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Journal Articles

Improvement of the position monitor using white light interferometer for measuring precise movement of compact ERL superconducting cavities in cryomodule

Sakai, Hiroshi*; Enami, Kazuhiro*; Furuya, Takaaki*; Sato, Masato*; Shinoe, Kenji*; Umemori, Kensei*; Sawamura, Masaru; Cenni, E.*; Aoto, Tomohiro*; Hayashi, Kyohei*; et al.

Proceedings of 5th International Particle Accelerator Conference (IPAC '14) (Internet), p.1787 - 1789, 2014/07

Alignment of superconducting cavities is one of the important issues for linear collider and/or future light source like ERL and X-FEL. To measure the cavity displacement under cooling to liquid He temperature more precisely, we newly developed the position monitor based on the measurement of the interference of light between the measurement target and the reference point. We applied this monitor to the main linac cryomodule of Compact ERL (cERL) and successfully measured the displacement during 2 K cooling with the resolution of 10 $$mu$$m.

Journal Articles

Precise measurement of superconducting cavity movement in cryomodule by the position monitor using white light interferometer

Sakai, Hiroshi*; Aoto, Tomohiro*; Enami, Kazuhiro*; Furuya, Takaaki*; Sato, Masato*; Shinoe, Kenji*; Umemori, Kensei*; Sawamura, Masaru; Cenni, E.*; Hayashi, Kyohei*; et al.

Proceedings of 16th International Conference on RF Superconductivity (SRF 2013) (Internet), p.291 - 296, 2014/02

Alignment of superconducting cavities is one of the important issues for linear collider and/or future light source like ERL and X-FEL. To measure the cavity displacement under cooling to liquid He temperature more precisely, we newly developed the position monitor by using white light interferometer. This monitor is based on the measurement of the interference of light between the measurement target and the reference point. It can measure the position from the outside of the cryomodule. We applied this monitor to the main linac cryomodule of Compact ERL (cERL) and successfully measured the displacement during 2 K cooling with the resolution of 10 $$mu$$m.

Journal Articles

Recent progress in the energy recovery linac project in Japan

Sakanaka, Shogo*; Akemoto, Mitsuo*; Aoto, Tomohiro*; Arakawa, Dai*; Asaoka, Seiji*; Enomoto, Atsushi*; Fukuda, Shigeki*; Furukawa, Kazuro*; Furuya, Takaaki*; Haga, Kaiichi*; et al.

Proceedings of 1st International Particle Accelerator Conference (IPAC '10) (Internet), p.2338 - 2340, 2010/05

Future synchrotron light source using a 5-GeV energy recovery linac (ERL) is under proposal by our Japanese collaboration team, and we are conducting R&D efforts for that. We are developing high-brightness DC photocathode guns, two types of cryomodules for both injector and main superconducting (SC) linacs, and 1.3 GHz high CW-power RF sources. We are also constructing the Compact ERL (cERL) for demonstrating the recirculation of low-emittance, high-current beams using above-mentioned critical technologies.

Journal Articles

Oxidation behaviour of P122 and a 9Cr-2W ODS steel at 550$$^{circ}$$C in oxygen-containing flowing lead-bismuth eutectic

Schroer, C.*; Konys, J.*; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Aoto, Kazumi

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 398(1-3), p.109 - 115, 2010/03

 Times Cited Count:45 Percentile:95.32(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The long-term performance of P122 and ODS steel was tested in oxygen-containing flowing lead-bismuth eutectic at 550 $$^{circ}$$C and a flow velocity of 2 m/s by means of exposure experiments in the CORRIDA loop of FZK. The target for the enrichment of dissolved oxygen was a concentration, c$$_{o}$$, of 10$$^{-6}$$mass%. Owing to initial problems in controlling c$$_{o}$$, some of the exposed specimens experienced varying conditions, which allowed for investigating the influence of temporarily low c$$_{o}$$ (down to 10$$^{-9}$$mass%), in addition to constantly high c$$_{o}$$ (averaging 1.6$$times$$10$$^{-6}$$mass%). Maximum exposure times at constantly high c$$_{o}$$ were 10,000 and 20,000 h for P122 and the ODS steel, respectively. Under the testing conditions, both steels were affected by moderate oxidation resulting in the formation of a compact layer of a spinel-type oxide on the surface and a more or less pronounced internal oxidation zone. The thickness of the oxide scale was quantified and used for determining the material loss. For c$$_{o}$$ = 10$$^{-6}$$mass%, logarithmic and power rate laws were fitted to the obtained data as a basis for predicting the metal recession at times exceeding the experimental exposure times.

Journal Articles

Corrosion behavior of Al-alloying high Cr-ODS steels in lead-bismuth eutectic

Takaya, Shigeru; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Aoto, Kazumi; M$"u$ller, G.*; Weisenburger, A.*; Heinzel, A.*; Inoue, Masaki; Okuda, Takanari*; Abe, Fujio*; Onuki, Somei*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 386-388, p.507 - 510, 2009/04

 Times Cited Count:44 Percentile:95.19(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The corrosion resistance of ODS steels with 0$$sim$$3.5 wt% Al and 13.7$$sim$$17.3 wt% Cr and of a 12Cr steel were examined. The experiments were conducted at 550 and 650 $$^{circ}$$C up to 3,000 h in stagnant LBE containing 10$$^{-6}$$ and 10$$^{-8} $$wt% oxygen for the ODS steels and at 550 $$^{circ}$$C up to 5,000 h in stagnant LBE containing 10$$^{-8}$$ wt% oxygen for the 12Cr steel, respectively. Protective Al oxide scales were formed on the surfaces of ODS steels with about 3.5 wt% Al and 13.7$$sim$$17.3 wt% Cr. The addition of Al is very effective to improve the corrosion resistance of ODS steels. The ODS steel with 16 wt% Cr and no Al does not show any corrosion resistance except for the specimen exposed to LBE with 10$$^{-6}$$ wt% oxygen at 650 $$^{circ}$$C. It is not expected to improve the corrosion resistance by increasing solely Cr content.

Journal Articles

Corrosion behavior of high chromium alloys in flowing LBE at 550$$^{circ}$$C under active oxygen control

Furukawa, Tomohiro; Konys, J.*; M$"u$ller, G.*; Aoto, Kazumi

Namari Bisumasu Riyo Gijutsu Handobukku (CD-ROM), 21 Pages, 2007/03

A key problem in the development of heavy liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors is corrosion of structural and fuel cladding materials with the coolants, lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). The present study covers corrosion test on high chromium alloys (P122 steel and ODS steel), performed in flowing LBE at 550$$^{circ}$$C for 800, 2,000 and 5,000h under active oxygen control.

JAEA Reports

Research work for utilizing technology of the lead-bismuth eutectic, 2; Research on corrosion resistance of ODS-Al steels in high temperature lead-bismuth eutectic under oxygen concentration control (Joint research)

Furukawa, Tomohiro; Nishi, Yoshihisa*; Aoto, Kazumi; Kinoshita, Izumi*

JAEA-Research 2006-037, 36 Pages, 2006/06

JAEA-Research-2006-037.pdf:11.89MB

In 2002, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (past organization name: Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute) was made a contract with the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry on the research work for utilizing technology of the lead bismuth eutectic. In the contract, research on corrosion of FBR materials in high temperature lead bismuth eutectic was performed. This work was composed of two stages. In the first stage, corrosion test of high chromium martensitic steel, which was one candidate material for structures of advanced fast reactor, was performed in oxygen controlled lead bismuth eutectic at 923K. Effect of chromium on corrosion in the lead bismuth eutectic was estimated. In this second research, corrosion test of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels whose chemical compositions of chromium and aluminum were differed has been performed in the lead bismuth eutectic for up to 4,000 hours. As the results, although chromium effect on corrosion has not been observed, good corrosion resistance by aluminum oxide formation on the surface has been obtained.

JAEA Reports

Study on Pb-Bi Corrosion of Structural and Fuel Cladding Materials for Nuclear Applications (2) -Part I. Stability of Oxide Layer Formed on High-Chromium Steels in LBE under Oxygen Content and Temperature Fluctuation-

M$"u$ller, G.*; Schumacher, G.*; Heinzel, A.*; Weisenburger, A.*; Zimmermann, F.*; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Aoto, Kazumi

JNC TY9400 2005-021, 33 Pages, 2005/08

JNC-TY9400-2005-021.pdf:2.69MB

The behaviour of protective oxide layers on P122 and its welds and of ODS steel is examined under conditions of fluctuating temperatures and oxygen concentrations to simulate hot spot and loss of oxygen control. P122 steel (12Cr) and its welded joints are exposed to LBE at 550$$^{circ}$$C for 4000h with oxygen concentrations changing between 10$$^{-6}$$ and 10$$^{-8}$$wt% every 800h. It is found that like in case of constant oxygen concentration of 10$$^{-6}$$wt% a protective spinel layer was maintained on P122 and also on its welded joint. Experiments with fluctuating temperatures from 550$$^{circ}$$C to 650$$^{circ}$$C and back every 800h yield satisfying corrosion protection up to 4800h only for the GESA treated ODS steel in LBE with 10$$^{-6}$$wt%. Original ODS steel in LBE with 10$$^{-6}$$ and 10$$^{-8}$$wt% oxygen showed local strong dissolution attack after 4800h in agreement with the behaviour of ODS in LBE with a constant temperature of 650$$^{circ}$$C. GESA treated ODS steel does not form stable protective alumina layers under condition of fluctuating temperatures in LBE with 10$$^{-8}$$wt% oxygen.

JAEA Reports

Study on Pb-Bi Corrosion of Structural and Fuel Cladding Materials for Nuclear Applications; Part VI. Results of Exposure Experiments in Oxygen Containing Flowing LBE at 550$$^{circ}$$C for 10,000h

Schroer, C.*; Voss, Z.*; Wedemeyer, O.*; Novotny, J.*; Konys, J.*; Heinzel, A.*; Weisenburger, A.*; M$"u$ller, G.*; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Aoto, Kazumi

JNC TY9400 2005-020, 45 Pages, 2005/08

JNC-TY9400-2005-020.pdf:5.26MB

This report summarises the results of exposure experiments on the behaviour of 12Cr-2W steel P122 and an 9Cr-2W ODS-steel in oxygen-containing flowing lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) at 550$$^{circ}$$C, which were performed in the CORRIDA loop at the Karlsruhe Lead Laboratory (KALLA) as part of the collaboration between the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute and the Karlsruhe Research Centre. The duration of these experiments was nominally 800, 2000, 5000 and 10,000 h. Both steels were tested after surface-finishing by turning and after surface alloying with aluminium in the GESA-facility. Owing to initial problems with the enrichment of oxygen in the flowing LBE, the oxygen content considerably varied during most of these experiments, so that the influence of temporary changes in the oxygen content of the LBE could also be investigated. The behaviour of P122 and ODS at permanently high oxygen content was deduced from an experiment for 4990 h at 550$$^{circ}$$C and (c$$_{O}$$ $$approx$$ 5$$times$$10$$^{-7}$$ mass-% or a$$_{PbO}$$ $$approx$$ 10$$^{-3}$$). The results are compared with the findings of exposures to stagnant LBE at 550$$^{circ}$$C and c$$_{O}$$=10$$^{-6}$$ mass-% (COSTA-experiments).

JAEA Reports

Study on Pb-Bi Corrosion of Structural and Fuel Cladding Materials for Nuclear Applications (2); Part II. Exposure of Weld P122 in Oxygen Containing Flowing LBE at 550$$^{circ}$$C for 5,000h

Schroer, C.*; Voss, Z.*; Wedemeyer, O.*; Novotny, J.*; Konys, J.*; Heinzel, A.*; Weisenburger, A.*; M$"u$ller, G.*; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Aoto, Kazumi

JNC TY9400 2005-019, 26 Pages, 2005/08

JNC-TY9400-2005-019.pdf:5.04MB

This report summarises the results of exposure experiments on the behaviour of 12Cr-2W steel P122 joined by multi-run TIG welding in oxygen-containing flowing lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) at 550$$^{circ}$$C for nominally 800, 2000 and 5000 h. The flow velocity of the LBE and the mean oxygen content were 2 m/s and 5$$times$$10-7 mass-% (aPbO = 10-3), respectively. The influence of surface-alloying with aluminium (GESA-treatment) was also investigated in an exposure experiment for nominally 5000 h. The behaviour of the welded joint is generally comparable to that of P122 (after the standard heat-treatment), both qualitatively and quantitatively. Only few exceptions were observed which probably result from local peculiarities of the specific sample material. After surface alloying with aluminium, no significant oxidation and no liquid metal corrosion occurred in the centre of the specimens (including the weld seam), where the desired high quality of the aluminised layer was achieved.

Journal Articles

Stability of oxide layer formed on high-chromium steel in LBE under oxygen content and temperature fluctuation

Weisenburger, A.*; Aoto, Kazumi; M$"u$ller, G.*; Heinzel, A.*; Furukawa, Tomohiro

Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-13) (CD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2005/06

The behaviour of protective oxide layers on P122 and its welds and of ODS steel in LBE is examined under conditions of changing temperatures and oxygen concentrations. P122 teel ($$^{12}$$Cr) and its welded joints are exposed to LBE at 550 $$^{circ}$$C for 4.000 h with oxygen concentrations of 10$$^{-6}$$ and 10$$^{-8} $$wt% which change every 800 h. It is found that like in case f constant oxygen concentration of 10$$^{-6}$$ wt% a protective spinel layer was maintained on P122 and also on its welded joint. Two experiments are conducted on ODS steel, both with temperatures changing from 550 to 650 $$^{circ}$$C and back every 800 h, one experiment with 10$$^{-6}$$ the other with 10$$^{-8}$$ wt% oxygen in LBE. Like in the former test with constant emperature at 550 $$^{circ}$$C no dissolution attack could be observed in experiments with temperature fluctuation. Contrary to this results is the observed dissolution attack on ODS with a onstant temperature of 650 $$^{circ}$$C at 10$$^{-6}$$ wt% oxygen in which formation of a protective layer was not allowed before reaching 650 $$^{circ}$$C LBE temperature.

Journal Articles

Corrosion behavior of high chromium steels in flowing lead-bismuth at 823K underactive oxygen control

Furukawa, Tomohiro; Konys, J.*; M$"u$ller, G.*; Aoto, Kazumi

Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-13), 0 Pages, 2005/05

Two kind of high chromium martensitic steels named as 12Cr-steel and ODS-M, proposed for use in fast breeder reactors were subjected to corrosion tests in flowing lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) under active oxygen control at 823 K for up to 5,000 hours. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in LBE was controlled by H2/H2O mixture gas bubbling into LBE to keep at 10-6 wt%. However, the oxygen concentration was degreased with increasing of operation time, and temporarily reached below the value necessary for magnetite formation. Then, after 3,300 hours of effective operation time, oxygen concentration was controlled near the target value by periodically adding argon and mixtures of argon and technical air to the H2/H2O mixture gas stream through the oxygen control system. Both steels exposed in LBE under the condition showed approximately the same corrosion behavior. Double-layer structure composed of Fe-Cr spinel and diffusion zone were observed on the surface of the steels exposed for up to 2,000 hours. After 5,000 hours of exposure, it changed to single-structure composed of Fe-Cr spinel. Results of thickness measurement of the oxide layers, the total thickness of oxidized zone was approximately constant during test periods from 800 hours to 5,000 hours. It meant that the steels showed good corrosion resistance under this tested condition. In addition, both erosion and dissolution attack called as liquid metal corrosion were not observed on the all tested specimens.

JAEA Reports

Solubility of Major Elements of Steel into Lead-Bismuth Alloy

Sano, Hiroyuki*; Fujisawa, Toshiharu*; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Aoto, Kazumi

JNC TY9400 2005-007, 27 Pages, 2005/03

JNC-TY9400-2005-007.pdf:1.05MB

Lead-Bismuth eutectic alloy (LBE) has been considered as a prospective coolant for a fast-breeder reactor, but a corrosion of cooling pipe is anticipated when it is used. In the previous study, the solubility of major metallic elements, such as Fe, Cr and Ni, into LBE was measured under extra low oxygen potential. The interactive effect of those elements on the solubility was also examined. However, it is thought that an oxide layer is formed on the surface of the cooling pipe and influences on the corrosion of the pipe. In this year, the measurement of the solubility of major elements of steel into lead-bismuth alloy through Fe-Cr complex oxide was started. In addition, the thermodynamics of the Pb-Bi-O system at 800 K was investigated and the phase diagram of the system was determined. From the above results, the stability diagram of the Pb-Bi-O system was established.

Journal Articles

High temperature behavior of Na-Fe oxides in H$$_{2}$$O+CO$$_{2}$$ atmosphere

Huang, J.; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Aoto, Kazumi

Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 66(2-4), p.388 - 391, 2005/02

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:7.54(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

None

JAEA Reports

Feasibility Study on Commercialization of Fast Breeder Reactor Cycle Systems Interim Report of Phase II; Technical Study Report for Reactor Plant Systems

Konomura, Mamoru; Ogawa, Takashi; Okano, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Tsutomu; Takaki, Naoyuki; Nishiguchi, Youhei; Sugino, Kazuteru; Naganuma, Masayuki; Hishida, Masahiko; et al.

JNC TN9400 2004-035, 2071 Pages, 2004/06

JNC-TN9400-2004-035.pdf:76.42MB

The attractive concepts for Sodium-, lead-bismuth-, helium- and water-cooled FBRs have been created through using typical plant features and employing advanced technologies. Efforts on evaluating technological prospects of feasibility have been paid for these concepts. Also, it was comfirmed if these concepts satisfy design requierments of capability and performance presumed in the feasibilty study on commertialization of Fast Breeder Reactor Systems. As results, it was concluded that the selection of sodium-cooled reactor was most rational for practical use of FBR technologies in 2015.

JAEA Reports

Study on Pb-Bi Corrosion of Structural and Fuel Cladding Materials for Nuclear Applications; Part V. Results of Exposure Experiments in Oxygen Containing Flowing LBE at 550$$^{circ}$$C for 800 and 2000h

Schroer, G.*; Voss, V.*; Wedemeyer, O.*; Novotny, J.*; Konys, J.*; Heinzel, A.*; Weisenburger, A.*; M$"u$ller, G.*; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Aoto, Kazumi

JNC TY9400 2004-023, 37 Pages, 2004/05

JNC-TY9400-2004-023.pdf:12.34MB

JAEA Reports

Study on solubility properties in oxygen controlled lead bismuth eutectic; Analysis and potential measurements of dissolved oxygen in liquid LBE (JFY2003 joint research report)

Oishi, Toshio*; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Aoto, Kazumi

JNC TY9400 2004-021, 37 Pages, 2004/03

JNC-TY9400-2004-021.pdf:1.88MB

In order to obtain the solubilities of the steel elements (Fe, Cr, Ni etc.) and Gasses (O$$_{2}$$, C etc.) in high temperature lead-bismuth eutectic, the research for the establishment of measurement techniques of oxygen analysis and oxygen partial pressure has been performed.

JAEA Reports

Solubility of metallic elements in LBE under extra low oxygen potential (JFY2003 joint research report)

Sano, Hiroyuki*; Fujisawa, Toshiharu*; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Aoto, Kazumi

JNC TY9400 2004-015, 55 Pages, 2004/03

JNC-TY9400-2004-015.pdf:1.45MB

In this study, solubility of major metallic elements in LBE was measured under extra low oxygen potential.

JAEA Reports

Study on Pb-Bi Corrosion of Structural and Fuel Cladding Materials for Nuclear Applications, 4; Corrosion investigation of steels at 550 and 650$$^{circ}$$C after 800, 2,000 and 5,000 h of exposure to stagnant liquid Pb-Bi containing 10$$^{-4}$$ and 10$$^{-8}$$ wt% of oxygen

Muller, G.*; Schumacher, G.*; Weisenburger, A.*; Heinzel, A.*; Zimmermann, F.*; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Aoto, Kazumi

JNC TY9400 2003-028, 48 Pages, 2004/01

JNC-TY9400-2003-028.pdf:4.51MB

This is the fourth report on the compatibility of structural and fuel cladding materials that has to be investigated for a possible advanced heavy metal cooled reactor system. The first three reports considered the behavior of 316FR, P122 and ODS steels during 800, 2,000, 5,000 and 10,000 h in stagnant LBE between 500 and 650 degrees centigrade containing 10 sup-6 wt% of oxygen. This report describes experiments of 800, 2,000 and 5,000 h duration in liquid Pb-Bi containing 10 sup-4 and 10 sup-8 wt% of oxygen for 316FR, P122 and ODS steels at 550 and 650 degrees centigrade. 1. No significant dissolution attack occurred on 316FR and P122 steels at 550 degrees centigrade with 10 sup-4 wt% oxygen in LBE. They have Protective oxide layers at the surface, like in the experiments with 10 sup-6 wt% oxygen. At the high oxygen concentration (10 sup-4 wt%) thick oxide multilayers develop on 316FR instead of thin spinel layers at 10 sup-6 wt%, in both experiments LBE is enclosed in the oxide layer. With 10 sup-8 at% oxygen in LBE, however, there is no protective scale formation but strong dissolution attack (up to 120 um) occurs at the 316FR specimen.At the P122 only very little dissolution attack ($$<$$2um) is observed at the surface.

JAEA Reports

Research Work for Utilizing Technology of the Lead-Bismuth Eutectic; Research on the corrosion resistance of 12 chrome steels in high temperature lead-bismuth eutectic under oxygen concentration control

Nishi, Yoshihisa*; Kinoshita, Izumi*; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Aoto, Kazumi

JNC TY9400 2003-027, 19 Pages, 2004/01

JNC-TY9400-2003-027.pdf:2.08MB

Research Work for Utilizing Technology of the Lead-Bismuth Eutectic - Research on the corrosion resistance of 12 chrome steels in high temperature lead-bismuth eutectic under oxygen concentration control -

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