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論文

Simultaneous determination of neutron-induced fission and radiative capture cross sections from decay probabilities obtained with a surrogate reaction

P$'e$rez S$'a$nchez, R.*; Jurado, B.*; M$'e$ot, V.*; Roig, O.*; Dupuis, M.*; Bouland, O.*; Denis-Petit, D.*; Marini, P.*; Mathieu, L.*; Tsekhanovich, I.*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 125(12), p.122502_1 - 122502_5, 2020/09

 被引用回数:0

Reliable neutron-induced-reaction cross sections of unstable nuclei are essential for nuclear astrophysics and applications but their direct measurement is often impossible. The surrogate-reaction method is one of the most promising alternatives to access these cross sections. In this work, we successfully applied the surrogate-reaction method to infer for the first time both the neutron-induced fission and radiative capture cross sections of $$^{239}$$Pu in a consistent manner from a single measurement. This was achieved by combining simultaneously measured fission and $$gamma$$-emission probabilities for the $$^{240}$$Pu($$^{4}$$He, $$^{4}$$He') surrogate reaction with a calculation of the angular-momentum and parity distributions populated in this reaction. While other experiments measure the probabilities for some selected $$gamma$$-ray transitions, we measure the $$gamma$$-emission probability. This enlarges the applicability of the surrogate-reaction method.

論文

Clades of huge phages from across Earth's ecosystems

Al-Shayeb, B.*; Sachzdeva, R.*; Chen, L.-X.*; Ward, F.*; Munk, P.*; Devoto, A.*; Castelle, C. J.*; Olm, M. R.*; Bouma-Gregson, K.*; 天野 由記; et al.

Nature, 578(7795), p.425 - 431, 2020/02

 被引用回数:20 パーセンタイル:0.48(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Phage typically have small genomes and depend on their bacterial hosts for replication. We generated metagenomic datasets from many diverse ecosystems and reconstructed hundreds of huge phage genomes, between 200 kbp and 716 kbp in length. Thirty four genomes were manually curated to completion, including the largest phage genomes yet reported. Expanded genetic repertoires include diverse and new CRISPR-Cas systems, tRNAs, tRNA synthetases, tRNA modification enzymes, initiation and elongation factors and ribosomal proteins. Phage CRISPR have the capacity to silence host transcription factors and translational genes, potentially as part of a larger interaction network that intercepts translation to redirect biosynthesis to phage-encoded functions. Some phage repurpose bacterial systems for phage-defense to eliminate competing phage. We phylogenetically define seven major clades of huge phage from human and other animal microbiomes, oceans, lakes, sediments, soils and the built environment. We conclude that large gene inventories reflect a conserved biological strategy, observed across a broad bacterial host range and resulting in the distribution of huge phage across Earth's ecosystems.

論文

Ultralow thermal conductivity from transverse acoustic phonon suppression in distorted crystalline $$alpha$$-MgAgSb

Li, X.*; Liu, P.-F.*; Zhao, E.*; Zhang, Z.*; Guide, T.*; Le, M. D.*; Avdeev, M.*; 池田 一貴*; 大友 季哉*; 古府 麻衣子; et al.

Nature Communications (Internet), 11(1), p.942_1 - 942_9, 2020/02

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:28.87(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

高性能の熱電材料実現には低熱伝導率が必要であり、その機構としてはフォノンの非調和によるもの、あるいは、結晶構造の動的な乱れによるフォノンの散乱によるものがあげられ、どちらも中性子散乱でその現象が明らかにされている。我々は中性子散乱と第一原理計算を組み合わせ、$$alpha$$-MgAgSbにおいて、静的な結晶構造の乱れとフォノンの非調和性が組み合わされて極端に低い熱伝導率が実現されているということを見いだしたので、これを報告する。

論文

IAEA Photonuclear Data Library 2019

河野 俊彦*; Cho, Y. S.*; Dimitriou, P.*; Filipescu, D.*; 岩本 信之; Plujko, V.*; Tao, X.*; 宇都宮 弘章*; Varlamov, V.*; Xu, R.*; et al.

Nuclear Data Sheets, 163, p.109 - 162, 2020/01

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:11.68(Physics, Nuclear)

We report our coordinated efforts to address these data needs such as radiation shielding design and radiation transport analyses, and present the results of the new evaluations of more than 200 nuclides included in the new updated IAEA Photonuclear Data Library, where the photon energy goes up to 200 MeV. We discuss the new assessment method and make recommendations to the user community in cases where the experimental data are discrepant and the assessments disagree. In addition, in the absence of experimental data, we present model predictions for photon-induced reaction cross section on nuclides of potential interest to medical radioisotope production.

論文

In-source laser spectroscopy of dysprosium isotopes at the ISOLDE-RILIS

Chrysalidis, K.*; Barzakh, A. E.*; Ahmed, R.*; Andreyev, A. N.; Ballof, J.*; Cubiss, J. G.*; Fedorov, D. V.*; Fedosseev, V. N.*; Fraile, L. M.*; Harding, R. D.*; et al.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 463, p.472 - 475, 2020/01

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:100(Instruments & Instrumentation)

放射壊変によって生成された多数のジスプロシウム同位体について、ISOLDEのレーザー共鳴イオン源(RILIS)を用いてイオン源内レーザー分光法によって研究した。$$^{152}$$Dyに対する相対的な同位体シフトを$$4f^{10}6s^{2}~^{5}I_{8}$$ (gs) $$rightarrow$$ $$4f^{10}6s6p~(8,1)^{o}_{8}$$共鳴遷移を用いて測定した。電子的因子Fとマスシフト因子Mを導出し、それらを使って$$^{rm 145m}$$Dyと$$^{rm 147m}$$Dyの平均自乗荷電半径の変化を初めて決定した。

論文

New excited 2$$^+$$ and 3$$^-$$ two-proton states in $$_{84}^{210}$$Po$$_{126}$$ populated by two-proton transfer

Dupont, E.*; Astier, A.*; Petrache, C. M.*; Lv, B. F.*; Deloncle, I.*; Kiener, J.*; Orlandi, R.; 牧井 宏之; 西尾 勝久; 廣瀬 健太郎; et al.

Physical Review C, 101(1), p.014309_1 - 014309_6, 2020/01

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:100(Physics, Nuclear)

Five new 2$$^+$$ levels and one new 3$$^-$$ level were established in $$^{210}$$Po. The states were populated via the $$^{208}$$Pb($$^{12}$$C, $$^{10}$$Be) two-proton reaction experiment, performed at the JAEA Tandem in Tokai. A setup combining Ge, LaBr$$_3$$, and Si telescopes was used to detect in-beam $$gamma$$-rays and ejectile residues. Two-proton configurations were assigned to all new states. All assignments are strongly supported by shell-model calculations.

論文

$$alpha$$-decay branching ratio of $$^{180}$$Pt

Cubiss, J. G.*; Harding, R. D.*; Andreyev, A. N.; Althubiti, N.*; Andel, B.*; Antalic, S.*; Barzakh, A. E.*; Cocolios, T. E.*; Day Goodacre, T.*; Farooq-Smith, G. J.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 101(1), p.014314_1 - 014314_4, 2020/01

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:11.68(Physics, Nuclear)

$$^{180}$$Ptの基底状態から娘核$$^{176}$$Osの基底状態への$$alpha$$崩壊分岐比を0.52(5)%と、過去の値と比較してより高精度で再決定した。$$^{180}$$PtはCERN-ISOLDE実験施設において$$^{180}$$Hgを単離し、その$$beta$$崩壊孫核種として生成した。今回の結果を用いて導出した$$alpha$$崩壊の換算崩壊幅は、中性子欠損Pt同位体の$$alpha$$崩壊幅の系統性について新しい描像を与えることとなった。

論文

Effects of the nuclear structure of fission fragments on the high-energy prompt fission $$gamma$$-ray spectrum in $$^{235}$$U($$n_{rm th},f$$)

牧井 宏之; 西尾 勝久; 廣瀬 健太郎; Orlandi, R.; L$'e$guillon, R.; 小川 達彦; Soldner, T.*; K$"o$ster, U.*; Pollitt, A.*; Hambsch, F.-J.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 100(4), p.044610_1 - 044610_7, 2019/10

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:60.45(Physics, Nuclear)

The prompt fission $$gamma$$-ray energy spectrum for cold-neutron induced fission of $$^{235}$$U was measured in the energy range $$E_{rm gamma}$$ = 0.8 - 20,MeV, by gaining a factor of about 10$$^{5}$$ in statistics compared to the measurements performed so far. The spectrum exhibits local bump structures at $$E_{rm gamma}approx$$4,MeV and $$approx$$6,MeV, and also a broad one at $$approx$$15,MeV. In order to understand the origins of these bumps, the $$gamma$$-ray spectra were calculated using a statistical Hauser-Feshbach model, taking into account the de-excitation of all the possible primary fission fragments. It is shown that the bump at $$approx$$4,MeV is created by the transitions between the discrete levels in the fragments around $$^{132}$$Sn, and the bump at $$approx$$6,MeV mostly comes from the complementary light fragments. It is also indicated that a limited number of nuclides, which have high-spin states at low excitation energies, can contribute to the bump structure around $$E_{rm gamma}approx$$15,MeV, induced by the transition feeding into the low-lying high-spin states.

論文

Study of medium-spin states of neutron-rich $$^{87,89,91}$$Rb isotopes

Torres, D. A.*; Chapman, R.*; Kumar, V.*; Hadinia, B.*; Hodsdon, A.*; Labiche, M.*; Liang, X.*; O'Donnell, D.*; Ollier, J.*; Orlandi, R.; et al.

European Physical Journal A, 55(9), p.158_1 - 158_21, 2019/09

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:100(Physics, Nuclear)

Excited states of the rubidium isotopes $$^{87,89,91}$$Rb were studied at the INFN Legnaro National Laboratory. Measurements of the $$gamma$$-ray of nuclei produced in binary reactions from the interaction of a beam of 530 MeV $$^{96}$$Zr ions with a $$^{124}$$Sn target were complemented by studies of the $$gamma$$-rays from nuclei produced in the interaction of a beam of 230 MeV $$^{36}$$S ions with a thick $$^{176}$$Yb target. The structure of the yrast states of $$^{87, 89, 91}$$Rb is discussed within the context of spherical shell-model and cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations.

論文

Search for $$alpha$$ decay of $$^{104}$$Te with a novel recoil-decay scintillation detector

Xiao, Y.*; Go, S.*; Grzywacz, R.*; Orlandi, R.; Andreyev, A. N.; 浅井 雅人; Bentley, M. A.*; de Angelis, G.*; Gross, C. J.*; Hausladen, P.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 100(3), p.034315_1 - 034315_8, 2019/09

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:16.29(Physics, Nuclear)

A search for super-allowed $$alpha$$ decay of N=Z nuclei $$^{104}$$Te and $$^{108}$$Xe was carried out using a novel recoil-decay scintillator detector at the tandem accelerator facility at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Inorganic crystal scintillation material of YAP:Ce (Yttrium Aluminium Perovskite) coupled to position-sensitive photo-multiplier tube (PSPMT) was implemented for the first time in a radioactive decay experiment. Residues from the fusion-evaporation reaction $$^{58}$$Ni+$$^{54}$$Fe$$rightarrow$$ $$^{112}$$Xe$$^*$$ were separated by the JAEA Recoil Mass Separator (RMS) and implanted into the YAP:Ce crystal. $$alpha$$ decays of neutron-deficient tellurium isotopes were identified and proton-emission of $$^{109}$$I was observed. No conclusive evidence was found for the decay chain $$^{108}$$Xe$$rightarrow$$$$^{104}$$Te$$rightarrow$$ $$^{100}$$Sn within 3 days experiment. The cross section limit of 130 pb was obtained for production of two events of $$^{108}$$Xe, about an order of magnitude below the expectation based on earlier cross section measurements and HIVAP calculations.

論文

Fine structure in the $$alpha$$ decay of $$^{218}$$At

Cubiss, J. G.*; Andreyev, A. N.; Barzakh, A. E.*; Andel, B.*; Antalic, S.*; Cocolios, T. E.*; Day Goodacre, T.*; Fedorov, D. V.*; Fedosseev, V. N.*; Ferrer, R.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 99(6), p.064317_1 - 064317_6, 2019/06

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:24.4(Physics, Nuclear)

$$^{218}$$Atの$$alpha$$崩壊について、CERN-ISOLDE施設においてレーザーイオン化法を使うことで研究した。$$alpha$$-$$gamma$$同時計数データを初めて取得し、より精度の良い半減期の値として1.27(6)秒を得た。$$alpha$$崩壊の微細構造を基に新しい$$alpha$$崩壊図式を構築した。それらの結果から、$$^{218}$$Atの基底状態のスピン・パリティは(3$$^{-}$$)がより確からしいことが解ったが、(2)$$^{-}$$の可能性も完全には否定しきれない。

論文

Fusion reaction $$^{48}$$Ca+$$^{249}$$Bk leading to formation of the element Ts (Z=117)

Khuyagbaatar, J.*; Yakushev, A.*; D$"u$llmann, Ch. E.*; Ackermann, D.*; Andersson, L.-L.*; 浅井 雅人; Block, M.*; Boll, R. A.*; Brand, H.*; Cox, D. M.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 99(5), p.054306_1 - 054306_16, 2019/05

 被引用回数:5 パーセンタイル:16.29(Physics, Nuclear)

$$^{48}$$Ca+$$^{249}$$B融合反応を用いて117番元素(Ts)合成実験を行い、117番元素に起因すると思われる4つの$$alpha$$崩壊連鎖を観測した。うち2つは長い崩壊連鎖で、$$^{294}$$Tsの$$alpha$$崩壊に起因するものと同定された。他の2つは短い崩壊連鎖で、$$^{293}$$Tsの$$alpha$$崩壊に起因すると考えると矛盾しない。今回の結果と過去の文献値を比較したところ、今回の我々の結果は過去の文献値をほぼ再現し、117番元素合成の事実を強く再確認する結果となった。

論文

Inverse odd-even staggering in nuclear charge radii and possible octupole collectivity in $$^{217,218,219}$$At revealed by in-source laser spectroscopy

Barzakh, A. E.*; Cubiss, J. G.*; Andreyev, A. N.; Seliverstov, M. D.*; Andel, B.*; Antalic, S.*; Ascher, P.*; Atanasov, D.*; Beck, D.*; Biero$'n$, J.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 99(5), p.054317_1 - 054317_9, 2019/05

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:24.4(Physics, Nuclear)

Hyperfine-structure parameters and isotope shifts for the 795-nm atomic transitions in $$^{217,218,219}$$At have been measured at CERN-ISOLDE, using the in-source resonance-ionization spectroscopy technique. Magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments, and changes in the nuclear mean-square charge radii, have been deduced. A large inverse odd-even staggering in radii, which may be associated with the presence of octupole collectivity, has been observed. Namely, the radius of the odd-odd isotope $$^{218}$$At has been found to be larger than the average.

論文

Coexistence of ferromagnetic and stripe-type antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations in YFe$$_{2}$$Ge$$_{2}$$

Wo, H.*; Wang, Q.*; Shen, Y.*; Zhang, X.*; Hao, Y.*; Feng, Y.*; Shen, S.*; He, Z.*; Pan, B.*; Wang, W.*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 122(21), p.217003_1 - 217003_5, 2019/05

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:42.99(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

We report neutron scattering measurements of single-crystalline YFe$$_{2}$$Ge$$_{2}$$ in the normal state, which has the same crystal structure as the 122 family of iron pnictide superconductors. YFe$$_{2}$$Ge$$_{2}$$ does not exhibit long-range magnetic order but exhibits strong spin fluctuations. Like the iron pnictides, YFe$$_{2}$$Ge$$_{2}$$ displays anisotropic stripe-type antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations at ($$pi, 0, pi$$). More interesting, however, is the observation of strong spin fluctuations at the in-plane ferromagnetic wave vector ($$0, 0, pi$$). These ferromagnetic spin fluctuations are isotropic in the ($$H, K$$) plane, whose intensity exceeds that of stripe spin fluctuations. Both the ferromagnetic and stripe spin fluctuations remain gapless down to the lowest measured energies. Our results naturally explain the absence of magnetic order in YFe$$_{2}$$Ge$$_{2}$$ and also imply that the ferromagnetic correlations may be a key ingredient for iron-based materials.

論文

Progress in developments of an EMAT based on a Halbach magnet system for FBR vessel

山口 智彦; Mihalache, O.; 上田 雅司

International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics, 59(4), p.1469 - 1477, 2019/03

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:100(Engineering, Electrical & Electronic)

The paper presents the progress in the developments of an electro-magnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) based on a Halbach magnet system optimized for detection of defects in thick plates with application to the inspection of fast breeder reactors (FBR) vessel. The defects are located far or near weld lines in small austenitic stainless steel plates or in large thick (50 mm) plates mounted in a FBR vessel mock-up. Performance of single or double units EMAT are investigated and optimised for working in industrial conditions and with cables long up to 45 m. Experimental measurements focussed on increased signal/noise ratio for detection signal from defects near or far from welds of reactor vessel.

論文

First ionization potentials of Fm, Md, No, and Lr; Verification of filling-up of 5f electrons and confirmation of the actinide series

佐藤 哲也; 浅井 雅人; Borschevsky, A.*; Beerwerth, R.*; 金谷 佑亮*; 牧井 宏之; 水飼 秋菜*; 永目 諭一郎; 長 明彦; 豊嶋 厚史; et al.

Journal of the American Chemical Society, 140(44), p.14609 - 14613, 2018/11

 被引用回数:12 パーセンタイル:25.16(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

第一イオン化エネルギー(IP$$_1$$)は、原子の価電子軌道に関する情報を与える。99番元素アインスタイニウムよりも重いアクチノイドのIP$$_1$$は、一度に一つの原子しか扱うことのできない実験の難しさから、これまでに実験的に測定された例はなかった。我々は表面電離法を応用した新しい測定手法により、103番元素ローレンシウム(Lr)のIP$$_1$$測定に成功し、Lrが弱く束縛された最外殻電子をもつことを強く示唆する結果を得た。一方、Lrとは対象的に、102番元素ノーベリウムは充填された5f軌道および7s軌道をもつために、アクチノイド中最高のIP$$_1$$をもつと考えられている。表面電離法によるIP$$_1$$決定法をNoおよび100番元素フェルミウム, 101番元素メンデレビウムに適用することにより求められた各IP$$_1$$から、5f軌道への電子の充填に伴ってIP$$_1$$が単調に増加し、Noで最も大きくなることを確かめることができた。このことから、f軌道に電子が充填され、アクチノイド系列がLrで終わることを実験的に確かめた。

論文

A New detector system for the measurement of high-energy prompt $$gamma$$-rays for low-energy neutron induced fission

牧井 宏之; 西尾 勝久; 廣瀬 健太郎; Orlandi, R.; L$'e$guillon, R.*; 小川 達彦; Soldner, T.*; Hambsch, F.-J.*; A$"i$che, M.*; Astier, A.*; et al.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 906, p.88 - 96, 2018/10

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:38.72(Instruments & Instrumentation)

中性子誘起核分裂における即発高エネルギー$$gamma$$線を観測するための新しい測定システムの開発を行った。測定システムは核分裂片を観測するための多芯線比例計数管と$$gamma$$線測定用のLaBr$$_{3}$$(Ce)シンチレータから構成される。開発したシステムを仏国ラウエ・ランジュバン研究所にある高中性子束炉のPF1Bコースに設置して、$$^{235}$$U中性子誘起核分裂における即発$$gamma$$線を行った。測定ではエネルギー最大20MeVまでの$$gamma$$線スペクトルの観測に成功し、$$^{235}$$U中性子誘起核分裂において非常に高いエネルギーの$$gamma$$線が放出されていることを確認した。

論文

Evidence of a structural quantum critical point in (Ca$$_x$$Sr$$_{1-x}$$)$$_3$$Rh$$_4$$Sn$$_{13}$$ from a lattice dynamics study

Cheung, Y. W.*; Hu, Y. J.*; 今井 正樹*; 谷奥 泰明*; 金川 響*; 村川 譲一*; 森山 広大*; Zhang, W.*; Lai, K. T.*; 吉村 一良*; et al.

Physical Review B, 98(16), p.161103_1 - 161103_5, 2018/10

 被引用回数:5 パーセンタイル:53.96(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Approaching a quantum critical point has been an effective route to stabilize superconductivity. While the role of magnetic QCPs has been extensively discussed, similar exploration of a structural QCP is scarce. Using inelastic X-ray scattering, we examine the phonon spectrum of the nonmagnetic quasi-skutterudite (Ca$$_x$$Sr$$_{1-x}$$)$$_3$$Rh$$_4$$Sn$$_{13}$$, which represents a precious system to explore the interplay between structural instabilities and superconductivity by tuning the Ca concentration x. We unambiguously detect the softening of phonon modes around the M point on cooling towards the structural transition. Intriguingly, at x = 0:85, the soft mode energy squared at the M point extrapolates to zero at -5.7 K, providing the first compelling microscopic evidence of a structural QCP in (Ca$$_x$$Sr$$_{1-x}$$)$$_3$$Rh$$_4$$Sn$$_{13}$$. The enhanced phonon density-of-states at low energy provides the essential ingredient for realizing strong-coupling superconductivity near the structural QCP.

論文

Liquid-like thermal conduction in intercalated layered crystalline solids

Li, B.; Wang, H.*; 川北 至信; Zhang, Q.*; Feygenson, M.*; Yu, H. L.*; Wu, D.*; 尾原 幸治*; 菊地 龍弥*; 柴田 薫; et al.

Nature Materials, 17(3), p.226 - 230, 2018/03

 被引用回数:47 パーセンタイル:3.08(Chemistry, Physical)

As a generic property, all substances transfer heat through microscopic collisions of constituent particles. A solid conducts heat through both transverse and longitudinal acoustic phonons, but a liquid employs only longitudinal vibrations. As a result, a solid is usually thermally more conductive than a liquid. In canonical viewpoints, such a difference also serves as the dynamic signature distinguishing a solid from a liquid. Here, we report liquid-like thermal conduction observed in the crystalline AgCrSe$$_{2}$$. The transverse acoustic phonons are completely suppressed by the ultrafast dynamic disorder while the longitudinal acoustic phonons are strongly scattered but survive, and are thus responsible for the intrinsically ultralow thermal conductivity. This scenario is applicable to a wide variety of layered compounds with heavy intercalants in the van der Waals gaps, manifesting a broad implication on suppressing thermal conduction. These microscopic insights might reshape the fundamental understanding on thermal transport properties of matter and open up a general opportunity to optimize performances of thermoelectrics.

論文

Study of fission using multi-nucleon transfer reactions

西尾 勝久; 廣瀬 健太郎; Vermeulen, M. J.; 牧井 宏之; Orlandi, R.; 塚田 和明; 浅井 雅人; 豊嶋 厚史; 佐藤 哲也; 永目 諭一郎; et al.

EPJ Web of Conferences, 163, p.00041_1 - 00041_6, 2017/11

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:25.31

We are promoting a study of fission using multi-nucleon transfer (MNT) reactions, where excited states in neutron-rich actinide nuclei, which cannot be accessed by particle capture and/or fusion reactions, are populated. Also, the excited states in the fissioning nucleus are widely populated by the MNT reactions, from which effects of excitation energy on fission properties can be investigated. Experiments were carried out at the JAEA tandem facility in Tokai, Japan. We studied reactions using the $$^{18}$$O beam and several actinide target nuclei such as $$^{232}$$Th, $$^{238}$$U, $$^{237}$$Np, $$^{248}$$Cm. Ejectile nucleus was identified by a silicon $$Delta$$E-E telescope to identify transfer channel and hence the compound nucleus. Fission fragments were detected by multi-wire proportional counters, and fission fragment mass distributions (FFMDs) were measured for each isotope. Measured FFMDs are reproduced by a calculation based on the fluctuation-dissipation model, and importance of multi-chance fission concept is investigated. Fission fragment angular distribution relative to the recoil direction suggested the increase of the spin of the fissioning nucleus with the number of transferred nucleons.

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