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JAEA Reports

Background radiation monitoring using manned helicopter for establishment of technique of nuclear emergency response in the fiscal year 2017 (Contract research)

Futemma, Akira; Sanada, Yukihisa; Iwai, Takeyuki*; Seguchi, Eisaku; Matsunaga, Yuki*; Kawabata, Tomoki; Toyoda, Masayuki*; Tobita, Shinichiro*; Hiraga, Shogo*; Sato, Kazuhiko*; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2018-016, 98 Pages, 2019/02

JAEA-Technology-2018-016.pdf:18.64MB

By the nuclear disaster of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the following tsunami on March 11, 2011, a large amount of radioactive material was released from the NPS. After the nuclear disaster, airborne radiation monitoring using manned helicopter was conducted around FDNPS. We have carried out the background monitoring around the nuclear power stations of the whole country to apply the airborne radiation monitoring technique that has been cultivated in Fukushima against nuclear emergency response. The results of monitoring around Tomari, Kashiwazaki-Kariwa and Genkai Nuclear Power Station in the fiscal 2017 were summarized in this report. In addition, technical issues were described.

JAEA Reports

Radiation monitoring using manned helicopter around the nuclear power station in the fiscal year 2017 (Contract research)

Futemma, Akira; Sanada, Yukihisa; Ishizaki, Azusa; Iwai, Takeyuki*; Seguchi, Eisaku; Matsunaga, Yuki*; Kawabata, Tomoki; Toyoda, Masayuki*; Tobita, Shinichiro*; Hiraga, Shogo*; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2018-015, 120 Pages, 2019/02

JAEA-Technology-2018-015.pdf:15.01MB

By the nuclear disaster of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the following tsunami on March 11, 2011, a large amount of radioactive material was released from the NPS. After the nuclear disaster, airborne radiation monitoring using manned helicopter was conducted around FDNPS. The results in the fiscal 2017 were summarized in this report. In addition, we developed and systemized the discrimination technique of the Rn-progenies. The accuracy of aerial radiation monitoring was evaluated by taking into consideration GPS data error.

Journal Articles

Establishment of a novel detection system for measuring primary knock-on atoms

Tsai, P.-E.; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Hagiwara, Masayuki*; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Satoh, Daiki; Abe, Shinichiro; Ito, Masatoshi*; Watabe, Hiroshi*

Proceedings of 2017 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC 2017) (Internet), 3 Pages, 2018/11

The energy spectra of primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) are essential for radiation damage assessment in design of accelerator facilities. However up to date the experimental data are still limited, due to the poor mass resolution and the high measurement threshold energies in the conventional setup of nuclear physics experiments using solid state detectors, which are typically above a few MeV/nucleon. In this study, a novel detection system consisting of two time detectors and one dE-E energy detector is proposed and being constructed to measure the PKA spectra. The system and detector design was based on Monte Carlo simulations by using the PHITS code. The PHITS simulations show that the system is able to distinguish the PKA isotopes above $$sim$$0.2-0.3 MeV/nucleon for A=20$$sim$$30 amu; the PKA mass identification thresholds decrease to $$<$$0.1 MeV/nucleon for PKAs lighter than 20 amu. The detection system will be tested in the summer of 2017, and the test results will be presented at the conference.

Journal Articles

Negative and positive muon-induced single event upsets in 65-nm UTBB SOI SRAMs

Manabe, Seiya*; Watanabe, Yukinobu*; Liao, W.*; Hashimoto, Masanori*; Nakano, Keita*; Sato, Hikaru*; Kin, Tadahiro*; Abe, Shinichiro; Hamada, Koji*; Tampo, Motonobu*; et al.

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 65(8), p.1742 - 1749, 2018/08

 Percentile:100(Engineering, Electrical & Electronic)

Recently, the malfunction of microelectronics caused by secondary cosmic-ray muon is concerned as semiconductor devices become sensitive to radiation. In this study, we have performed muon irradiation testing for 65-nm ultra-thin body and thin buried oxide (UTBB-SOI) SRAMs in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), in order to investigate dependencies of single event upset (SEU) cross section on incident muon momentum and supply voltage. It was found that the SEU cross section by negative muon are approximately two to four times larger than those by positive muon in the momentum range from 35 MeV/c to 39 MeV/c. The supply voltage dependence of muon-induced SEU cross section was measured with the momentum of 38 MeV/c. SEU cross sections decrease with increasing supply voltage, but the decreasing of SEU cross section by negative muon is gentler than that by positive muon. Experimental data of positive and negative muon irradiation with the momentum of 38 MeV/c were analyzed by PHITS. It was clarified that the negative muon capture causes the difference between the SEU cross section by negative muon and that by positive muon.

Journal Articles

Measurement and mechanism investigation of negative and positive muon-induced upsets in 65-nm Bulk SRAMs

Liao, W.*; Hashimoto, Masanori*; Manabe, Seiya*; Watanabe, Yukinobu*; Abe, Shinichiro; Nakano, Keita*; Sato, Hikaru*; Kin, Tadahiro*; Hamada, Koji*; Tampo, Motonobu*; et al.

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 65(8), p.1734 - 1741, 2018/08

 Percentile:100(Engineering, Electrical & Electronic)

Soft error induced by secondary cosmic-ray muon is concerned since susceptibility of semiconductor device to soft error increases with the scaling of technology. In this study, we have performed irradiation tests of muons on 65-nm bulk CMOS SRAM in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) and measured soft error rate (SER) to investigate mechanism of muon-induced soft errors. It was found that SER by negative muon increases above 0.5 V supply voltage, although SER by positive muon increases monotonically as the supply voltage lowers. SER by negative muon also increases with forward body bias. In addition, negative muon causes large multiple cell upset (MCU) of more than 20 bits and the ratio of MCU events to all the events is 66% at 1.2V supply voltage. These tendencies indicate that parasitic bipolar action (PBA) is highly possible to contribute to SER by negative muon. Experimental data are analyzed by PHITS. It was found that negative muon can deposit larger charge than positive muon, and such events that can deposit large charge may trigger PBA.

Journal Articles

Features of particle and heavy ion transport code system (PHITS) version 3.02

Sato, Tatsuhiko; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Furuta, Takuya; Abe, Shinichiro; Kai, Takeshi; Tsai, P.-E.; Matsuda, Norihiro; Iwase, Hiroshi*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 55(6), p.684 - 690, 2018/06

 Times Cited Count:40 Percentile:0.03(Nuclear Science & Technology)

We have upgraded many features of the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) and released the new version as PHITS3.02. The accuracy and the applicable energy ranges of the code were greatly improved and extended, respectively, owing to the revisions to the nuclear reaction models and the incorporation of new atomic interaction models. In addition, several user-supportive functions were developed, such as new tallies to efficiently obtain statistically better results, radioisotope source-generation function, and software tools useful for applying PHITS to medical physics. In this paper, we summarize the basic features of PHITS3.02, especially those of the physics models and the functions implemented after the release of PHITS2.52 in 2013.

Journal Articles

2018 Annual Meeting of Japan Atomic Energy Society, Joint Session of Nuclear Data Subcommittee and Sigma Special Advisory Committee; Present status and future of nuclear data evaluation code in Japan, 4; Role and improvement of nuclear reaction models in the PHITS code

Hashimoto, Shintaro; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Furuta, Takuya; Abe, Shinichiro; Niita, Koji*

Kaku Deta Nyusu (Internet), (120), p.26 - 34, 2018/06

Particle and heavy-ion transport code system PHITS has been used for calculations of radiation shielding in accelerator facilities. PHITS describes physical phenomena induced by radiation as combination of transport and collision processes. The collision process including nuclear reactions is simulated by the three-step calculation: a generation of a reaction, pre-equilibrium, and compound processes. In the simulation, many physics models are used. This report explains roles of the models in PHITS and shows their developments we recently performed.

Journal Articles

Introduction of particle transport code PHITS and analytical model for estimating the atmospheric cosmic-ray spectra PARMA

Abe, Shinichiro; Sato, Tatsuhiko

Meson, (47), p.34 - 39, 2018/03

Some researchers actively investigate secondary cosmic-ray muon radiography for imaging of large structures, detecting nuclear matter, and so on. The simulation is one of effective methods to estimate the required time for muon radiography or to optimize detection system. In this report, we introduce particle transport code PHITS and analytical model for estimating the atmospheric cosmic-ray spectra PARMA. Benchmark results are also shown. PHITS describes intensities of terrestrial muons in the ground well. PHITS also shows good agreement with measured data for particle generations from several interactions between muon and material. These results indicate the practicability of PHITS for simulation of muon radiography. PARMA reproduces cosmic-ray spectra on several spots well. Excellent agreement is seen between the measurements and PARMA for muon fluxes with large zenith angles and high energies, which are important for muon radiography.

JAEA Reports

Background radiation monitoring using manned helicopter for establishment of technique of nuclear emergency response in the fiscal year 2016 (Contract research)

Sanada, Yukihisa; Mori, Airi; Iwai, Takeyuki; Seguchi, Eisaku; Matsunaga, Yuki*; Kawabata, Tomoki; Toyoda, Masayuki*; Tobita, Shinichiro*; Hiraga, Shogo; Sato, Yoshiharu; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2017-035, 69 Pages, 2018/02

JAEA-Technology-2017-035.pdf:32.92MB

By the nuclear disaster of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), caused by the East Japan earthquake and the following tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011, a large amount of radioactive materials was released from the NPS. After the nuclear disaster, airborne radiation monitoring using manned helicopter was conducted around FDNPS. We carried out the background monitoring around the nuclear power stations of the whole country to apply a technique of the airborne radiation monitoring that is cultivated in Fukushima as a technology of nuclear emergency response. This result of the aerial radiation monitoring using the manned helicopter around Ooi, Takahama and Ikata Nuclear Power Station and in the fiscal 2016 were summarized in the report. In addition, technical issues were described.

JAEA Reports

Radiation monitoring using manned helicopter around the Nuclear Power Station in the fiscal year 2016 (Contract research)

Sanada, Yukihisa; Mori, Airi; Iwai, Takeyuki; Seguchi, Eisaku; Matsunaga, Yuki*; Kawabata, Tomoki; Toyoda, Masayuki*; Tobita, Shinichiro*; Hiraga, Shogo; Sato, Yoshiharu; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2017-034, 117 Pages, 2018/02

JAEA-Technology-2017-034.pdf:25.18MB

By the nuclear disaster of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), caused by the East Japan earthquake and the following tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011, a large amount of radioactive materials was released from the NPS. After the nuclear disaster, airborne radiation monitoring using manned helicopter was conducted around FDNPS. This result of the aerial radiation monitoring using the manned helicopter in the fiscal 2016 were summarized in the report. In addition, we developed the discrimination technique of the Rn-progenies. The accuracy of aerial radiation monitoring was evaluated by taking into consideration GPS position error.

JAEA Reports

Cutting operation of simulated fuel assembly heating examination by AWJ

Abe, Yuta; Nakagiri, Toshio; Watatani, Satoshi*; Maruyama, Shinichiro*

JAEA-Technology 2017-023, 46 Pages, 2017/10

JAEA-Technology-2017-023.pdf:8.01MB

This is a report on Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) cutting work carried out on specimen, which was used for Simulated Fuel Assembly Heating Examination by Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS) molten core behavior analysis group in February 2016. The simulated fuel assembly is composed of Zirconia for the outer crucible/simulated fuel, stainless steel for the control blade and Zircaloy (Zr) for the cladding tube/channel box. Therefore, it is necessary to cut at once substances having a wide range of fracture toughness and hardness. Moreover, it is a large specimen with an approximate size of 300 mm. In addition, epoxy resin has high stickiness, making it more difficult to cut. Considering these effects, AWJ cutting was selected. The following two points were devised, and this specimen could be cut with AWJ. If it was not possible to cut at one time like a molten portion of boride, it was repeatedly cut. By using Abrasive Suspension Jet (ASJ) system with higher cutting ability than Abrasive Injection Jet (AIJ, conventional method) system, cutting time was shortened. As a result of this work, the cutting method in Simulated Fuel Assembly Heating Examination was established. Incidentally, in the cutting operation, when the cutting ability was lost at the tip of the AWJ, a curved cut surface, which occurs when the jet flowed away from the feeding direction, could be confirmed at the center of the test body. From the next work, to improve the cutting efficiency, we propose adding a mechanism such as turning the cutting member itself for re-cutting from the exit side of the jet and appropriate traverse speed to protect cut surface.

Journal Articles

Recent improvements of particle and heavy ion transport code system: PHITS

Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji*; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Furuta, Takuya; Abe, Shinichiro; Kai, Takeshi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Okumura, Keisuke; et al.

EPJ Web of Conferences (Internet), 153, p.06008_1 - 06008_6, 2017/09

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:14.04

Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, has been developed under the collaboration of several institutes in Japan and Europe. It can deal with the transport of nearly all particles up to 1 TeV (per nucleon for ion) using various nuclear reaction models and data libraries. More than 2,500 researchers and technicians have used the code for a variety of applications such as accelerator design, radiation shielding and protection, medical physics, and space and geosciences. This paper briefly summarizes physics models and functions newly implemented in PHITS between versions 2.52 and 2.82.

Journal Articles

Technical basis of accident tolerant fuel updated under a Japanese R&D project

Yamashita, Shinichiro; Nagase, Fumihisa; Kurata, Masaki; Nozawa, Takashi; Watanabe, Seiichi*; Kirimura, Kazuki*; Kakiuchi, Kazuo*; Kondo, Takao*; Sakamoto, Kan*; Kusagaya, Kazuyuki*; et al.

Proceedings of 2017 Water Reactor Fuel Performance Meeting (WRFPM 2017) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2017/09

In Japan, the research and development (R&D) project on accident tolerant fuel and other components (ATFs) of light water reactors (LWRs) has been initiated in 2015 for establishing technical basis of ATFs. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has coordinated and carried out this ATF R&D project in cooperation with power plant providers, fuel venders and universities for making the best use of the experiences, knowledges in commercial uses of zirconium-base alloys (Zircaloy) in LWRs. ATF candidate materials under consideration in the project are FeCrAl steel strengthened by dispersion of fine oxide particles(FeCrAl-ODS) and silicon carbide (SiC) composite, and are expecting to endure severe accident conditions in the reactor core for a longer period of time than the Zircaloy while maintaining or improving fuel performance during normal operations. In this paper, the progresses of the R&D project are reported.

Journal Articles

Improving the corrosion resistance of silicon carbide for fuel in BWR environments by using a metal coating

Ishibashi, Ryo*; Tanabe, Shigetada*; Kondo, Takao*; Yamashita, Shinichiro; Nagase, Fumihisa

Proceedings of 2017 Water Reactor Fuel Performance Meeting (WRFPM 2017) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2017/09

For improving the corrosion resistance of silicon carbide (SiC) in boiling-water-reactor environments, corrosion-resistant coatings on SiC were evaluated. Due to its hydrogen-generation rate and reaction heat being lower than those of conventional Zircaloy, SiC is expected to be an appropriate material for accident-tolerant fuels. However, there are still many critical issues with the practical application of SiC fuel cladding and fuel channel boxes, one of which is hydrothermal corrosion. Silicon carbide is chemically stable, but silicon oxide formed by oxidation of SiC dissolves in high temperature water. Although the rate of SiC dissolution is very small, the dissolution must be suppressed to comply with regulations for dissolved silica concentration in reactor coolant. In this study, the corrosion behavior of candidate coatings for SiC substrates were evaluated before and after exposure to unirradiated high-purity-water environments.

Journal Articles

The Applicability of SiC-SiC fuel cladding to conventional PWR power plant

Furumoto, Kenichiro*; Watanabe, Seiichi*; Yamamoto, Teruhisa*; Teshima, Hideyuki*; Yamashita, Shinichiro; Saito, Hiroaki; Shirasu, Noriko

Proceedings of 2017 Water Reactor Fuel Performance Meeting (WRFPM 2017) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2017/09

Since 2015, Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel (MNF) has joined in a Japanese R&D project of ATF founded by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) as a subcontractor to Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) which is the prime contractor to METI. In this program, MNF plans to evaluate an influence of Silicon Carbide (SiC) composite cladding upon fuel rod behavior in current pressurized water reactors (PWR). This paper reports the evaluation result of the applicability of fuel rod with SiC composite cladding for a conventional PWR. For the applicability evaluations of SiC composite to conventional PWR, both of analytical evaluations and out-of-pile tests for SiC composite were conducted. Analytical evaluations were performed by Mitsubishi's own fuel rod design code and the fuel rod behavior evaluation code developed by JAEA. These codes were modified to evaluate the behavior of the fuel rod with SiC composite cladding. As out-of-pile tests, thermal diffusivity measurement and autoclave corrosion test for SiC composite samples were performed. Test apparatus were developed for evaluation of performance of SiC composite under the condition simulated design basis accident (DBA).

Journal Articles

Prediction and evaluation of decontamination performance of venturi scrubber in actual environments

Horiguchi, Naoki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Uesawa, Shinichiro; Abe, Yutaka*

Dai-22-Kai Doryoku, Enerugi Gijutsu Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (USB Flash Drive), 4 Pages, 2017/06

Venturi scrubber is installed in nuclear power plant as a component of filtered venting system and used to remove small aerosols with fission products. There is, however, no method to estimate its decontamination performance in the assumed operating pressure range. In this study, we establish a method to estimate the decontamination performance based on mechanistic thermal hydrodynamic simulation code and report simulated results of the thermal hydrodynamics and decontamination performance in the pressure range in the pressure range in actual environments. With decrease in inlet pressure of the Venturi scrubber, gas flow velocity at the throat of it is suppressed, liquid flow velocity in a hole of it by self-priming changes and the decontamination factor changes were obtained. Also, with larger the aerosol diameter, the decontamination factor become larger was obtained.

Journal Articles

Features of PHITS version 2.88

Sato, Tatsuhiko; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Furuta, Takuya; Abe, Shinichiro; Kai, Takeshi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Iwase, Hiroshi*; Niita, Koji*

Hoshasen, 43(2), p.55 - 58, 2017/05

Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, has been developed under the collaboration of several institutes in Japan and Europe. It can deal with the transport of nearly all particles up to 1 TeV (per nucleon for ion) using various nuclear reaction models and data libraries. More than 2,500 registered researchers and technicians have used this system for various applications such as accelerator design, radiation shielding and protection, medical physics, and space- and geo-sciences. This paper summarizes the physics models and functions recently implemented in PHITS, between versions 2.52 and 2.88.

Journal Articles

Benchmark study of the recent version of the PHITS code

Iwamoto, Yosuke; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Furuta, Takuya; Abe, Shinichiro; Kai, Takeshi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Hosoyamada, Ryuji*; Niita, Koji*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 54(5), p.617 - 635, 2017/05

 Times Cited Count:14 Percentile:0.82(Nuclear Science & Technology)

We performed a benchmark study for 58 cases using the recent version 2.88 of the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) in the following fields: particle production cross-sections for nuclear reactions, neutron transport calculations, and electro-magnetic cascade. This paper reports details for 22 cases. In cases of nuclear reactions with energies above 100 MeV and electro-magnetic cascade, overall agreements were found to be satisfactory. On the other hand, PHITS did not reproduce the experimental data for an incident proton energy below 100 MeV, because the intranuclear cascade model INCL4.6 in PHITS is not suitable for the low-energy region. For proton incident reactions over 100 MeV, PHITS did not reproduce fission product yields due to the problem of high-energy fission process in the evaporation model GEM. To overcome these inaccuracies, we are planning to incorporate a high-energy version of the evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-4.0/HE, and so on.

Journal Articles

Implementation of muon interaction models in PHITS

Abe, Shinichiro; Sato, Tatsuhiko

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 54(1), p.101 - 110, 2017/01

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:18.09(Nuclear Science & Technology)

There are several researches for application of muons, e.g. the visualization of inner-structure of nuclear reactors by using high-energy cosmic-ray muons, nuclear transmutation of long-lived fission products (LLFPs) and nondestructive elemental analysis by using low-energy negative muon. In this study, we construct models for muon interactions (i.e., bremsstrahlung, electron-positron pair production, muon photonuclear interaction, and negative muon capture reaction) and implement them into PHITS in order to make PHITS available for investigations of muon application. The improved PHITS agrees well with experimental data not only for the vertical intensities of cosmic-ray muons in water and standard rock, but also for neutron production by muon photonuclear interaction and negative muon capture reaction. The improved PHITS can also reproduce the cross-section of radionuclide production by muons passing through a concrete wall very well. These results indicate the applicability of the improved PHITS to the shielding design of muon facilities in which estimations of attenuation length and induced radioactivity are important.

Journal Articles

Development of a control system at a 3 MeV linac in J-PARC

Sawabe, Yuki*; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Daisuke; Kato, Yuko; Suzuki, Takahiro*; Hirano, Koichiro; Takei, Hayanori; Meigo, Shinichiro; Kikuzawa, Nobuhiro; Hayashi, Naoki

Proceedings of 13th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.647 - 651, 2016/11

In the J-PARC, a 3 MeV linac has been developed for the tests of beam scraper irradiation and charge exchange by high-power laser. To accomplish tests efficiently and safely, the control system for 3 MeV was designed and developed, and this system consists of four subsystems, personal protection system, machine protection system, timing system, and remote control system using the EPICS. In this paper, the details of control system for a 3 MeV linac are presented.

180 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)