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A Predicted CRISPR-mediated symbiosis between uncultivated archaea

Esser, S. P.*; Rahlff, J.*; Zhao, W.*; Predl, M.*; Plewka, J.*; Sures, K.*; Wimmer, F.*; Lee, J.*; Adam, P. S.*; McGonigle, J.*; et al.

Nature Microbiology (Internet), 8(9), p.1619 - 1633, 2023/09


CRISPR-Cas systems defend prokaryotic cells from viruses, plasmids, and other mobile genetic elements. Capitalizing on multi-omics approaches, we show here that the CRISPR-Cas systems of uncultivated archaea also play an integral role in mitigating potentially detrimental interactions with episymbionts. A comprehensive analysis of CRISPR-Cas-based infection histories revealed that uncultivated deep-subsurface archaeal primary-producers defend themselves from archaeal episymbionts of the DPANN superphylum of archaea, some of which are known to fuse their membranes with their host. We show that host cells counter these attacks by deploying one of two CRISPR-Cas systems (type I-B and type III-A) to target and disrupt essential genes in the episymbiont. However, genome-scale modeling of metabolic interactions between two deep subsurface host-symbiont systems revealed that host cells also benefit from the symbionts via metabolic complementation. We speculate that populations of these uncultivated archaeal episymbionts are currently transitioning from a parasitic lifestyle to one of mutualism, as must have occurred in countless mutualistic systems known today. By expanding our analysis to thousands of archaeal genomes, we conclude that CRISPR-Cas mediated resistance to archaeal episymbiosis evolved independently in various archaeal lineages and may be a wide-spread evolutionary phenomenon.


Neutron resonance fission neutron analysis for nondestructive fissile material assay

弘中 浩太; Lee, J.; 小泉 光生; 伊藤 史哲*; 堀 順一*; 寺田 和司*; 佐野 忠史*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 1054, p.168467_1 - 168467_5, 2023/09

We propose neutron resonance fission neutron analysis (NRFNA), an active nondestructive assay (NDA) technique, to improve the capability to identify and quantify a small amount of fissile material in a sample. NRFNA uses pulsed neutrons to induce fission reactions in the sample. Fission neutrons are detected by a neutron-gamma pulse shape discrimination (PSD) scintillation detector with time-of-flight (TOF) technique. The obtained nuclide-specific resonance peaks in the neutron energy spectrum provide information to identify and quantify a fissile material in the sample. The possibility of using PSD for NRFNA was confirmed through a test experiment using a natural uranium sample. We successfully observed the resonance peaks from $$^{235}$$U(n,f) reaction and showed that NRFNA would be useful for measuring a small amount of fissile material in a sample.


Level structures of $$^{56,58}$$Ca cast doubt on a doubly magic $$^{60}$$Ca

Chen, S.*; Browne, F.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Lee, J.*; Obertelli, A.*; 角田 佑介*; 大塚 孝治*; 茶園 亮樹*; Hagen, G.*; Holt, J. D.*; et al.

Physics Letters B, 843, p.138025_1 - 138025_7, 2023/08

$$^{57,59}$$Scからの1陽子ノックアウト反応を用いて、$$^{56}$$Caと$$^{58}$$Caのガンマ崩壊を観測した。$$^{56}$$Caでは1456(12)keVの$$gamma$$線遷移が、$$^{58}$$Caでは1115(34)keVの遷移が観測された。どちらの遷移も暫定的に$$2^{+}_{1} rightarrow 0^{+}_{gs}$$と割り当てられた。有効核子間相互作用をわずかに修正した広い模型空間での殻模型計算では、$$2^{+}_{1}$$準位エネルギー、2中性子分離エネルギー、反応断面積が実験とよく一致し、N=34閉殻の上に新しい殻が形成されていることを裏付けた。その構成要素である$$0_{f5/2}$$$$0_{g9/2}$$軌道はほぼ縮退しており、これは$$^{60}$$Caが二重魔法核である可能性を排除し、Ca同位体のドリップラインを$$^{70}$$Caあるいはそれ以上にまで広げる可能性がある。


Fetal atomic bomb survivor dosimetry using the J45 series of pregnant female phantoms with realistic survivor exposure scenarios; Comparisons to dose estimates in the DS02 system

Paulbeck, C. J.*; 佐藤 達彦; 船本 幸代*; Lee, C.*; Griffin, K. T.*; Cullings, H. M.*; Egbert, S. D.*; 遠藤 章; Hertel, N. E.*; Bolch, W. E.*

Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 62(3), p.317 - 329, 2023/08

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.02(Biology)



Activities of the GIF safety and operation project of sodium-cooled fast reactor systems

山野 秀将; Chenaud, M.-S.*; Tsige-Tamirat, H.*; Sumner, T.*; Lee, J.*; Liu, S.*; Peregudova, O.*

Proceedings of 30th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE30) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2023/05



High-density nanoprecipitates and phase reversion via maraging enable ultrastrong yet strain-hardenable medium-entropy alloy

Kwon, H.*; Sathiyamoorthi, P.*; Gangaraju, M. K.*; Zargaran, A.*; Wang, J.*; Heo, Y.-U.*; Harjo, S.; Gong, W.; Lee, B.-J.*; Kim, H. S.*

Acta Materialia, 248, p.118810_1 - 118810_12, 2023/04

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Maraging steels, known for ultrahigh strength and good fracture toughness, derive their superior properties from lath martensite structure with high-density nanoprecipitates. In this work, we designed a novel Fe-based medium-entropy alloy with a chemical composition of Fe$$_{60}$$Co$$_{25}$$Ni$$_{10}$$Mo$$_5$$ in atomic% by utilizing the characteristics of the maraging steels. By a single-step aging of only 10 min at 650 $$^{circ}$$C, the alloy showed microstructures consisting of a very high number density of (Fe, Co, Ni)$$_7$$Mo$$_6$$-type nanoprecipitates in lath martensite structure and reverted FCC phase, which led to ultrahigh yield strength higher than 2 GPa. This work demonstrates a novel direction to produce strong and ductile materials by expanding the horizons of material design with the aid of high-entropy concept and overcoming the limits of conventional materials.


Pressure-modulated magnetism and negative thermal expansion in the Ho$$_2$$Fe$$_{17}$$ intermetallic compound

Cao, Y.*; Zhou, H.*; Khmelevskyi, S.*; Lin, K.*; Avdeev, M.*; Wang, C.-W.*; Wang, B.*; Hu, F.*; 加藤 健一*; 服部 高典; et al.

Chemistry of Materials, 35(8), p.3249 - 3255, 2023/04

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Chemistry, Physical)



Multiple mechanisms in proton-induced nucleon removal at $$sim$$100 MeV/nucleon

Pohl, T.*; Sun, Y. L.*; Obertelli, A.*; Lee, J.*; G$'o$mez-Ramos, M.*; 緒方 一介*; 吉田 数貴; Cai, B. S.*; Yuan, C. X.*; Brown, B. A.*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 130(17), p.172501_1 - 172501_8, 2023/04

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:94.39(Physics, Multidisciplinary)



Competitive strengthening between dislocation slip and twinning in cast-wrought and additively manufactured CrCoNi medium entropy alloys

Woo, W.*; Kim, Y. S.*; Chae, H. B.*; Lee, S. Y.*; Jeong, J. S.*; Lee, C. M.*; Won, J. W.*; Na, Y. S.*; 川崎 卓郎; Harjo, S.; et al.

Acta Materialia, 246, p.118699_1 - 118699_13, 2023/03

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:98.77(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

In situ neutron diffraction experiments have been performed under loading in cast-wrought (CW) and additively manufactured (AM) equiatomic CoCrNi medium-entropy alloys. The diffraction line profile analysis correlated the faulting-embedded crystal structure to the dislocation density, stacking/twin fault probability, and stacking fault energy as a function of strain. The results showed the initial dislocation density of 1.8$$times$$10$$^{13}$$ m$$^{-2}$$ in CW and 1.3$$times$$10$$^{14}$$ m$$^{-2}$$ in AM. It significantly increased up to 1.3$$times$$10$$^{15}$$ m-$$^{-2}$$ in CW and 1.7$$times$$10$$^{15}$$ m$$^{-2}$$ in AM near fracture. The dislocation density contributed to the flow stress of 470 MPa in CW and 600 MPa in AM, respectively. Meanwhile, the twin fault probability of CW (2.7%) was about two times higher than AM (1.3%) and the stacking fault probability showed the similar tendency. The twinning provided strengthening of 360 MPa in CW and 180 MPa in AM. Such a favorable strengthening via deformation twinning in CW and dislocation slip in AM was attributed to the stacking fault energy. It was estimated as 18.6 mJ/m$$^{2}$$ in CW and 37.5 mJ/m$$^{2}$$ in AM by the strain field of dislocations incorporated model. Dense dislocations, deformation twinning, and atomic-scale stacking structure were examined by using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).


Study of the $$N=32$$ and $$N=34$$ shell gap for Ti and V by the first high-precision multireflection time-of-flight mass measurements at BigRIPS-SLOWRI

飯村 俊*; Rosenbusch, M.*; 高峰 愛子*; 角田 佑介*; 和田 道治*; Chen, S.*; Hou, D. S.*; Xian, W.*; 石山 博恒*; Yan, S.*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 130(1), p.012501_1 - 012501_6, 2023/01

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:81.67(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

The atomic masses of $$^{55}$$Sc, $$^{56,58}$$Ti, and $$^{56-59}$$V have been determined using the high-precision multireflection time-of-flight technique. The radioisotopes have been produced at RIKEN's Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) and delivered to the novel designed gas cell and multireflection system, which has been recently commissioned downstream of the ZeroDegree spectrometer following the BigRIPS separator. For $$^{56,58}$$Ti and $$^{56-59}$$V, the mass uncertainties have been reduced down to the order of 10 keV, shedding new light on the $$N=34$$ shell effect in Ti and V isotopes by the first high-precision mass measurements of the critical species $$^{58}$$Ti and $$^{59}$$V. With the new precision achieved, we reveal the nonexistence of the $$N=34$$ empirical two-neutron shell gaps for Ti and V, and the enhanced energy gap above the occupied $$nu$$p$$_{3/2}$$ orbit is identified as a feature unique to Ca. We perform new Monte Carlo shell model calculations including the $$nu$$d$$_{5/2}$$ and $$nu$$g$$_{9/2}$$ orbits and compare the results with conventional shell model calculations, which exclude the $$nu$$g$$_{9/2}$$ and the $$nu$$d$$_{5/2}$$ orbits. The comparison indicates that the shell gap reduction in Ti is related to a partial occupation of the higher orbitals for the outer two valence neutrons at $$N = 34$$.


Laser-driven neutron generation realizing single-shot resonance spectroscopy

余語 覚文*; Lan, Z.*; 有川 安信*; 安部 勇輝*; Mirfayzi, S. R.*; Wei, T.*; 森 隆人*; Golovin, D.*; 早川 岳人*; 岩田 夏弥*; et al.

Physical Review X, 13(1), p.011011_1 - 011011_12, 2023/01

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:81.67(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Neutrons are powerful tools for investigating the structure and properties of materials used in science and technology. Recently, laser-driven neutron sources (LDNS) have attracted the attention of different communities, from science to industry, in a variety of applications, including radiography, spectroscopy, security, and medicine. However, the laser-driven ion acceleration mechanism for neutron generation and for establishing the scaling law on the neutron yield is essential to improve the feasibility of LDNS. In this paper, we report the mechanism that accelerates ions with spectra suitable for neutron generation. We show that the neutron yield increases with the fourth power of the laser intensity, resulting in the neutron generation of $$3times10^{11}$$ in $$4pi$$ at a maximum, with $$1.1times10^{19}$$ Wcm$$^{-2}$$, 900 J, 1.5 ps lasers. By installing a "hand-size" moderator, which is specially designed for the LDNS, it is demonstrated that the efficient generation of epithermal (0.1-100 eV) neutrons enables the single-shot analysis of composite materials by neutron resonance transmission analysis (NRTA). We achieve the energy resolution of 2.3% for 5.19-eV neutrons 1.8 m downstream of the LDNS. This leads to the analysis of elements and isotopes within sub-$$mu$$s times and allows for high-speed nondestructive inspection.



伊藤 史哲*; Lee, J.; 弘中 浩太; 小泉 光生; 余語 覚文*

Proceedings of 19th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (インターネット), p.137 - 140, 2023/01

中性子共鳴透過分析(NRTA)は、パルス中性子を計量したい核物質に照射し、飛行時間(TOF)法を用いて測定核物質を非破壊測定する手法であるが、小型・高精度化には短パルスな小型中性子源が必要となる。近年発展著しいレーザー技術を用いたレー ザー駆動中性子源(LDNS)は、そのような中性子源として将来を期待されている。そこで我々はLDNSを用いたNRTAの技術開発を行い、実証実験を行った。その結果について報告する。


Fetal and maternal atomic bomb survivor dosimetry using the J45 pregnant female phantom series; Considerations of the kneeling and lying posture with comparisons to the DS02 system

Domal, S. J.*; Correa-Alfonso, C. M.*; Paulbeck, C. J.*; Griffin, K. T.*; 佐藤 達彦; 船本 幸代*; Cullings, H. M.*; Egbert, S. D.*; 遠藤 章; Hertel, N. E.*; et al.

Health Physics, 15 Pages, 2023/00



Relationship between neutron moderator and time-dependent background for neutron time-of-flight measurement

Lee, J.; 弘中 浩太; 伊藤 史哲*; 小泉 光生; 堀 順一*; 佐野 忠史*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 8 Pages, 2023/00

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.02(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In the short-distance time-of-flight (TOF) measurements, the background events increase exponentially with decreasing the distance, and the high background increases the uncertainty of the measurement data. The moderated neutron beam includes the time-dependent background originating from the neutron moderator, such as 2.2 MeV gamma rays emitted by $$^{1}$$H(n,$$gamma$$) reaction in the moderator. In this paper, to achieve a compact neutron resonance transmission analysis system with high accuracy, we studied the relationship between the moderator and time-dependent background due to gamma rays. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out with the PHITS and the JENDL-4.0 to investigate the time distributions of neutrons and gamma rays emitted from the moderator. Ratios of the gamma-ray intensity to neutron intensity (S$$gamma$$/S$$_{rm n}$$ ratio) were calculated for various moderators and flight distances. From the obtained results, moderator designs for maintaining low S$$gamma$$/S$$_{rm n}$$ ratio were discussed.


Si-addition contributes to overcoming the strength-ductility trade-off in high-entropy alloys

Wei, D.*; Gong, W.; 都留 智仁; Lobzenko, I.; Li, X.*; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; Do, H.-S.*; Bae, J. W.*; Wagner, C.*; et al.

International Journal of Plasticity, 159, p.103443_1 - 103443_18, 2022/12

 被引用回数:12 パーセンタイル:96.77(Engineering, Mechanical)

Face-centered cubic single-phase high-entropy alloys (HEAs) containing multi-principal transition metals have attracted significant attention, exhibiting an unprecedented combination of strength and ductility owing to their low stacking fault energy (SFE) and large misfit parameter that creates severe local lattice distortion. Increasing both strength and ductility further is challenging. In the present study, we demonstrate via meticulous experiments that the CoCrFeNi HEA with the addition of the substitutional metalloid Si can retain a single-phase FCC structure while its yield strength (up to 65%), ultimate strength (up to 34%), and ductility (up to 15%) are simultaneously increased, owing to a synthetical effect of the enhanced solid solution strengthening and a reduced SFE. The dislocation behaviors and plastic deformation mechanisms were tuned by the addition of Si, which improves the strain hardening and tensile ductility. The present study provides new strategies for enhancing HEA performance by targeted metalloid additions.


Designs and neutronic characteristics of an epithermal neutron moderator at ambient temperature for neutron time-of-flight measurements

Lee, J.; 伊藤 史哲*; 弘中 浩太; 高橋 時音; 鈴木 敏*; 小泉 光生

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(12), p.1546 - 1557, 2022/12

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:84.2(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Compact time-of-flight (TOF) measurement systems are desirable for easy installation in various facilities. To achieve such compact systems, one of the key considerations is the design of the neutron moderator. However, there are only a few reports on systematic studies on moderators considering both neutron energy resolution as well as a neutron intensity. In this paper, to design an epithermal neutron moderator for short-distance TOF measurements, the neutron intensity and energy resolution of epithermal neutrons have been studied using the Monte Carlo simulation code PHITS with JENDL-4.0 for various types of moderators. The neutronic characteristics of a moderator comprising several components were evaluated. The relationships between the moderator dimensions and both the energy resolution and intensity of the epithermal neutrons were determined. From the obtained results, the appropriate high resolution moderator designs for the short-distance TOF measurements were proposed.


"Southwestern" boundary of the $$N = 40$$ island of inversion; First study of low-lying bound excited states in $$^{59}$$V and $$^{61}$$V

Elekes, Z.*; Juh$'a$sz, M. M.*; Sohler, D.*; Sieja, K.*; 吉田 数貴; 緒方 一介*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Achouri, N. L.*; 馬場 秀忠*; et al.

Physical Review C, 106(6), p.064321_1 - 064321_10, 2022/12

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.02(Physics, Nuclear)

$$^{59}$$Vと$$^{61}$$Vの低励起準位構造を初めて探索した。$$^{61}$$Vについては中性子ノックアウト反応と陽子非弾性散乱が、$$^{59}$$Vについては中性子ノックアウト反応データが得られた。$$^{59}$$Vについては4つ、$$^{61}$$Vについては5つの新たな遷移が確認された。Lenzi-Nowacki-Poves-Sieja (LNPS)相互作用に基づく殻模型計算との比較によって、それぞれの同位体について確認されたガンマ線のうち3つが、first 11/2$$^{-}$$状態とfirst 9/2$$^{-}$$状態からの崩壊と決定された。$$^{61}$$Vについては、($$p$$,$$p'$$)非弾性散乱断面積は四重極変形と十六重極変形を想定したチャネル結合法により解析されたが、十六重極変形の影響により、明確に反転の島に属するとは決定できなかった。


Extended $$p_{3/2}$$ neutron orbital and the $$N = 32$$ shell closure in $$^{52}$$Ca

Enciu, M.*; Liu, H. N.*; Obertelli, A.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Nowacki, F.*; 緒方 一介*; Poves, A.*; 吉田 数貴; Achouri, N. L.*; 馬場 秀忠*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 129(26), p.262501_1 - 262501_7, 2022/12

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Physics, Multidisciplinary)




Lee, J.; 伊藤 史哲*; 弘中 浩太; 高橋 時音; 鈴木 敏*; 小泉 光生; 堀 順一*; 寺田 和司*

第43回日本核物質管理学会年次大会会議論文集(インターネット), 4 Pages, 2022/11



Stress contribution of B2 phase in Al$$_{0.7}$$CoCrFeNi eutectic high entropy alloy

Yun, D.*; Chae, H.*; Lee, T.*; Lee, D.-H.*; Ryu, H. J.*; Banerjee, R.*; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; Lee, S. Y.*

Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 918, p.165673_1 - 165673_7, 2022/10

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Chemistry, Physical)

In this study, the deformation behavior and strengthening contribution of the FCC phase and B2 phase in Al$$_{0.7}$$CoCrFeNi eutectic high entropy alloys (HEAs) were investigated using in-situ neutron diffraction. An FCC matrix phase exhibited a slip-dominant deformation scheme, while twinning hardly contributed to deformation. Applied macroscopic stresses were rarely redistributed to the BCC A2 phase dispersed within the B2 phase, whereas the stress contribution of the B2 phase, which was initially lower than that of the FCC phase, increased significantly with an increase in plastic strain; hence, its contribution to tensile deformation became predominant. This study allows us to postulate a target value of each phase by microstructural tunning to achieve the desired properties of multicomponent phase HEAs.

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