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論文

The Influence of specimen surface roughness and temperature of steam injection on breakaway oxidation behavior of Zry-4 fuel cladding in steam at 1273 K

Negyesi, M.; 天谷 政樹

Oxidation of Metals, 94(3-4), p.283 - 299, 2020/10

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Metallurgy & Metallurgical Engineering)

Oxidation tests of Zry-4 fuel cladding in steam at 1273 K were carried out in this study. The effect of specimen surface roughness on the oxidation behavior was investigated. Steam was applied either at room temperature or at experimental temperature. Weight gain kinetics was evaluated by post-test weight measurement. Metallographic analysis was conducted using optical microscopy. Hydrogen pick-up was measured by gas extraction technique. The effect of specimen surface roughness on the oxidation kinetics as well as on the hydrogen absorption has not clearly been evidenced. The breakaway oxidation was suppressed significantly when the steam was applied at RT. The oxide breakaway was related to grain size of the base metal. Higher hydrogen absorption before the kinetic transition in the condition when steam was applied at 1273 K suggested enhanced oxide porosity.

論文

The Effect of air fraction in steam on the embrittlement of Zry-4 fuel cladding oxidized at 1273-1573 K

Negyesi, M.; 天谷 政樹

Oxidation of Metals, 92(5-6), p.439 - 455, 2019/12

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:10.24(Metallurgy & Metallurgical Engineering)

The paper deals with the effect of air fraction in steam on the embrittlement of Zry-4 fuel cladding exposed under steam-air atmospheres (air fractions of 10-100%) in the temperature range of 1273-1573 K. Ring compression tests were carried out in order to evaluate the embrittlement of fuel cladding. Furthermore, the microhardness of prior $$beta$$-phase was measured and fractured surfaces were observed under SEM. The degree of the embrittlement was discussed against the results of metallographic and hydrogen analyses. The microstructure and the hydrogen pick-up were substantially affected by nitride formation. Accelerated oxidation kinetics enhanced shrinking of the prior $$beta$$-region. The enhanced hydrogen absorption resulted in the increased microhardness of prior $$beta$$-phase. The degree of fuel cladding embrittlement, expressed by the plastic strain at failure and the maximum load, correlated well with the microhardness and the thickness of prior $$beta$$-phase.

論文

The Effect of nitride formation on the oxidation kinetics of Zry-4 fuel cladding under steam-air atmospheres at 1273-1573 K

Negyesi, M.; 天谷 政樹

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 524, p.263 - 277, 2019/10

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:33.75(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The study deals with the oxidation behavior of fuel cladding under mixed steam-air atmospheres. Oxidation tests of Zry-4 were carried out at temperatures of 1273-1573 K. Post-test weight gain measurement along with metallographic examination were conducted to study separately the kinetics of the region where nitrides formed and the nitride-free region. The weight gain coming from the nitride-free region was estimated employing one-dimensional finite difference oxygen diffusion model and measured thicknesses of the metallic part of the oxidized specimen, the columnar oxide and the oxygen stabilized $$alpha$$-Zr(O) as well as the fraction of the columnar oxide at the oxide/metal interface. Consequently, the weight gain related to the nitride formation has been assessed.

論文

Effect of experimental setting and surface roughness on oxidation behavior of Zry-4 in steam at 1273 K

Negyesi, M.; 天谷 政樹

Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2019/05

This work deals with oxidation behavior of Zry-4 fuel cladding exposed to steam at 1273 K. The condition corresponds to LOCA. The effect of the specimen surface roughness and experimental setting on the oxidation behavior was investigated by employing two experimental techniques for oxidation tests and metallographic analysis along with hydrogen pick-up measurement. Slower heating rate under steam flow led to significantly slower oxidation rate during the subsequent isothermal exposure. As a consequence, the breakaway was delayed substantially. The effect of the specimen surface roughness on the oxidation behavior seemed to be rather minor under the investigated conditions. On the other hand, hydrogen uptake was found to be substantially affected by both the specimen surface roughness and the tested experimental setting.

論文

OECD/NEA benchmark on pellet-clad mechanical interaction modelling with fuel performance codes; Impact of number of radial pellet cracks and pellet-clad friction coefficient

Dost$'a$l, M.*; Rossiter, G.*; Dethioux, A.*; Zhang, J.*; 天谷 政樹; Rozzia, D.*; Williamson, R.*; Kozlowski, T.*; Hill, I.*; Martin, J.-F.*

Proceedings of Annual Topical Meeting on Reactor Fuel Performance (TopFuel 2018) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2018/10

The benchmark on PCMI was initiated by OECD/NEA Expert Group on Reactor Fuel Performance (EGRFP) in June 2015 and is currently in the latter stages of compiling results and preparing the final report. The aim of the benchmark is to improve understanding and modelling of PCMI amongst NEA member organisations. This is being achieved by comparing PCMI predictions of different fuel performance codes for a number of cases. Two of these cases are hypothetical cases aiming to facilitate understanding of the effects of code-to-code differences in fuel performance models. The two remaining cases are actual irradiations, where code predictions are compared with measured data. During analysis of participants' results of the hypothetical cases, the assumptions for number of radial pellet cracks and the pellet-clad friction coefficient (which can be zero, finite or infinite) were identified to be important factors in explaining differences between predictions once pellet-cladding contact occurs. However, these parameters varied in the models and codes used originally by the participants. This fact led to the extension of the benchmark by inclusion of two additional cases, where the number of radial pellet cracks and three different values of the friction coefficient were prescribed in the case definition. Seven calculations from six organisations contributed results were compared and analysed in this paper.

論文

The Influence of the air fraction in steam on the growth of the columnar oxide and the adjacent $$alpha$$-Zr(O) layer on Zry-4 fuel cladding at 1273 and 1473 K

Negyesi, M.; 天谷 政樹

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 114, p.52 - 65, 2018/04

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:49.78(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The growth kinetics of the columnar oxide and $$alpha$$-Zr(O) layers of Zry-4 under mixed steam-air conditions at temperatures of 1273 and 1473 K were investigated in this study be means of post-test metallographic measurements. The hydrogen uptake was also determined by the inert gas fusion technique. The kinetics of the columnar oxide layer obeyed a parabolic law for all air fractions at both temperatures. The kinetics of $$alpha$$-Zr(O) layer appeared to deviate slightly from the parabolic law. The parabolic oxidation rate constant of the columnar oxide increased with increasing air fraction, whereas the parabolic oxidation rate constant of $$alpha$$-Zr(O) layer seemed to be independent of the air fraction. Mixed steam-air conditions appeared to enhance hydrogen absorption substantially, especially after the columnar oxide lost its protectiveness.

論文

Oxidation kinetics of Zry-4 fuel cladding in mixed steam-air atmospheres at temperatures of 1273 - 1473 K

Negyesi, M.; 天谷 政樹

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 54(10), p.1143 - 1155, 2017/10

 被引用回数:6 パーセンタイル:60.4(Nuclear Science & Technology)

This paper deals with the oxidation behavior of Zry-4 nuclear fuel cladding tubes in mixed steam_air atmospheres at temperatures of 1273 and 1473 K. The main goal is to study the oxidation kinetics of Zry-4 fuel cladding in dependence on the air fraction in steam in the range from 0 up to 100%. The purpose of this study is to provide experimental data suitable for an oxidation correlation applicable for thermomechanical analysis codes of nuclear power reactor under severe accidents. The influence of the air addition in steam on parameters of Zry-4 kinetic equation has been quantified using the results of weight gain measurements. At 1273 K, both pre-transient and post-transient regimes were treated. The results of weight gain measurements showed a strong dependence of the Zry-4 oxidation kinetics on the air fraction in steam, especially at 1473 and at 1273 K in the post-transient regime.

論文

High temperature oxidation of Zry-4 in oxygen-nitrogen atmospheres

Negyesi, M.; 天谷 政樹

Proceedings of 25th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-25) (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2017/07

Zry-4 fuel cladding tubes were exposed in mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen at temperatures of 800-1380 $$^{circ}$$C. The influence of various flow rates of oxygen and nitrogen as well as specimen height on the weight gain was examined. The overall weight gain was substantially affected by both the applied flow rates and the height of specimens. The oxidation kinetics in air was assessed based on the results of weight gain measurements. A transition in the kinetics was observed at 800 and 1000 $$^{circ}$$C. The kinetics in the post-transient regimes was rather accelerated than linear. The equation proposed in this study for air condition was in good agreement with the Leistikow-Berg correlation and the Baker-Just correlation. Prior $$beta$$-phase shrinked when the oxide scale along with the $$alpha$$-Zr(O) layer progressed. Eventually, both the specimen plastic strain and maximum load decreased due to the shrinkage and increasing embrittlement of the prior $$beta$$-phase.

論文

Oxidation behavior of Zry-4 in steam-air mixtures at high temperature

Negyesi, M.; 天谷 政樹

Proceedings of Annual Topical Meeting on LWR Fuels with Enhanced Safety and Performance (TopFuel 2016) (USB Flash Drive), p.1065 - 1074, 2016/09

This study dealt with oxidation behavior of Zry-4 nuclear fuel cladding under a severe nuclear reactor accident scenario. Influence of the reaction extent on cladding mechanical properties was also treated. Zry-4 fuel cladding segments were exposed to steam atmosphere containing different amount of air in composition ranging from 0 to 100 vol.%. Exposure times covered both pre- and post-breakaway regimes. Metallographic observations along with microhardness testing were carried out to study the effect of air fraction on the material microstructure. Hydrogen pick-up was measured and residual mechanical properties were assessed employing Ring Compression Tests. The results show that the addition of air in steam can lead to more than 300% increase of weight gain in case of $$sim$$ 50% or higher air fraction after the exposure of 60 min., namely, "late post-breakaway regime". Approximately three times thicker oxide scales were observed in such cases, indicating that most of the weight gain was due to the oxide layer increase. Nitride phase was preferentially observed close to the interface between oxide and metal layers. The $$alpha$$-Zr(O) sublayer thickness decreases with the increasing fraction of air in steam. Microhardness, measured within the prior $$beta$$-phase region, slightly depends on the air fraction. Hydrogen uptake, on the other hand, depends strongly on the air fraction in steam. In the case of shorter exposure times, the effect of air addition in steam was suppressed. Eventually, specimen plastic strains drastically reduced in the late post-breakaway regime.

論文

Heat capacity measurements on unirradiated and irradiated fuel pellets

天谷 政樹*; 宇根 勝巳*; 湊 和生

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 294(1-2), p.1 - 7, 2001/04

 被引用回数:12 パーセンタイル:65.88(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

未照射及び照射済UO$$_{2}$$ペレット試料の比熱容量を測定した。ペレットの高温比熱容量データは、定常運転時の燃料温度変化や事故時の燃料温度評価を行ううえで、不可欠な物性値の一つである。本測定技術により未照射アルミナ及び未照射UO$$_{2}$$試料の比熱容量を測定し、文献値と比較した結果、測定精確度は約5%と見積もられた。JRR-3M炉で焼度約40GWd/tまで照射した微小UO$$_{2}$$試料の比熱容量について測定を行った結果、2回目以降の測定値は、模擬FP添加ペレットの値とほぼ一致した。

論文

Thermal conductivities of irradiated UO$$_{2}$$ and (U,Gd)O$$_{2}$$

湊 和生; 白鳥 徹雄; 芹澤 弘幸; 林 君夫; 宇根 勝巳*; 野北 和宏*; 平井 睦*; 天谷 政樹*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 288(1), p.57 - 65, 2001/01

 被引用回数:21 パーセンタイル:81.04(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

照射した燃料の熱伝導率は、燃料温度に直接かかわる物性であり、重要である。円盤状のUO$$_{2}$$及びUO$$_{2}$$-10wt%Gd$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$試料を作製し、約4%FIMAまで照射した後、レーザフラッシュ法により熱拡散率を測定した。照射済み試料の熱伝導率は、未照射試料に比べて減少したが、約1800Kまで熱拡散率を測定した後の試料では、点欠陥の回復により、熱伝導率の一部回復が認められた。照射中の温度の急上昇において1273K以上を経験した試料では、熱伝導率の一部回復の幅が小さかった。これは、熱伝導率の減少に寄与している照射による点欠陥が、高温で照射中に回復したためであることを明らかにした。

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