脇山 義史*; 恩田 裕一*; 吉村 和也; 五十嵐 康記*; 加藤 弘亮*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 210, p.105990_1 - 105990_12, 2019/12
This study provides the results of observations of plot-scale Cs wash-off from various land uses (two uncultivated farmlands, two cultivated farmlands, three grasslands and one forest) from 2011 to 2014. Annual Cs wash-off rate ranged from 0.0026 to 7.5% per year, and more vegetation cover resulted in lower sediment discharge. Cs concentration observed in uncultivated farmland plot decreased with time and the rate was lower than those of riverine, suggesting that contributions of Cs from the upslope area may be insignificant to that in riverine. A negative relationship between Cs concentration normalized by initial deposition amount and sediment concentration in runoff water was found. Cultivation appeared to cause enhanced soil erosion and resulted in constant relatively low Cs concentration. A contribution of coarse organic matter to Cs wash-off was suggested in the forest, which had relatively high Cs concentration and low sediment discharge.
加藤 弘亮*; 恩田 裕一*; Gao, X.*; 眞田 幸尚; 斎藤 公明
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 210, p.105996_1 - 105996_12, 2019/12
Ascertaining the initial amount of accidentally released radiocesium is fundamental for determining the extent of radioactive contamination following nuclear accidents, and is of key importance to environmental transfer models. A series of the airborne monitoring surveys of radioactivity have conducted by the Japanese MEXT, and provide basic information on radioactive contamination following the accident. However, there are no clear guidelines regarding the selection of airborne monitoring survey results for estimating the initial fallout input in studies of the environmental transfer of radiocesium. This study reconstructed a fallout map of Fukushima accident-derived radiocesium based on a comparison of the radiocesium deposition densities derived from the third and fifth airborne monitoring surveys.
斎藤 公明; 三上 智; 安藤 真樹; 松田 規宏; 木名瀬 栄; 津田 修一; 佐藤 哲朗*; 関 暁之; 眞田 幸尚; Wainwright-Murakami, Haruko*; et al.
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, 44(4), p.128 - 148, 2019/12
Massive environmental monitoring has been conducted continuously after the Fukushima accident with different monitoring methods having different features together with migration studies of radiocesium in diverse environments. At three months after the accident, multiple radionuclides were detected at many places; while it was confirmed that radiocesium was most important from the viewpoint of long-term exposures. The air dose rates in environments related to human living have decreased faster than expected from radioactive decay by a factor of 2-3 on average. An empirical model for predicting air dose rate distribution was developed based on statistical analysis of massive car-borne survey data. Some trials were performed to integrate different types of contamination maps to obtain an integrated map of better quantity. Annual external exposure doses for residents who would return to their home were estimated to less than a few mSv as a whole. The environmental data and knowledge have been provided for diverse-spectrum of people in different ways.
三上 智; 前山 健司*; 星出 好史*; 坂本 隆一*; 佐藤 昭二*; 奥田 直敏*; Demongeot, S.*; Gurriaran, R.*; 上蓑 義朋*; 加藤 弘亮*; et al.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 139, p.320 - 343, 2015/01
Comprehensive investigations have been conducted on the land environment affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Distribution maps of Cs-134, Cs-137, and Ag-110m deposition density as of March, September, and December 2012, were constructed according to monitoring results obtained at nearly a thousand locations. Little temporal change of the deposited radionuclides was observed during the nine months from March to December 2012. Weathering effects especially horizontal mobility, during this time were not noticeable. Spatial characteristics in the ratios of Cs-134/Cs-137 and Ag-110m/Cs-137 that deposited on ground were observed by investigations in the Tohoku and Kanto areas. The elaborate deposition maps of Cs-134 and Cs-137 as of September 2012, and those as of December 2012, were constructed using the relationship between the air dose rate and the deposited activity per unit area.
吉村 和也; 恩田 裕一*; 加藤 弘亮*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 139, p.362 - 369, 2015/01
Radiocaesium wash-off associated with soil erosion in different land use was monitored using USLE plots in Kawamata, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Parameters and factors relating to soil erosion and Cs concentration in the eroded soil were evaluated based on the field monitoring and presented. The erosion of fine soil, which is defined as the fraction of soil overflowed along with discharged water from a sediment-trap tank, constituted a large proportion of the discharged radiocaesium. This indicated that the quantitative monitoring of fine soil erosion is greatly important for the accurate evaluation of radiocaesium wash-off. An exponential relationship was found between vegetation cover and the amount of eroded soil. Moreover, the radiocaesium concentrations in the discharged soil were greatly affected by the land use. These results indicate that radiocaesium wash-off related to vegetation cover and land use is crucially important in modelling radiocaesium migration.
脇山 義史*; 恩田 裕一*; 吉村 和也; 加藤 弘亮*
no journal, ,
This study presents two-year observation of soil erosion and radiocesium wash-off to quantify differences in radiocesium behavior in various land uses. High erodibilities and relatively low values of radiocesium wash-off in cultivated farmlands can be attributed to the mixing of surface soil by ploughing. It was found that the total solid wash-off coefficient of radiocesium from farmlands is high and for 2 years period of time after the accident reaches 10%. Generally high precipitation in the region and steep slopes promote higher wash-off of radiocesium as compared to the Chernobyl case. Also, normalized wash-off coefficients exhibited relatively less volatility than erodibilities in thelandscapes. These results suggest that soil erosion management is crucial for mitigating risks of radiocesium.
恩田 裕一*; 谷口 圭輔*; 脇山 義史*; 吉村 和也; Smith, H.*; Blake, W.*; 岩上 翔*; 加藤 弘亮*
no journal, ,
An intensive field monitoring campaign has been started, immediately after the Fukushima NPP accident including detailed monitoring site in upstream (Yamakiya site), and 30 monitoring sites in downstream river sites. In this presentation, I will present the summary of four years environmental transfer studies after the Fukushima NPP accident. The detailed monitoring of activity concentration of radiocesium and their flux, which can be applicable for the fate and flux of the radionuclide transfer in humid temperate environment. We also found that land use controls most of the transport and then fate of Cs-137 in terrestrial environment.
加藤 弘亮*; 恩田 裕一*; Zul, H. S.*; 篠塚 友輝*; 赤岩 哲*; 新里 忠史
no journal, ,