenichnikov, A.; 永江 勇二; 倉田 正輝

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00503_1 - 19-00503_10, 2020/06

High-temperature control blade degradation tests simulating a beginning phase of a severe accident in BWRs has been comprehensively performed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). In the latest test, a mock-up of BWR bundle material has been investigated under postulated Fukushima Dai-Ichi (1F) Unit 2 accident conditions in a complex heating transient scenario including a phase of lack of available steam. The progress in control blade degradation was monitored with help of an in situ video and the detailed analysis of the solidified metallic melt, so-called metallic debris, was carried out by conventional SEM and XRD methods. These results indicated that the composition of the metallic debris at different elevations has been significantly changed due to the redistribution and relocation of steel elements under the influence of B and C, sometimes accompanied by a formation of high-melting-point layers. The results of this paper significantly contribute to the physical understanding of control blade degradation phenomenology during beginning phase of a core degradation for a special case of steam-starved conditions at 1F Unit 2.

論文

Segregation behavior of Fe and Gd in molten corium during solidification progress

須藤 彩子; Meszaros, B.*; Poznyak, I.*; 佐藤 拓未; 永江 勇二; 倉田 正輝

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 533, p.152093_1 - 152093_8, 2020/05

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:42.23(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

For a criticality assessment of the fuel debris generated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, knowing the segregation of neutron absorber materials, ${it i.e.}$, Gd, B, and Fe, in the fuel debris is necessary. Although B may mostly evaporate during melting, Fe and Gd are expected to remain in the molten corium. To understand the redistribution behavior of Gd and Fe during the solidification of the molten corium, solidification experiments with simulated corium (containing UO$$_{2}$$, ZrO$$_{2}$$, FeO, and Gd$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ with a small amount of simulated fission products such as MoO$$_{3}$$, Nd$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$, SrO, and RuO$$_{2}$$) were performed using a cold crucible induction heating method. The simulated corium was slowly cooled from 2,500$$^{circ}$$C and solidified from the bottom to the top of the melt. An elemental analysis analysis of the solidified material showed that the Fe concentration in the inner region increased up to approximately 3.4 times that in the bottom region. This suggested that FeO might be concentrated in the residual melt and that, consequently, the concentration of Fe increased in the later solidification region. On the contrary, the Gd concentration in the periphery region was found to be approximately 2.0 times higher than that in the inner region, suggesting the segregation of Gd in the early solidified phase. No significant segregation was observed for the simulated fission products.

論文

New research programme of JAEA/CLADS to reduce the knowledge gaps revealed after an accident at Fukushima-1; Introduction of boiling water reactor mock-up assembly degradation test programme

Pshenichnikov, A.; 倉田 正輝; Bottomley, D.; 佐藤 一憲; 永江 勇二; 山崎 宰春

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(4), p.370 - 379, 2020/04

 被引用回数:6 パーセンタイル:71.78(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The new research and development programme of JAEA/CLADS tests complement the previous investigations related to BWR severe accidents. A series of tests aiming at closing the gaps in understanding of the Fukushima Daiichi degradation sequence at each unit. The paper emphasises the problem of control blade degradation, which influences the accident progression at an early stage and shows the approach for thorough investigation of this problem.

論文

Raman characterization of the simulated control blade debris to understand the boric compounds transformations during severe accidents

Pshenichnikov, A.; 永江 勇二; 倉田 正輝

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(2), p.19-00477_1 - 19-00477_8, 2020/04

In order to address the challenge of the future Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Station (1F) debris characterization a new Raman spectroscopy investigation of simulated debris obtained after two control blade degradation tests CLADS-MADE-01 and CLADS-MADE-02 has been performed. A mechanism of the B$$_{4}$$C degradation during the beginning phase of a severe accident until approximately 1873 K is described. A sequence of material interactions of B$$_{4}$$C with stainless steel resulted in partial transformation of B$$_{4}$$C granules into pure graphite, that later experienced oxidation with formation of COx gas. Especially this mechanism is active during melting phase in oxidative environment. At the same time boron was associated with formation of new Cr-B-containing solid phases in liquid melt, that continued relocation depleted by Cr and B, which resulted in redistribution of elements within the degrading reactor core. This knowledge would provide new insights for understanding of the absorber blade degradation mechanism under specific accident conditions close to 1F Unit 2 and Unit 3 reactors and especially would be helpful during potential characterization of metallic debris of 1F.

論文

Oxidation kinetics of silicon carbide in steam at temperature range of 1400 to 1800$$^{circ}$$C studied by laser heating

Pham, V. H.; 永江 勇二; 倉田 正輝; Bottomley, D.; 古本 健一郎*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 529, p.151939_1 - 151939_8, 2020/02

AA2019-0197.pdf:1.61MB

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:66.08(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

As expected for accident tolerant fuels, investigation of steam oxidation for silicon carbide under the conditions beyond design basis accident scenarios is needed. Many studies focused on steam oxidation of SiC at temperatures up 1600$$^{circ}$$C have been conducted and reported in the literature. However, behavior of SiC in steam at temperatures above 1600$$^{circ}$$C still remains unclear. To complete this task, we have designed and manufactured a laser heating facility for steam oxidation at extreme temperatures. With the facility, we report the first results on the steam oxidation behavior of SiC at temperatures range of 1400-1800$$^{circ}$$C for short term exposure of 1-7 h under atmospheric pressure. Based on the mass change of SiC samples, parabolic oxidation rate and linear volatilization rate were calculated. The oxidation layer appears to be maintained at 1800$$^{circ}$$C in steam, but the bubble formation phenomenon suggests other volatilization reactions may limit its life.

論文

Advances in fuel chemistry during a severe accident; Update after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) accident

倉田 正輝; 逢坂 正彦; Jacquemain, D.*; Barrachin, M.*; Haste, T.*

Advances in Nuclear Fuel Chemistry, p.555 - 625, 2020/00

福島第一原子力発電所(FDNPS)事故後、燃料化学の重要性が再認識された。運転員による最大限の事故防止・拡大防止の試みもあり、3つのユニットの事故進展の間に大きな違いがあることが福島第一原子力発電所の調査及び解析により明らかになった。燃料デブリの特性はこの事故進展の違いに大きく影響されると考えられ、TMI-2事故の解析と模擬実験に基づく典型的事故シナリオから予想されるものとは異なる。非典型的条件含め、シビアアクシデント(SA)に対する知見を適切に改良するため、燃料・炉心溶融崩落と核分裂生成物(FP)挙動の現象論の改良が必須であり、燃料化学の進展は最も根源的なアプローチとなる。本レビューはFDNPS事故後の最近のアップデートと残された課題に焦点を当てた。

論文

Oxidation of silicon carbide in steam studied by laser heating

Pham, V. H.; 永江 勇二; 倉田 正輝; 古本 健一郎*; 佐藤 寿樹*; 石橋 良*; 山下 真一郎

Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.670 - 674, 2019/09

Silicon carbide (SiC) has recently attracted much attention as a potential material for accident tolerant fuel cladding. To investigate the performance of SiC in severe accident conditions, study of steam oxidation at high temperatures is necessary. However, the study focusing on steam oxidation of SiC at temperatures above 1600$$^{circ}$$C is still certainly limited due to lack of test facilities. With the extreme oxidation/corrosion environment in steam at high temperatures, current refractory materials such as alumina and zirconia would not survive during the tests. Application of laser heating technique could be a great solution for this problem. Using laser heating technique, we can localize the heat and focus them on the test sample only. In this study, we developed a laser heating facility to investigate high-temperature oxidation of SiC in steam at temperature range of 1400-1800$$^{circ}$$C for 1-7 h. The oxidation kinetics is then being studied based on the weight gain and observation on cross-sectioned surface of tested sample using field emission scanning electron microscope. Off-gas measurement of hydrogen (H$$_{2}$$) and carbon monoxide (CO) generated during the test is also being conducted via a sensor gas chromatography. Current results showed that the SiC sample experienced a mass loss process which obeyed paralinear laws. Parabolic oxidation rate constant and linear volatilization rate constant of the process were calculated from the mass change of the samples. The apparent activation energy of the parabolic oxidation process was calculated to be 85 kJ.mol$$^{-1}$$. The data of the study also indicated that the mass change of SiC under the investigated conditions reached to its steady stage where hydrogen generation became stable. Above 1800$$^{circ}$$C, a unique bubble formation on sample surface was recorded.

論文

Overview of accident-tolerant fuel R&D program in Japan

山下 真一郎; 井岡 郁夫; 根本 義之; 川西 智弘; 倉田 正輝; 加治 芳行; 深堀 智生; 野澤 貴史*; 佐藤 大樹*; 村上 望*; et al.

Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.206 - 216, 2019/09

福島第一原子力発電所事故を教訓に、冷却材喪失等の過酷条件においても損傷しにくく、高い信頼性を有する新型燃料の開発への関心が高まり、世界中の多くの国々において事故耐性を高めた新型燃料の研究開発が進められている。本プロジェクトは、経済産業省資源エネルギー庁からの委託を受けて2015年10月から2019年3月までの3年半の間実施され、新型燃料部材を既存軽水炉に装荷可能な形で設計・製造するために必要となる技術基盤を整備することを目的に、国内の軽水炉燃料設計,安全性評価,材料開発を実施してきた人材,解析ツール,ノウハウ、及び経験を最大限活用して進められてきた。本論文では、プロジェクトの総括として、各要素技術について3年半の研究開発の成果をまとめ、日本の事故耐性燃料開発の現状と課題を整理した。

論文

ウラン-ジルコニウム-鉄の混合溶融酸化物の凝固時偏析に関する基礎検討

須藤 彩子; 水迫 文樹*; 星野 国義*; 佐藤 拓未; 永江 勇二; 倉田 正輝

日本原子力学会和文論文誌, 18(3), p.111 - 118, 2019/08

炉心溶融物の凝固過程での冷却速度の違いは燃料デブリ構成成分の偏析に大きく影響する。偏析傾向を把握するため、模擬コリウム(UO$$_{2}$$, ZrO$$_{2}$$, FeO, B$$_{4}$$C, FP酸化物)の溶融/凝固試験を行った。模擬コリウムはAr雰囲気化で2600$$^{circ}$$まで加熱し、2つの冷却速度での降温を行った。(炉冷(平均744$$^{circ}$$C/min)および徐冷(2600$$^{circ}$$C$$sim$$2300$$^{circ}$$C:5$$^{circ}$$C/min、2300$$^{circ}$$C$$sim$$1120$$^{circ}$$C:平均788$$^{circ}$$C/min)元素分析により、炉冷条件および徐冷条件両方の固化後の試料中に3つの異なる組成を持つ酸化物相および1つの金属相が確認された。炉冷条件、徐冷条件ともにこれら3つの酸化物相へのFeO固溶度はおおよそ12$$pm$$5at%であった。この結果はUO$$_{2}$$-ZrO$$_{2}$$-FeO状態図におおよそ一致している。一方、徐冷条件での試料中に、Zrリッチ相の大粒形化が確認された。この相の組成は液相の初期組成と一致しており、遅い凝固中で液滴の連結が起こり、凝集したと評価した。

論文

Characterization of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Unit 2 sediments / debris based on the on-site video investigations in comparison to the debris obtained after integral CLADS-MADE-01 test

Pshenichnikov, A.; 倉田 正輝; 永江 勇二

第24回動力・エネルギー技術シンポジウム講演論文集(USB Flash Drive), 4 Pages, 2019/06

The new data from video investigation of the 1F Unit 2 pedestal debris performed by TEPCO was analysed. The debris features as derived from visual appearance on the video compared with the debris obtained after the CLADS-MADE-01 test. Some speculative conclusions concerning the properties and possible nature of the debris can be made.

論文

Features of a control blade degradation observed ${it in situ}$ during severe accidents in boiling water reactors

Pshenichnikov, A.; 山崎 宰春; Bottomley, D.; 永江 勇二; 倉田 正輝

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(5), p.440 - 453, 2019/05

 被引用回数:7 パーセンタイル:86.66(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In the present paper new results using ${it in situ}$ video, are presented regarding BWR control blade degradation up to 1750 K at the beginning of a nuclear severe accident. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) mapping indicated stratification of the absorber blade melt with formation of a chromium and boride-enriched layer. High content-B- and C-containing material with increased melting temperature acted like a shielding and was found to prevent further relocation of control blade claddings. The interacted layers around the B$$_{4}$$C granules prevented direct steam attack of residual B$$_{4}$$C. The results provide new insights for understanding of the absorber blade degradation mechanism under reducing conditions specific to Fukushima Dai-Ichi Unit 2 resulting from prolonged steam starvation.

論文

Heterogeneity of BWR control blade degradation under steam-starved conditions

Pshenichnikov, A.; 山崎 宰春; 永江 勇二; 倉田 正輝

Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2019/05

This paper presents recent results on high-temperature control blade degradation at the very beginning phase of a severe accident in BWRs. The large-scale experiment has been performed in JAEA-CLADS laboratory using Large-scale Equipment for Investigation of Severe Accidents in Nuclear reactors (LEISAN). A prototypic sequence of Fukushima Daiichi (1F) Unit 2 has been taken. It has been shown that due to specific conditions happened at Unit 2 the lack of available oxygen allowed metallic melt more flexibility for relocation and inhomogeneous redistribution of melt components due to specially recreated temperature gradient. Phase composition of remained B$$_{4}$$C control blade claddings at different elevations, and phase composition of melt has been investigated by complementary methods and have shown significant difference in elevations together with stratification of metallic components with origination of high melting point layers due to redistribution of steel components and involvement of B and C. It allowed absorber blade residuals with B$$_{4}$$C inside being severely damaged by melting to survive at 1475$$^{circ}$$C and protect B$$_{4}$$C from direct contact with steam.

論文

The Behaviour of materials in case of solidified absorber melt - oxidized BWR channel box interaction revealed after CLADS-MADE-01 test

Pshenichnikov, A.; 倉田 正輝; 永江 勇二; 山崎 宰春

Proceedings of International Topical Workshop on Fukushima Decommissioning Research (FDR 2019) (Internet), 4 Pages, 2019/05

The paper summarizes the first results of a thorough SEM investigation uncovering the process of channel box wall penetration by Fe-Cr-Ni-B containing melt. The preliminary oxidation of channel box is shown to play an important role on severe accident progression resulted in the suppression of channel box massive destruction. Only one small droplet came out to the other side of channel box. The mechanism of local beginning of oxide layer destruction with subsequent Zircaloy-4 channel box penetration is under discussion.

論文

High-temperature interaction between zirconium and UO$$_2$$

白数 訓子; 鈴木 晶大*; 永江 勇二; 倉田 正輝

Proceedings of International Topical Workshop on Fukushima Decommissioning Research (FDR 2019) (Internet), 4 Pages, 2019/05

ジルカロイ被覆管とUO$$_{2}$$燃料の高温における溶融過程解析モデルの高度化に資するため、ZrとUO$$_{2}$$の高温反応試験を実施した。UO$$_{2}$$るつぼに、Zr試料を装荷し2173K近傍で加熱を行い、生成した反応相の成長状況や溶融状態、組織変化の観察を行った。試料の中間領域には、上方へ直線状に伸びる相が観測された。この相は、U-Zrの金属溶体相と考えられ、Zr試料中、酸素濃度が少ない方へ選択的に成長したと考えられる。

論文

Validation and verification for the melting and eutectic models in JUPITER code

Chai, P.; 山下 晋; 永江 勇二; 倉田 正輝

Proceedings of 9th Conference on Severe Accident Research (ERMSAR 2019) (Internet), 14 Pages, 2019/03

RPV内部の溶融材料の挙動を正確に理解し、SAコードの精度を向上させるために、JUPITERと呼ばれる多相,多物理モデルを備えた新しい計算流体力学(CFD)コードが開発された。それは多相計算のアルゴリズムを最適化した。その上、化学反応もコード内で注意深くモデル化されているので、融解プロセスを正確に扱うことができる。一連の検証と検証の研究が行われており、これらは分析解や以前の実験とよく一致している。JUPITERコードのマルチフィジックスモデルの機能は、関連するシビアアクシデントシナリオにおける溶融材料の挙動を調査するためのもう1つの便利なツールである。

論文

Steam oxidation of silicon carbide at temperatures above 1600$$^{circ}$$C

Pham, V. H.; 永江 勇二; 倉田 正輝

Proceedings of Annual Topical Meeting on Reactor Fuel Performance (TopFuel 2018) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2018/10

High temperature interaction of chemical vapor deposition SiC with steam was investigated at 1700-1800$$^{circ}$$C for 0.1-3 h in a mixture of steam and argon gas containing 98% of steam at 1 atm. At the investigated conditions, although a dense oxide layer was observed on sample surface, significant mass loss of SiC occurred. Below 1700$$^{circ}$$C, the oxidation kinetics seems to follow the para-linear laws. The apparent activation calculated based on the data of this study is to be 370 kJ/mol. Rapid degradation and bubbling of SiC at 1800$$^{circ}$$C were observed after 1 h oxidation. This suggested that chemical interaction behaviours above 1700$$^{circ}$$C might be changed due to the liquefaction of silica.

論文

High temperature oxidation test of simulated BWR fuel bundle in steam-starved conditions

山崎 宰春; Pshenichnikov, A.; Pham, V. H.; 永江 勇二; 倉田 正輝; 徳島 二之*; 青見 雅樹*; 坂本 寛*

Proceedings of Annual Topical Meeting on Reactor Fuel Performance (TopFuel 2018) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2018/10

燃料集合体の酸化及び水素吸収はその後の事故進展挙動に影響を与えることから、PWR燃料集合体では、実効的な水蒸気流量としてg-H$$_{2}$$O/sec/rodという単位が導入されており、事故進展評価の重要なパラメータといて用いられている。一方BWRにおいては、燃料集合体の構成がPWRとは異なることにより、PWRで用いられている規格化された水蒸気流量ではチャンネルボックスの内外での酸化及び水素吸収の差が正確に評価できない。そのため、PWRで用いられているg-H$$_{2}$$O/sec/rodという規格化された水蒸気流量に代わる、適切な評価パラメータがBWRでも必要である。そこで、ジルカロイの水蒸気枯渇条件での酸化及び水素吸収データを取得するため、実機を模擬したBWRバンドル試験体を用いて高温酸化試験を行なった。BWRにおける水蒸気流量を規格化するため、水蒸気流路断面積を考慮したパラメータを検討した。

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