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JAEA Reports

Report of summer holiday practical training 2020; Feasibility study on nuclear battery using HTTR core; Feasibility study for nuclear design, 3

Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Mitsui, Wataru*; Yamamoto, Yudai*; Nakagawa, Kyoichi*; Ho, H. Q.; Ishii, Toshiaki; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Nagasumi, Satoru; Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Kenzhina, I.*; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2021-016, 16 Pages, 2021/09


As a summer holiday practical training 2020, the feasibility study for nuclear design of a nuclear battery using HTTR core was carried out, and the downsizing of reactor core were studied by the MVP-BURN. As a result, it is clear that a 1.6 m radius reactor core, containing 54 (18$$times$$3 layers) fuel blocks with 20% enrichment of $$^{235}$$U, and BeO neutron reflector, could operate continuously for 30 years with thermal power of 5 MW. Number of fuel blocks of this compact core is 36% of the HTTR core. As a next step, the further downsizing of core by changing materials of the fuel block will be studied.

JAEA Reports

Report of summer holiday practical training 2019; Feasibility study on nuclear battery using HTTR core; Feasibility study for nuclear design, 2

Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Nakashima, Koki*; Nakagawa, Naoki*; Ho, H. Q.; Ishii, Toshiaki; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Kenzhina, I.*; Chikhray, Y.*; Matsuura, Hideaki*; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2020-008, 16 Pages, 2020/08


As a summer holiday practical training 2019, the feasibility study for nuclear design of a nuclear battery using HTTR core was carried out, and the $$^{235}$$U enrichment and burnable poison of the fuel, which enables continuous operation for 30 years with thermal power of 5 MW, were studied by the MVP-BURN. As a result, it is clear that a fuel with $$^{235}$$U enrichment of 12%, radius of burnable poison and natural boron concentration of 1.5 cm and 2wt% are required. As a next step, the downsizing of core will be studied.

Journal Articles

A Simplified Cluster Analysis of Electron Track Structure for Estimating Complex DNA Damage Yields

Matsuya, Yusuke; Nakano, Toshiaki*; Kai, Takeshi; Shikazono, Naoya*; Akamatsu, Ken*; Yoshii, Yuji*; Sato, Tatsuhiko

International Journal of Molecular Sciences (Internet), 21(5), p.1701_1 - 1701_13, 2020/03

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:65.16(Biochemistry & Molecular Biology)

Among various DNA damage induced after irradiation, clustered damage composed of at least two vicinal lesions within from 10 to 20 base pairs is recognized as fatal damage to human tissue. Such clustered damage yields have been evaluated by means of computational approaches; however, the simulation validity has not been sufficiently made yet. Meanwhile, the experimental technique to detect clustered DNA damage has been evolved in the recent decades, so both approaches with simulation and experiment get used to be available for investigating clustered damage recently. In this study, we have developed a simple model for estimating clustered damage yield based on the spatial density of ionization and electronic excitation events obtained by the PHITS code, and compared the computational results to the experimental clustered damage coupled with base damage (BD) measured by gel electrophoresis and atomic force microscopy. The computational results agreed well with experimental fractions of clustered damage of strand breaks (SB) and BD, when the yield ratio of BD/SSB is assumed to be 1.3. From the comparison of complex DNA double-strand break coupled with BDs between simulation and experimental data, it was suggested that aggregation degree of the events along electron track reflects the complexity of DNA damage. The resent simulation enables to quantify the type of clustered damage which cannot be measured in in vitro experiment, which succeeded in interpreting the experimental detection efficiency for clustered BD.

JAEA Reports

Report of summer holiday practical training 2018; Feasibility study on nuclear battery using HTTR core; Feasibility study for nuclear design

Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Matsunaka, Kazuaki*; Ishida, Hiroki*; Ho, H. Q.; Ishii, Toshiaki; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Kenzhina, I.*; Chikhray, Y.*; Kondo, Atsushi*; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2019-008, 12 Pages, 2019/07


As a summer holiday practical training 2018, the feasibility study for nuclear design of a nuclear battery using HTTR core was carried out. As a result, it is become clear that the continuous operations for about 30 years at 2 MW, about 25 years at 3 MW, about 18 years at 4 MW, about 15 years at 5 MW are possible. As an image of thermal design, the image of the nuclear battery consisting a cooling system with natural convection and a power generation system with no moving equipment is proposed. Further feasibility study to confirm the feasibility of nuclear battery will be carried out in training of next fiscal year.

Journal Articles

Synthesis and characterization of CeO$$_{2}$$-based simulated fuel containing CsI

Takamatsu, Yuki*; Ishii, Hiroto*; Oishi, Yuji*; Muta, Hiroaki*; Yamanaka, Shinsuke*; Suzuki, Eriko; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Miwa, Shuhei; Osaka, Masahiko; Kurosaki, Ken*

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 17(3/4), p.106 - 110, 2018/12

In order to establish the synthesis method of simulated fuel contacting Cesium (Cs) which is required for the evaluation of physical/chemical characteristics in fuel and release behavior of Cs, sintering tests of the cerium dioxide (CeO$$_{2}$$) based simulated fuels containing Cesium iodide (CsI) are performed by using spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. The sintered CeO$$_{2}$$ pellets with homogeneous distribution of several micro meter of CsI spherical precipitates were successfully obtained by optimizing SPS conditions.

Journal Articles

Radioactive Cs in the severely contaminated soils near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

Kaneko, Makoto*; Iwata, Hajime; Shiotsu, Hiroyuki; Masaki, Shota*; Kawamoto, Yuji*; Yamasaki, Shinya*; Nakamatsu, Yuki*; Imoto, Jumpei*; Furuki, Genki*; Ochiai, Asumi*; et al.

Frontiers in Energy Research (Internet), 3, p.37_1 - 37_10, 2015/09

The mobility of the aggregates of submicron-sized sheet aluminosilicate in the surface environment is a key factor controlling the current Cs migration in Fukushima.

Journal Articles

Localization estimation of ionizing radiation-induced abasic sites in DNA in the solid state using fluorescence resonance energy transfer

Akamatsu, Ken; Shikazono, Naoya; Saito, Takeshi*

Radiation Research, 183(1), p.105 - 113, 2015/01

 Times Cited Count:17 Percentile:69.85(Biology)

Clustered DNA damage is considered an important factor in determining the biological consequences of ionizing radiation. We here succeeded in estimating the localization of abasic sites (APs) in DNA irradiated with ionizing radiation using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) without any involvement of repair enzyme functions. A linearized plasmid was irradiated with $$^{60}$$Co $$gamma$$-rays, the $$^{4}$$He$$^{2+}$$ beam, and the $$^{12}$$C$$^{5+}$$ beam in the solid state. A donor or acceptor fluorescent probe with a nucleophilic O-amino group was used to label APs. The results showed that the $$^{12}$$C$$^{5+}$$ beam likely produced close APs within a track. On the other hand, E values of $$^{60}$$Co $$gamma$$-rays and the $$^{4}$$He$$^{2+}$$ beam were less than those of the $$^{12}$$C$$^{5+}$$ beam, increased with increasing AP density, and were slightly greater than those of randomly distributed APs.

Journal Articles

Significance of DNA Polymerase I in ${it in vivo}$ processing of clustered DNA damage

Shikazono, Naoya; Akamatsu, Ken; Takahashi, Momoko*; Noguchi, Miho; Urushibara, Ayumi; O'Neill, P.*; Yokoya, Akinari

Mutation Research; Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 749(1-2), p.9 - 15, 2013/09

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:40.54(Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology)

We examined the biological consequences of bi-stranded clustered damage sites, consisting of a combination of DNA lesions using a bacterial plasmid-based assay. The transformation efficiencies were significantly lower for the bi-stranded clustered GAP/AP lesions than for either a single GAP or a single AP site. When the two lesions were separated by 10-20 bp, the transformation efficiencies were comparable with those of the single lesions. This recovery of transformation efficiency for separated lesions requires DNA polymerase I (Pol I) activity. Analogously, the mutation frequency was enhanced in a bi-stranded cluster containing a GAP and an 8-oxoG, and Pol I was found to play an important role in minimising mutations induced as a result of clustered lesions. These results indicate that the biological consequences of clustered DNA damage strongly depend on Pol I activity.

Journal Articles

Development of "leaky" liposome triggered by radiation applicable to a drug reservoir and a simple radiation dosimeter

Akamatsu, Ken

Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 74, p.144 - 151, 2013/04

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:29.69(Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear)

Effects of lipid compositions and the content ratios on the membrane permeability of liposome have been investigated using soft X-rays as ionizing radiation (IR) sources. Three-component liposome constituted from an unsaturated phosphatidyl choline (PC), a saturated PC, and cholesterol was selected in a series of the study. As the results, following characteristics of IR-sensitive liposome were discovered: (1) A PC with bis-allylic hydrogen is essential as a component of unsaturated PC., (2) Dilinoleoyl PC (DLOPC) is optimal as a component of unsaturated PC., (3) Either distearoyl PC (DSPC) or dipalmitoyl PC (DPPC) is optimal as a component of saturated PC., (4) Lower dose- rate makes the liposome more IR-sensitive., (5) Lower concentration of liposome makes the liposome more IR-sensitive., (6) There is a region for optimal DLOPC content ratio for the IR-sensitive liposome around 5 $$sim$$ 20 mol%., and (7) There is a region for optimal cholesterol content ratio for preparing a stable liposome around 30 $$sim$$ 60 mol%. These fundamental laws for IR-sensitive liposome will contribute to understanding of biomembrane damage by IRs and developing a new-conceptual pharmaceutical available in radiotherapies.

Journal Articles

A Methodology for estimating localization of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites in DNA using fluorescence resonance energy transfer

Akamatsu, Ken; Shikazono, Naoya

Analytical Biochemistry, 433(2), p.171 - 180, 2013/02

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:21.26(Biochemical Research Methods)

Journal Articles

My experience as a consultant for radiation risks; How do we communicate with a client worrying about radiation risks?

Akamatsu, Ken

Hoshasen Seibutsu Kenkyu, 46(2), p.87 - 92, 2011/06

"Health counseling hot line" concerning the radiation and the radiological consequence was established in the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology along with the nuclear disaster due to the East Japan great earthquake. The author and some other staffs of Japan Atomic Energy Agency were consulted by a lot of Japanese clients as a temporary risk-communicator. The concern for nuclear power and the radioactivity and the radiation has spread not only domestically but also all over the world by this disastrous. In this paper, the author discusses how we communicate with a client worrying about radiation risks based on his experiences.

Journal Articles

Grapping with problems in analytical science for radiation damage in DNA; For understanding relationship between radiation-chemical changes in DNA and subsequent biological responses

Akamatsu, Ken

Hoshasen Kagaku (Internet), (89), p.3 - 8, 2010/03

I have been considering how to clarify chemical difference in DNA damage spectrum among radiation qualities. In order to confront the problem, it should be necessary to develop new-conceptual analytical methods for damaged DNA by ionizing radiation. In this report, following to the explanation of overall background of upstream of radiation biology, brief history of the analytical chemistry with problems, a few analytical trials to discover characteristics of radiation qualities are demonstrated. The present efforts against the problems are discovering difference in strand- break termini between high- and low- LET radiation.

Journal Articles

Development of a thermal neutron-sensitive liposome for a novel drug delivery system aiming for radio-chemo-concurrent cancer therapy

Akamatsu, Ken

Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 78(12), p.1179 - 1183, 2009/12

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:48.67(Chemistry, Physical)

An ionizing radiation-sensitive liposome has been developed aiming for irradiation site-specific controlled release of an anticancer agent from liposomes accumulated at tumor. As the first step of the study, X-ray-sensitive liposome has been constructed, consisting of an unsaturated phosphatidyl choline (PC), a saturated PC, and cholesterol. The radiation sensitivity was estimated by measuring release rate of a fluorophore, calcein, through the lipid bilayer. As a result, the following characteristics of X-ray-sensitive liposomes were discovered: (1) A PC with bis-allylic hydrogen is an essential component of unsaturated PC, (2) Dilinoleoyl PC (DLOPC) is the most favorable component of unsaturated PC, (3) A lower dose rate makes the liposome more X-ray-sensitive. In this presentation, we will discuss radiation chemical mechanism of the ionizing radiation-sensitive liposome, and their pharmaceutical applications for radiation therapy such as boron neutron capture therapy.

JAEA Reports

Preliminary study on HTTR tests for development of commercial HTGRs

Goto, Minoru; Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Ueta, Shohei; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Furusawa, Takayuki; Saito, Kenji; Shimazaki, Yosuke; Nishihara, Tetsuo

JAEA-Technology 2009-053, 48 Pages, 2009/10


Preliminary studies on the HTTR (High Temperature engineering Test Reactor) tests were conducted to obtain characteristics and demonstration data which were required to develop commercial HTGRs (high temperature gas-cooled reactors). The tests proposed in this study are as follows: nuclear heat supply characteristics tests, burned core tests, reactivity insertion tests, safety demonstration tests, fuel characteristics tests, annular core tests, fuel failure tests, tritium measurement tests, and health confirmation tests of high temperature equipments. Requirements for a development of commercial HTGRs and confirmation methods of the requirements by the HTTR tests were summarized. Preliminary analyses were performed for the burned core test and the safety demonstration test to obtain prediction data, which is compared with experimental data. Additionally, a feasibility analysis was performed on four types annular cores, which is composed of the HTTR's fresh fuels, from the point of view of shutdown margin and excess reactivity.

Journal Articles

Fluorination of PMDA-ODA polyimide using hyperthermal atomic fluorine beams

Tagawa, Masahito*; Yokota, Kumiko*; Maeda, Kenichi*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Teraoka, Yuden; Akamatsu, Kensuke*; Nawafune, Hidemi*

Polyimides and Other High-Temperature Polymers; Synthesis, Characterization and Applications, Vol.5, p.249 - 259, 2009/08

Surface fluorination of PMDA-ODA polyimide has been performed by a hyperthermal F beam. The fundamental properties of the F-beam-exposed polyimide surface are reported based on the analytical results by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. It was observed that CF, CF$$_{2}$$ or CF$$_{3}$$ moieties were formed at the polyimide surfaces depending on the F beam fluences. Advancing contact angles of water can be controlled from 60 to 120 degrees by varying the F beam fluences. Surface roughness analyzed by atomic force microscopy slightly increased with atomic F beam exposures due probably to the formation of volatile products such as CF$$_{4}$$. This is confirmed by the mass change during F beam exposure by a quartz crystal microbalance.

JAEA Reports

Probabilistic safety assessment on experimental fast reactor Joyo; Level1 PSA for internal events

Ishikawa, Koki; Takamatsu, Misao; Kawahara, Hirotaka; Mihara, Takatsugu; Kurisaka, Kenichi; Terano, Toshihiro; Murakami, Takanori; Noritsugi, Akihiro; Iseki, Atsushi; Saito, Takakazu; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2009-004, 140 Pages, 2009/05


Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been applied to nuclear plants as a method to achieve effective safety regulation and safety management. In order to establish the PSA standard for fast breeder reactor (FBR), the FBR-PSA for internal events in rated power operation is studied by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The level1 PSA on the experimental fast reactor Joyo was conducted to investigate core damage probability for internal events with taking human factors effect and dependent failures into account. The result of this study shows that the core damage probability of Joyo is 5.0$$times$$10$$^{-6}$$ per reactor year (/ry) and that the core damage probability is smaller than the safety goal for existed plants (10 ry) and future plants (10$$^{-5}$$/ry) in the IAEA INSAG-12 (International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group) basic safety principle.

Journal Articles

$$alpha$$-ray irradiation of organic extractants for the separation of minor actinides by the tandem accelerator

Sugo, Yumi; Akamatsu, Ken; Hase, Yoshihiro; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Sasaki, Yuji; Hirota, Koichi; Kimura, Takaumi

JAEA-Conf 2008-012, p.127 - 129, 2009/03

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Studies of soft X-ray-induced Auger effect on the induction of DNA damage

Yokoya, Akinari; Fujii, Kentaro; Shikazono, Naoya; Akamatsu, Ken; Urushibara, Ayumi; Watanabe, Ritsuko

International Journal of Radiation Biology, 84(12), p.1069 - 1081, 2008/12

 Times Cited Count:12 Percentile:65.48(Biology)

The role of Auger effect in inducing DNA damage has been studied using soft X-ray irradiation, which mainly cause photoelectric effect of DNA constituent atoms. As a consequence of Auger decay process, ejected low energy photo- or Auger-electrons might impact on proximately chemical group in the molecule. These highly localized collision events are expected to lead to a clustered DNA damage site within a few nano-meter. We have revealed that soft X-ray ($$sim$$60 keV) induced lesions visualized by the enzymatic probes show much higher yields than those induced by low LET $$gamma$$-ray irradiation, and the yields decreased with decreasing soft X-ray energy (below a few keV). These results indicate that the complexity of damage site strongly depends on photo- or Auger electron range. The recent progress that has been made in the study of the process of DNA-radicals as precursors using an EPR apparatus combined with a synchrotron soft X-ray source is also presented.

Journal Articles

Characterization of lesions induced in linear-formed plasmid DNA by valence ionization and Auger decay at carbon, nitrogen and oxygen

Akamatsu, Ken; Fujii, Kentaro; Yokoya, Akinari

International Journal of Radiation Biology, 84(12), p.1082 - 1092, 2008/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Biology)

The aim of this study is to clarify the difference of DNA damage induced by USX from that by Co-60 $$gamma$$-rays. We have recently attended to unaltered base release, strand break terminus and base lesion, focusing on the effect of nitrogen and oxygen K-shell electron ionization. The yields of unaltered bases released were determined by HPLC. To quantify and characterize the strand break termini, the digestion rates of the irradiated DNA pretreated with or without calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase by snake venom phosphodiesterase (SVPD) were measured. This experimental method revealed that the production of the termini, which can not be digested by SVPD, were predominant in comparison with that of SVPD- digestive ones, e.g., with 3'OH, in both USX and $$gamma$$-rays. Furthermore, piperidine-treated irradiated DNA was also analyzed by the same method above to quantify piperidine-labile base lesions.

Journal Articles

DNA damage induced by the direct effect of radiation

Yokoya, Akinari; Shikazono, Naoya; Fujii, Kentaro; Urushibara, Ayumi; Akamatsu, Ken; Watanabe, Ritsuko

Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 77(10-12), p.1280 - 1285, 2008/10

 Times Cited Count:44 Percentile:94.18(Chemistry, Physical)

Ionizing radiation induces a variety of damages in cellular DNA, which is thought to be the critical target of biological effects of radiation, by both direct energy deposition on DNA (direct effect) and reactions with diffusible water radicals (indirect effect). One of the goals of our study is to clarify the nature of DNA damage induced by direct effect. The yields of single- and double-strand breaks, base lesions and clustered damage induced in a plasmid DNA were measured after exposing to various kinds of radiation (ion particles; 20 to 500 keV/ $$mu$$, photons; 0.4 keV to 1.3 MeV). Base excision repair enzymes were used to detect the oxidative base lesions. In order to obtain more detailed insights into the physicochemical mechanism of DNA damage induction, short-lived base radicals by applying an EPR spectrometer at a synchrotron ultrasoft X-ray beamline. Experimental evidences obtained by these methods will be discussed in comparison with the previous plasmid data.

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