Harjo, S.; 窪田 哲*; Gong, W.*; 川崎 卓郎; Gao, S.*
Acta Materialia, 196, p.584 - 594, 2020/09
To understand work hardening behavior during low-cycle loading, ductile cast iron containing spheroidal graphite, pearlite, and ferrite matrix was investigated in an in situ neutron diffraction study of up to four cycles of tensile-compressive loading with applied strains of 0.01. The amplitudes of applied stress, Bauschinger stress, and Bauschinger strain were found to increase with increasing cycle number, indicating work hardening as cyclic loading progressed. Absolute values of ferrite lattice strain at maximum and minimum applied strains increased with increasing cycle number, indicating an increase in ferrite strength. Consequently, the stress contribution to the strength from ferrite increased as cyclic loading progressed. The increase in ferrite strength, caused by dislocation accumulation in ferrite during cyclic loading, played an important role in the work hardening of the ductile cast iron.
Harjo, S.; 相澤 一也; Gong, W.*; 川崎 卓郎
Materials Transactions, 61(5), p.828 - 832, 2020/04
In situ neutron diffraction measurements during compressive and tensile tests of an as-cast MgZnY alloy consisting of phase (Mg) as the matrix and a long period stacking ordered phase (LPSO) of 25 vol%, were performed to understand deformation behavior of each phase and to monitor the occurrence of kinking during deformation. The LPSO grains yielded possibly via kinking during compressive deformation above the applied true stress of about 137 MPa. The stress partitioning among Mg grains was observed larger in the compressive deformation than in the tensile deformation, that might be due to the large load sharing of Mg grains as a result of the yielding of LPSO grains during compressive deformation.
Wang, Y.*; 友田 陽*; 大村 孝仁*; 諸岡 聡; Gong, W.*; Harjo, S.
Acta Materialia, 184, p.30 - 40, 2020/02
A high-intensity and high-resolution neutron diffractometer with a thermomechanically controlled processing simulator was employed in-situ to investigate martensite transformation behavior with and without ausforming for a medium-carbon low-alloy steel. Serial neutron diffraction profiles have revealed that the transformation behavior could be successfully monitored during quenching with and without the ausforming process. The lattice parameter and the full width at half maximum of austenite peaks significantly decreases and increases upon martensite transformation, respectively. After ausforming, the data reveal that lattice parameters are larger in austenite whereas smaller in martensite compared with those in the non-ausformed case, which is ascribed to the introduced dislocations. The cutting-edge operant quantitative measurements with neutron diffraction for steel production is demonstrated.
川崎 卓郎; 中村 龍也; Gong, W.*; 及川 健一
Physica B; Condensed Matter, 551, p.460 - 463, 2018/12
Neutron diffraction is widely used for the investigation of lattice strain, texture and phase transformation in bulk materials. Although the distributions of these characteristics can be obtained by scanning the sample, the spatial resolution of the measurement is limited. Recently, Bragg-edge imaging technique is developed and adopted for the evaluations of lattice strain, crystal orientation and phase distributions in polycrystalline engineering materials such as steel. On the other hand, neutron diffraction imaging has a potential to be another technique for such purpose. Diffraction imaging at a pulsed neutron source requires a counting type two-dimensional position sensitive detector with high spatial resolution. We developed prototype imaging detector with wavelength-shifting fiber (WLSF) readout, and tried to observe sub grains in the b-Sn single crystal and grain distribution in the coarse-grained steel plate at NOBORU (BL10) of J-PARC MLF.
川崎 卓郎; 稲村 泰弘; 伊藤 崇芳*; 中谷 健; Harjo, S.; Gong, W.*; 相澤 一也
Journal of Applied Crystallography, 51(3), p.630 - 634, 2018/06
A time-resolved time-of-flight neutron diffraction technique to characterize the structural properties of materials during cyclic tests has been developed. By adopting the developed technique, the behaviors of the crystal lattice and domains of the piezoelectric material in a multilayer-type piezoelectric actuator driven by a cyclic electric field were evaluated. The variation in diffraction intensity during the application of a cyclic electric field was obtained successfully, and the hysteresis-like behaviors of both the lattice strain and the 90 domain switching were revealed.
徐 平光; Harjo, S.; 小島 真由美*; 鈴木 裕士; 伊藤 崇芳*; Gong, W.; Vogel, S. C.*; 井上 純哉*; 友田 陽*; 相澤 一也; et al.
Journal of Applied Crystallography, 51(3), p.746 - 760, 2018/06
Neutron diffraction texture measurements provide bulk textures with excellent grain statistics even for large grained materials, together with the crystallographic parameters and microstructure information such as phase fractions, coherent crystallite size, root mean square microstrain, macroscopic/intergranular stress/strain. The procedure for high stereographic resolution texture and residual stress evaluation was established at the TAKUMI engineering materials diffractometer. The pole figure evaluation of a limestone standard sample with a trigonal crystal structure suggested that the obtained precision for texture measurement is comparable with the oversea well-established neutron beam lines utilized for texture measurements. A high strength martensite-austenite multilayered steel was employed for further verification of the reliability of simultaneous Rietveld analysis of multiphase textures and macro stress tensors. By using a geometric mean micro-mechanical model, the macro stress tensor analysis with a plane stress assumption showed a RD-TD in-plane compressive stress (about -330 MPa) in martensite layers and a RD-TD in-plane tensile stress (about 320 MPa) in austenite layers. The phase stress partitioning was ascribed to the additive effect of volume expansion during martensite transformation and the linear contraction misfit during water quenching.
Xie, T.*; Wei, Y.*; Gong, D.*; Fennell, T.*; Stuhr, U.*; 梶本 亮一; 池内 和彦*; Li, S.*; Hu, J.*; Luo, H.*
Physical Review Letters, 120(26), p.267003_1 - 267003_7, 2018/06
We report an inelastic neutron scattering study on the spin resonance in the bilayer iron-based superconductor CaKFeAs. In contrast to its quasi-two-dimensional electron structure, three strongly -dependent modes of spin resonance are found below = 35 K. The mode energies are below and linearly scale with the total superconducting gaps summed on the nesting hole and electron pockets, essentially in agreement with the results in cuprate and heavy fermion superconductors. This observation supports the sign-reversed Cooper-pairing mechanism under multiple pairing channels and resolves the long-standing puzzles concerning the broadening and dispersive spin resonance peak in iron pnictides. More importantly, the triple resonant modes can be classified into odd and even symmetries with respect to the distance of Fe-Fe planes within the Fe-As bilayer unit. Thus, our results closely resemble those in the bilayer cuprates with nondegenerate spin excitations, suggesting that these two high- superconducting families share a common nature.
中村 良彦*; 柴田 曉伸*; Gong, W.*; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; 伊東 篤志*; 辻 伸泰*
Proceedings of International Conference on Martensitic Transformations: Chicago, p.155 - 158, 2018/04
The microstructure evolution of medium manganese steel (Fe-5Mn-2Si-0.1C (wt%)) during thermo-mechanical processing in ferrite + austenite two-phase region was investigated by in situ neutron diffraction analysis and microstructure observations. When the specimens were isothermally held at a temperature of 700C, the fraction of reversely transformed austenite increased gradually with an increase in the isothermal holding time. However, it did not reach the equilibrium fraction of austenite even after isothermal holding for 10 ks. On the other hand, the fraction of reversely transformed austenite increased rapidly after the compressive deformation at a strain rate of 1 s at 700C and reached the equilibrium state during subsequent isothermal holding for around 3 ks.
中島 健次; 川北 至信; 伊藤 晋一*; 阿部 淳*; 相澤 一也; 青木 裕之; 遠藤 仁*; 藤田 全基*; 舟越 賢一*; Gong, W.*; et al.
Quantum Beam Science (Internet), 1(3), p.9_1 - 9_59, 2017/12
Harjo, S.; 土田 紀之*; 阿部 淳*; Gong, W.*
Scientific Reports (Internet), 7(1), p.15149_1 - 15149_11, 2017/11
Two TRIP-aided multiphase steels with different carbon contents were analyzed in situ during tensile deformation by time-of-flight neutron diffraction to clarify the deformation induced martensitic transformation behavior and its role on the strengthening mechanism. The difference in the carbon content affected mainly the difference in the phase fractions before deformation, where the higher carbon content increased the phase fraction of retained austenite (). However, the changes in the relative fraction of martensitic transformation with respect to the applied strain were found to be similar in both steels since the carbon concentrations in were similar. The stress contribution from martensite was observed increasing during plastic deformation while that from bainitic ferrite hardly changing and that from decreasing.
Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; 友田 陽*; Gong, W.*; 相澤 一也; Tichy, G.*; Shi, Z.*; Ungar, T.*
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 48(9), p.4080 - 4092, 2017/09
neutron diffraction during tensile deformation of lath martensite steel containing 0.22 mass% of carbon, is performed using TAKUMI of J-PARC. The diffraction peaks at plastically deformed states exhibit asymmetries as the reflection of redistributions of the stress and dislocation densities/arrangements in lath-packets where the dislocation glides are favorable (soft packet) and unfavorable (hard packet). The dislocation density is as high as 10 m at the as-quenched state, and then during tensile straining, the load and the dislocation density become different between the two lath-packets. The dislocation character and arrangement vary also in the hard packet, but hardly change in the soft packet. The hard packet plays an important role in the high work hardening in martensite, which could be understood by taking into account not only the increase of the dislocation density but also the change in dislocation arrangement.
Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; 友田 陽*; Gong, W.
Materials Science Forum, 905, p.46 - 51, 2017/08
To understand the strengthening mechanism of a metallic material with high dislocation density, the plastic deformation behavior of lath martensite was studied by means of in situ neutron diffraction measurements during tensile deformations using a 22SiMn2TiB steel and a Fe-18Ni alloy. The characteristics of dislocation were analyzed and were discussed with the relation of stress-strain curves. The dislocation densities induced by martensitic transformation during heat-treatment in both materials were found to be originally as high as 10 m order, and subsequently to increase slightly by the tensile deformation. The parameter M value which displays the dislocation arrangement dropped drastically at the beginning of plastic deformation in both materials, indicating that the random arrangement became more like a dipole arrangement.
友田 陽*; 佐藤 成男*; Uchida, M.*; 徐 平光; Harjo, S.; Gong, W.; 川崎 卓郎
Materials Science Forum, 905, p.25 - 30, 2017/08
Microstructural change during hot compressive deformation at 700 C followed by isothermal annealing for a Fe-32Ni austnitic alloy was monitored using neutron diffraction. The evolution of deformation texture with 40% compression and its change to recrystallization texture during isothermal annealing were presented by inverse pole figures for the axial and radial directions. The change in dislocation density was tracked using the convolutional muli-profile whole profile fitting method. To obtain the fitting results with good statistics, at least 60 s time-slicing for the event-mode recorded data was needed. The average dislocation density in 60 s after hot compression was determined to be 2.8 10 m that decreased with increasing of annealing time.
Su, Y.; 及川 健一; 篠原 武尚; 甲斐 哲也; 廣井 孝介; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; Gong, W.; Zhang, S. Y.*; Parker, J. D.*; et al.
Physics Procedia, 88, p.42 - 49, 2017/06
The influences of bending deformation and subsequent subzero treatment on the martensite transformation behaviors in a metastable austenitic alloy Fe-25Ni-0.4C were investigated by the time-of-flight (TOF) neutron Bragg-edge transmission (BET) imaging method. Two-dimensional (2D) maps of martensite phase volume fractions and texture variations due to residual stress and lowering the temperature of the bent samples before and after subzero treatment were obtained by Bragg-edge spectral analysis. The obtained phase volume fractions were quantitatively compared with those determined by neutron diffraction.
友田 陽*; Gong, W.*; Harjo, S.; 篠崎 智也*
Scripta Materialia, 133, p.79 - 82, 2017/05
The microstructure evolution during reverse transformation of a Cr-Ni-Mo steel consisting of tempered lath martensite and Cr carbide was examined using neutron diffraction at high temperatures. The microstructural change from a reversed coarse-grained structure to a fine-grained polygonal structure by further annealing was monitored through a decrease in the diffraction intensity caused by primary extinction and the full width at half maximum. This result is different from that for a bainite steel, showing good coincidence with the observations using electron back scatter diffraction.
Tam, D. M.*; Song, Y.*; Man, H.*; Cheung, S. C.*; Yin, Z.*; Lu, X.*; Wang, W.*; Frandsen, B. A.*; Liu, L.*; Gong, Z.*; et al.
Physical Review B, 95(6), p.060505_1 - 060505_6, 2017/02
We use neutron diffraction and muon spin relaxation to study the effect of in-plane uniaxial pressure on the antiferromagnetic (AF) orthorhombic phase in BaFeTAs and its Co- and Ni-substituted members near optimal superconductivity. In the low-temperature AF ordered state, uniaxial pressure necessary to detwin the orthorhombic crystals also increases the magnetic ordered moment, reaching an 11% increase under 40 MPa for BaFeCoAs, and a 15% increase for BaFeNiAs. We also observe an increase of the AF ordering temperature () of about 0.25 K/MPa in all compounds, consistent with density functional theory calculations that reveal better Fermi surface nesting for itinerant electrons under uniaxial pressure. The doping dependence of the magnetic ordered moment is captured by combining dynamical mean field theory with density functional theory, suggesting that the pressure-induced moment increase near optimal superconductivity is closely related to quantum fluctuations and the nearby electronic nematic phase.
福田 晃二郎*; 友田 陽*; Harjo, S.; Gong, W.*; Woo, W.*; Seong, B. S.*; 桑原 義孝*; 生田 文昭*
Materials Science and Technology, 33(2), p.172 - 180, 2017/01
Residual stress distribution in a carbon steel component with collar manufactured by partial diameter-enlarging (PDE) process was evaluated using the angular dispersion and time-of-flight neutron diffraction methods in the interior and X-ray diffraction method at the surface of the collar. The residual stresses in the PDE specimen were smaller compared with those of a specimen with the similar shape and dimension made by a simple compression (SC) process. The hoop residual stress varied from -98 to 2 MPa around the circumference at the surface of the collar in the PDE specimen, whereas it was nearly constant in the SC one. The residual stresses in the central region of the both specimens were nearly in a hydrostatic compressive stress condition.
川崎 卓郎; Harjo, S.; Gong, W.; 相澤 一也
Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 746(1), p.012044_1 - 012044_6, 2016/10
The microstructure of the metallic material is widely investigated in order to understand mechanical properties of the material by line profile analysis for X-ray and neutron diffraction data. Neutron diffraction has an advantage for obtaining averaged information of the microstructure inside the bulky material owing to its high transmittance. Further, the variation of the microstructure in the material during mechanical process is able to be observed by in-situ measurements. The Convolutional Multiple Whole Profile (CMWP) fitting method is a state of the art technique for line profile analysis. The dislocation characteristics are evaluated from the shape of the peak profile including the tail by this technique. In this study, the dislocation characteristics in martensitic steels during tensile deformation were studied by in-situ neutron diffraction measurement using the Engineering Materials Diffractometer TAKUMI at J-PARC through line profile analysis using the CMWP fitting method.
Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; Gong, W.; 相澤 一也
Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 746(1), p.012046_1 - 012046_7, 2016/10
In situ neutron diffraction during tensile deformation of an as-quenched lath martensitic 22SiMn2TiB steel, was performed using a high resolution and high intensity time-offlight neutron diffractometer. The characterizations of dislocations were analyzed using the classical Williamson-Hall (cWH) and modified Williamson-Hall (mWH) plots on the breadth method, and the convolutional multiple whole profile (CMWP) fitting method. As results, the dislocation density as high as 10 m in the as-quenched martensitic steel was determined. The dislocation density was found to decrease qualitatively with plastic deformation by the cWH and mWH plots, but hardly to change by the CMWP method. The scanning transmission electron microscopy observation supported the results of the latter method. In the CMWP method, the parameter that represents the arrangement of dislocations was found to decrease rapidly where a very high work hardening was observed.
川崎 卓郎; Harjo, S.; Gong, W.; 相澤 一也; 岩橋 孝明; Shi, Z.*; Li, J.*; 友田 陽*; Ungr, T.*
JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 8, p.031009_1 - 031009_5, 2015/09