Yoshida, Ryoichiro; Amano, Yuki; Yoshida, Naoki; Abe, Hitoshi
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(2), p.145 - 150, 2021/02
In the "evaporation and dryness due to the loss of cooling functions" which is one of the severe accidents at reprocessing plants in Japan, ruthenium (Ru) is possible to be released much more than other elements to the environment. This cause is considered that the volatile Ru compound can be released from high level liquid waste (HLLW) as gaseous compound in adding to the release by entrainment. It was expected that the release of the volatile Ru compound from the HLLW may be able to be restrained by coexisting nitrite ion because of its reduction power. To confirm the effect of nitrite ion on the release behavior of the volatile Ru compound, four experiments of heating the simulated HLLW (SHLLW) with setting the concentration of nitrite ion in the SHLLW as a parameter ware carried out. As a result, the release of the volatile Ru compound was seemed to be restrained by adding nitrite sodium as a source of nitrite ion under certain boiling condition. This result may contribute to improve source term analysis in the evaporation and dryness due to the loss of cooling functions.
Ono, Takuya; Tashiro, Shinsuke; Amano, Yuki; Yoshida, Naoki; Yoshida, Ryoichiro; Abe, Hitoshi
PLOS ONE (Internet), 16(1), p.e0245303_1 - e0245303_16, 2021/01
It is necessary to consider how a glove box's confinement function will be lost when evaluating the amount of radioactive material leaking from a nuclear facility during a fire. In this study, we build a model that consistently explains the weight loss of glove box materials because of heat input from a flame and accompanying generation of the pyrolysis gas. The weight loss suggests thinning of the glove box housing, and the generation of pyrolysis gas suggests the possibility of fire spreading. The target was polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), used as the glove box panel. Thermal gravimetric tests on PMMA determined the parameters to be substituted in the Arrhenius equation for predicting the weight loss in pyrolysis. The pyrolysis process of PMMA was divided into 3 stages with activation energies of 62 kJ/mol, 250 kJ/mol, and 265 kJ/mol. Furthermore, quantifying the gas composition revealed that the composition of the pyrolysis gas released from PMMA can be approximated as 100 percent methyl methacrylate. This result suggests that the released amount of methyl methacrylate can be estimated by the Arrhenius equation. To investigate the validity of such estimation, a sealed vessel test was performed. In this test, we observed increase of the number of gas molecules during the pyrolysis as internal pressure change of the vessel. The number of gas molecules was similar to that estimated from the Arrhenius equation, and indicated the validity of our method. Moreover, we also performed the same tests on bisphenol-A-polycarbonate (PC) for comparison. In case of PC, the number of gas molecules obtained in the vessel test was higher than the estimated value.
Yoshida, Naoki; Amano, Yuki; Ono, Takuya; Yoshida, Ryoichiro; Abe, Hitoshi
JAEA-Research 2020-014, 33 Pages, 2020/12
Considering the boiling and drying accident of high-level liquid waste in fuel reprocessing plant, Ruthenium (Ru) is an important element. It is because Ru would form volatile compounds such as ruthenium tetroxide (RuO) and could be released into the environment with other coexisting gasses such as nitric oxides (NOx) such as nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO). To contribute to the safety evaluation of this accident, we experimentally evaluated the effect of NOx on the decomposition and chemical change behavior of the gaseous RuO (RuO(g)). As a result, the RuO(g) decomposed over time under the atmospheric gasses with NO or NO, however, the decomposition rate was slower than the results of experiments without NOx. These results showed that the NOx stabilized RuO(g).
Yoshida, Naoki; Ono, Takuya; Yoshida, Ryoichiro; Amano, Yuki; Abe, Hitoshi
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(11), p.1256 - 1264, 2020/11
Emphasis has been placed on the behavior of ruthenium (Ru) in the evaporation to dryness accident due to the loss of cooling functions (EDLCF) of high-level liquid waste in fuel reprocessing plants. It is because Ru would form volatile compounds such as ruthenium tetroxide (RuO) and could be released into the environment with other coexisting gasses such as nitric acid (HNO), water (HO). To contribute to the safety evaluation of this accident, we experimentally evaluated the decomposition and chemical change behavior of the gaseous RuO (RuO(g)) under the various atmospheric conditions: temperature and composition of coexisting gasses. As a result, the behavior of the RuO(g) was diverse depending on the atmospheric conditions. In the experiments with the dry air or HO vapor, decomposition of RuO(g) was observed. In the experiment with the mixed gas which containing HNO, almost no decomposition of the RuO(g) was observed, and chemical form of the RuO(g) was retained.
Negishi, Hitoshi; Kamide, Hideki; Maeda, Seiichiro; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Abe, Tomoyuki
Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 62(8), p.438 - 441, 2020/08
Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor, Monju, was under decommission since April, 2018. It is the first time for Japan to make a sodium cooled reactor into decommission. It is significant work and will take 30 years. The Monju has provided wide spectrum and huge amount of findings and knowledge, e.g., design, R&D, manufacturing, construction, and operation up to 40% of full power over 50 years of development history. It is significant to utilize such findings and knowledge for the development and commercialization of a fast rector in Japan.
Nakano, Masanao; Fujii, Tomoko; Nemoto, Masashi; Tobita, Keiji; Kono, Takahiko; Hosomi, Kenji; Nishimura, Shusaku; Matsubara, Natsumi; Maehara, Yushi; Narita, Ryosuke; et al.
JAEA-Review 2019-048, 165 Pages, 2020/03
Environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant has been performed by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, based on "Safety Regulations for the Reprocessing Plant of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Chapter IV - Environmental Monitoring". This annual report presents the results of the environmental monitoring and the dose estimation to the hypothetical inhabitant due to the radioactivity discharged from the plant to the atmosphere and the sea during April 2018 to March 2019. In this report, some data include the influence of the accidental release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (the trade name was changed to Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. on April 1, 2016) in March 2011. Appendices present comprehensive information, such as monitoring programs, monitoring methods, monitoring results and their trends, meteorological data and discharged radioactive wastes. In addition, the data which were influenced by the accidental release and exceeded the normal range of fluctuation in the monitoring, were evaluated.
Ono, Takuya; Tashiro, Shinsuke; Amano, Yuki; Yoshida, Ryoichiro; Abe, Hitoshi
Nuclear Technology, 206(1), p.40 - 47, 2020/01
Recent Japanese nuclear regulations have focused on the hazards of in-cell solvent fires at reprocessing facilities. In this work, a mixture of tributyl phosphate and dodecane-based solvents was burned to generate an aerosol composed of soot and unburned solvent that was then loaded onto a high-efficiency particulate air filter simulating the ventilation system of reprocessing facilities. A radical increase of differential pressure occurred in the filters during these tests after the dodecane burned out from the solvent in a phenomenon we named as rapid clogging, likely caused by the burnout of dodecane. This relationship provides valuable insight into the establishment of new regulations for reprocessing facilities. This work indicates that clogging of ventilation filters during solvent fires may occur more rapidly than previously estimated.
Kokubu, Yoko; Fujita, Natsuko; Miyake, Masayasu; Watanabe, Takahiro; Ishizaka, Chika; Okabe, Nobuaki; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Matsubara, Akihiro*; Nishizawa, Akimitsu*; Nishio, Tomohiro*; et al.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 456, p.271 - 275, 2019/10
JAEA-AMS-TONO has been in operation at the Tono Geoscience Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency since 1998 and 20 years have passed from the beginning of its utilization. The AMS system is a versatile system based on a 5 MV tandem Pelletron type accelerator. The system has been used to measure carbon-14 (C), beryllium-10 (Be) and aluminium-26 (Al). In addition, the development of measurement of iodine-129 (I) has been started. The main use is measurement of C in geological samples for dating studies in neotectonics and hydrogeology. In order to increase the speed of sample preparation, we introduced the automated graphitization equipment and made a gas-strip line to collect dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater samples. Measurement of Be and Al has been used for geoscience studies and the detection limit in the measurement of Be was improved by Be-counting suppression. Recently tuning of measurement condition of I has been progressed.
Yoshida, Ryoichiro; Yamane, Yuichi; Abe, Hitoshi
Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.408 - 414, 2019/09
In a criticality accident, it is known that some kinds of radiolysis gases are generated mainly due to kinetic energy of fission fragments. Hydrogen gas (H) is one of them, which is able to initiate explosion. The rate of H generation and its total amount can be estimated from the number of fission per second if its G value is known. In this study, it was tried to estimate G value of hydrogen gas (G(H)) by using the H concentration measured as time-series data in Transient Experiment Critical Facility (TRACY) which was carried out by Japan Atomic Energy Agency. There was time lag in the measured H concentration from its generation. To overcome those problems, measured profile of H concentration was reproduced based on a hypothetical model and its total amount was evaluated. Based on the model, the obtained G(H) was 1.2.
Onuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Namba, Kenji*; Neda, Hitoshi*; Sasaki, Yoshito; Niizato, Tadafumi; Watanabe, Naoko*; Kozaki, Tamotsu*
Environmental Science; Processes & Impacts, 21(7), p.1164 - 1173, 2019/07
The fate of radioactive Cs deposited after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and its associated radiological impacts are largely dependent on its mobility from surface soils to forest ecosystems. We measured the accumulation of radioactive Cs in the fruit bodies of wild fungi in the forest at Iidate, Fukushima, Japan. The transfer factors (TFs) of radioactive Cs from soil to the fruit bodies of wild fungi were between 10 to 10, a range similar to those reported for the fruit bodies collected in Europe after the Chernobyl accident and in parts of Japan contaminated by nuclear bomb test fallout. Comparison of the TFs of the wild mushroom and that of the fungal hyphae of 704 stock strains grown on agar medium containing nutrients and radioactive Cs showed that the TFs of wild mushroom were lower. TF was less than 0.1 after addition of the minerals zeolite, vermiculite, phlogopite, smectite, or illite of 1% weight to the agar medium. These results indicate that the presence of minerals decrease Cs uptake by fungi grown in the agar medium.
Yoshida, Kazuo; Tamaki, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Naoki; Yoshida, Ryoichiro; Amano, Yuki; Abe, Hitoshi
Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 18(2), p.69 - 80, 2019/06
An accident of evaporation to dryness by boiling of high level liquid waste (HLLW) is postulated as one of the severe accidents at a fuel reprocessing plant. In this case, volatile radioactive materials, such as ruthenium (Ru) are released from the tanks with water and nitric-acid mixed vapor into atmosphere. In addition to this, nitrogen oxides are also released formed by the thermal decomposition of metal nitrates of fission products (FP) in HLLW. It has been observed experimentally that nitrogen oxide affects strongly to the transport behavior of Ru. Chemical reactions of nitrogen oxide with water and nitric acid are also recognized as the complex phenomena to undergo simultaneously in the vapor and liquid phases. An analysis method has been developed with coupling two types of computer codes to simulate not only thermo-hydraulic behavior but also chemical reactions in the flow paths of carrier gases. A simulation study has been also carried out with a typical facility building.
Nakano, Masanao; Fujita, Hiroki; Mizutani, Tomoko; Nemoto, Masashi; Tobita, Keiji; Kono, Takahiko; Hosomi, Kenji; Hokama, Tomonori; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Matsubara, Natsumi; et al.
JAEA-Review 2018-025, 171 Pages, 2019/02
Environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant has been performed by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, based on "Safety Regulations for the Reprocessing Plant of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Chapter IV - Environmental Monitoring". This annual report presents the results of the environmental monitoring and the dose estimation to the hypothetical inhabitant due to the radioactivity discharged from the plant to the atmosphere and the sea during April 2016 to March 2017. In this report, some data include the influence of the accidental release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. in March 2011. Appendices present comprehensive information, such as monitoring programs, monitoring methods, monitoring results and their trends, meteorological data and discharged radioactive wastes. In addition, the data which were influenced by the accidental release and were exceeded the normal range of fluctuation in the monitoring, were evaluated.
Watanabe, Takahiro; Kokubu, Yoko; Fujita, Natsuko; Ishizaka, Chika*; Nishio, Tomohiro; Matsubara, Akihiro*; Miyake, Masayasu; Kato, Motohisa*; Isozaki, Nobuhiro*; Torazawa, Hitoshi*; et al.
JAEA-Conf 2018-002, p.116 - 119, 2019/02
AMS is widely used for radiocarbon dating of geological samples. However, improvement in efficiency of sample preparation techniques are needed for high-time resolution dataset. In 2016, automated graphitization equipment (AGE3, IonPlus AG) has been installed in Toki Research Institute of Isotope Geology and Geochronology, Tono Geoscience Center, JAEA. Background values and carbon recovery rates during preparation process of AGE3 should be estimated before application in radiocarbon dating. In this study, the AGE3 system was evaluated using the international standard materials (IAEA-C1, C4, C5, C6, C7, C9 and NIST-SRM4990C) at JAEA-AMS-TONO. Graphite samples was prepared by the AGE3 system and radiocarbon concentration of these standards was measured by AMS. The results were agreement with the consensus values. Background values were 0.150.01 pMC (IAEA-C1) using the AGE3 system. Therefore, we concluded that the system can be adapted for radiocarbon dating of geological samples.
Kokubu, Yoko; Fujita, Natsuko; Matsubara, Akihiro*; Nishizawa, Akimitsu*; Nishio, Tomohiro; Miyake, Masayasu; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Watanabe, Takahiro; Ogata, Nobuhisa; Shimada, Akiomi; et al.
JAEA-Conf 2018-002, p.5 - 8, 2019/02
no abstracts in English
Fujita, Natsuko; Miyake, Masayasu; Watanabe, Takahiro; Kokubu, Yoko; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Matsubara, Akihiro*; Nishio, Tomohiro*; Kato, Motohisa*; Isozaki, Nobuhiro*; Torazawa, Hitoshi*; et al.
JAEA-Conf 2018-013, p.96 - 99, 2019/02
no abstracts in English
Fujita, Natsuko; Miyake, Masayasu; Watanabe, Takahiro; Kokubu, Yoko; Matsubara, Akihiro*; Kato, Motohisa*; Okabe, Nobuaki; Isozaki, Nobuhiro*; Ishizaka, Chika*; Torazawa, Hitoshi*; et al.
Dai-31-Kai Tandemu Kasokuki Oyobi Sono Shuhen Gijutsu No Kenkyukai Hokokushu, p.92 - 95, 2018/12
no abstracts in English
Nakahara, Masaumi; Sano, Yuichi; Abe, Hitoshi
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 5, p.52 - 55, 2018/11
For evaluating the secular change of Pu evaporator made of Zr in the commercialized nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, electrochemical experiments were carried out with Pu nitrate solutions. The open circuit potentials of Zr increased with increasing Pu, HNO concentrations and temperature. However, these experimental results imply that Zr has high corrosion resistance in Pu nitrate solutions.
Torigoe, Shuhei*; Hattori, Takayuki*; Kodama, Katsuaki; Honda, Takashi*; Sagayama, Hajime*; Ikeda, Kazutaka*; Otomo, Toshiya*; Nitani, Hiroaki*; Abe, Hitoshi*; Murakawa, Hiroshi*; et al.
Physical Review B, 98(13), p.134443_1 - 134443_7, 2018/10
Yoshida, Naoki; Ono, Takuya; Amano, Yuki; Abe, Hitoshi
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 55(6), p.599 - 604, 2018/06
In the boiling and drying accident of high-level liquid waste in the fuel reprocessing plant, behavior of ruthenium (Ru) has attracted much attention because Ru could form volatile compounds such as ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4) and could be released into the environment. To contribute towards safety evaluation of this accident, the migration behavior and the leak path factor of the gaseous ruthenium compound has been experimentally measured in this study. The experiment was proceeded by using the Ruthenium Migration Evaluating Apparatus, which partially simulates the atmospheric condition (temperature, flow rate, and composition of water vapor and gaseous nitric acid mixture) of migration pathway in the accident. Experiments with dry air and water vapor were also performed as the control experiment to discuss the effect of nitric acid. As a result, the experiment with dry air and the experiment with water vapor demonstrated that the majority of the ruthenium deposited along the migration pathway. On the other hand, the experiment with the water vapor containing gaseous nitric acid demonstrated that almost all of the ruthenium passed through the migration pathway without deposition. These results suggested that the migration behavior of gaseous ruthenium will be affected by the gas-phase composition.
Sato, Yuji*; Tsukamoto, Masahiro*; Shobu, Takahisa; Yamashita, Yoshihiro*; Yamagata, Shuto*; Nishi, Takaya*; Higashino, Ritsuko*; Okubo, Tomomasa*; Nakano, Hitoshi*; Abe, Nobuyuki*
Applied Physics A, 124(4), p.288_1 - 288_6, 2018/04
The dynamics of titanium (Ti) melted by laser irradiation was investigated in a synchrotron radiation experiment. As an indicator of wettability, the contact angle between a selective laser melting (SLM) baseplate and the molten Ti was measured by synchrotron X-rays at 30 keV during laser irradiation. As the baseplate temperature increased, the contact angle decreased, down to 28 degrees at a baseplate temperature of 500C. Based on this result, the influence of wettability of a Ti plate fabricated by SLM in a vacuum was investigated. It was revealed that the improvement of wettability by preheating suppressed sputtering generation, and a surface having a small surface roughness was fabricated by SLM in a vacuum.