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Journal Articles

A Measurement method of long-term mechanical stability of support and rock mass after the excavation of galleries; Case study in Horonobe Underground Research Center

Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Sakurai, Akitaka; Miyara, Nobukatsu; Sugita, Yutaka; Tanai, Kenji

Shigen, Sozai Koenshu (Internet), 6(2), 7 Pages, 2019/09

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project; Investigation program for the 2019 fiscal year

Aoyagi, Kazuhei

JAEA-Review 2019-008, 20 Pages, 2019/07

JAEA-Review-2019-008.pdf:3.33MB

As part of the research and development program on the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the Horonobe Underground Research Center, a division of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), is implementing the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project (Horonobe URL Project) with the aim at investigating sedimentary rock formations. According to the research plan described in the 3rd Mid- and Long- term Plan of JAEA, "Near-field performance study", "Demonstration of repository design option", and "Verification of crustal-movement buffering capacity of sedimentary rocks" are the top priority issues of the Horonobe URL Project, and schedule of future research and backfill plans of the project will be decided by the end of 2019 Fiscal Year. The Horonobe URL Project is planned to extend over a period of about 20 years. The investigations will be conducted in three phases, namely "Phase 1: Surface-based investigations", "Phase 2: Construction phase" (investigations during construction of the underground facilities) and "Phase 3: Operation phase" (research in the underground facilities). This report summarizes the investigation program for the 2019 fiscal year (2019/2020). In the 2019 fiscal year, investigations in "geoscientific research", including "development of techniques for investigating the geological environment", "development of engineering techniques for use in the deep underground environment" and "studies on the long-term stability of the geological environment", are continuously carried out. Investigations in "research and development on geological disposal technology", including "improving the reliability of disposal technologies" and "enhancement of safety assessment methodologies", are also continuously carried out.

Journal Articles

Coupled THMC analysis for predicting hydro-mechanical evolution in siliceous mudstone

Ogata, Sho*; Yasuhara, Hideaki*; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Kishida, Kiyoshi*

Proceedings of 53rd US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium (USB Flash Drive), 6 Pages, 2019/06

Journal Articles

Fracture characterization and rock mass behavior induced by blasting and mechanical excavation of shafts in Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Tokiwa, Tetsuya*; Sato, Toshinori; Hayano, Akira

Proceedings of 2019 Rock Dynamics Summit in Okinawa (USB Flash Drive), p.682 - 687, 2019/05

In high-level radioactive disposal projects, it is important to investigate the extent of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) for safety assessment because EDZ can provide a migration pathway for radionuclides from the facility. To investigate the quantitative differences between EDZs formed because of blasting and mechanical excavation, we studied the characteristics of fractures induced by excavation based on fracture mapping performed during shaft sinking (V- and E-Shafts). As a result, it was found that blasting excavation can lead to the formation of a large number of newly created fractures (EDZ fractures) compared with mechanical excavation. In addition, the seismic velocity (P-wave velocity) measured during blasting excavation (E-Shaft) was lower than that measured during mechanical excavation (V-Shaft). Furthermore, we found that the support pattern that reinforces forward rocks to be appropriate for limiting damage to the shaft wall.

Journal Articles

The Dynamic response of Horonobe Underground Research Center during the 2018 June 20 earthquake

Sato, Toshinori; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Miyara, Nobukatsu; Aydan, $"O$mer*; Tomiyama, Jun*; Morita, Tatsuri*

Proceedings of 2019 Rock Dynamics Summit in Okinawa (USB Flash Drive), p.640 - 645, 2019/05

An earthquake with a moment magnitude of 4 occurred in June 20, 2018, which is also named as the 2018 June 20 Soya Region earth-quake. The strong motions induced by this earthquake were recorded by the accelerometers installed in the Horonobe URL as well as the Kik-Net and K-Net strong motions networks operated by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention of Japan. The authors explain the results of the analyses carried out on the ground amplification and frequency characteristics of the acceleration records at the Horonobe URL and those of the Kik-net strong motion station and the structural effect of the URL on the ground amplification and frequency characteristics. Furthermore, the authors discuss the implications of the results obtained from this study in practice and the safety of the nuclear waste disposal at depth.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of the excavation disturbed zone of sedimentary rock in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Kubota, Kenji*; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Sugita, Yutaka

Proceedings of 2019 Rock Dynamics Summit in Okinawa (USB Flash Drive), p.729 - 733, 2019/05

During the excavation of shafts and galleries in the deep subsurface for disposing of high-level radioactive waste, an excavation disturbed zone (EdZ) or excavation damaged zone (EDZ) is developed around the shafts and galleries. Such zones could influence the transfer behavior of radioactive nuclides, and it is therefore important to understand the behavior of the EdZ or EDZ. We performed in situ experiments before, during, and after gallery excavation in galleries of 140 and 250 m in depth in an area of soft sedimentary rock in Japan. The results demonstrate that the extent of fractures induced by the gallery excavation related with EDZ was confined to about 0.45 m from the gallery wall in the 140 m gallery and to about 1 m from the gallery wall in the 250 m gallery. The extent of the unsaturated zone related with EdZ was about 1 m in the 140 m gallery, but an unsaturated zone did not appear in the 250 m gallery.

Journal Articles

A Method for estimating the highest potential hydraulic conductivity in the excavation damaged zone in mudstone

Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Ishii, Eiichi

Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 52(2), p.385 - 401, 2019/02

Excavation of deep underground openings induces permeable fractures around the opening due to stress redistribution. Such a zone is called excavation damaged zone (EDZ). In a high-level radioactive waste disposal project, the EDZ might provide pathways for the migration of radionuclides around the facility. Thus, this study focused on the development of a method for estimating the highest potential hydraulic conductivity in the EDZ around a gallery in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Japan. Borehole televiewer surveys, rock core observations, and hydraulic tests were undertaken to investigate the extent and magnitude of hydraulic conductivity in the EDZ around the gallery. The observed extent of the EDZ shows good agreement with the EDZ estimated from hydro-mechanical coupling analysis. The measured hydraulic conductivities of the EDZ are within the range of those based on the Mean Stress Index (MSI), which is defined as the ratio of the effective mean stress derived from numerical analyses to the tensile strength of intact rock. Given that the rock mass is relatively homogeneous and artificial damage (e.g., blasting-induced damage) can be neglected, as in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, the MSI model is likely to be applicable in estimating the highest potential hydraulic conductivity in the EDZ.

Journal Articles

A Study on the hydro-mechanical behavior in the excavation damaged zone in shaft sinking at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Sakurai, Akitaka; Tanai, Kenji

Dai-46-Kai Gamban Rikigaku Ni Kansuru Shimpojiumu Koenshu (CD-ROM), p.142 - 147, 2019/01

This research presents the hydro-mechanical behavior of EDZ in shaft sinking in the Horonobe underground Research Laboratory on the basis of the results of in situ hydraulic tests, acoustic emission (AE) measurements, and hydro-mechanical coupling numerical analysis. The AE sources were distributed within 1.5 m into the shaft wall; and hydraulic conductivity in the EDZ is 2 to 4 orders of magnitudes higher than that in no fractured area. On the other hand, on the basis of the result of numerical analysis, the maximum extent of the EDZ is 1.5 m into the gallery wall. This result is almost consistent with the trend of acoustic emission measurement and hydraulic test.

Journal Articles

A Study on support design for deep shaft sinking in rock masses of low strength and anisotropic initial stress

Motoshima, Takayuki*; Koike, Masashi*; Hagihara, Takeshi*; Aoyagi, Kazuhei

Dai-46-Kai Gamban Rikigaku Ni Kansuru Shimpojiumu Koenshu (CD-ROM), p.208 - 213, 2019/01

The short step construction method is the standard construction method for deep shaft excavation. However, considering the shaft construction in the sedimentary rock widely distributed in Japan, the support concrete stress can become excessive especially when there are bad conditions such as low rock strength, anisotropic initial stress, or high ground pressure. In this research, we introduced the dual support design to the short step construction method in order to reduce the support stress, and confirmed the validity by three dimensional numerical analysis. Validation analysis was conducted using the in-situ data in the Horonobe Underground Research Project conducted by Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

Journal Articles

Evolution of the excavation damaged zone around a modelled disposal pit; Case study at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Japan

Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Miyara, Nobukatsu; Ishii, Eiichi; Nakayama, Masashi; Kimura, Shun

Proceedings of 13th SEGJ International Symposium (USB Flash Drive), 5 Pages, 2018/11

The construction of underground facilities induces fractures in the rock mass around the underground voids due to the resultant stress redistribution. This has particular implications for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal projects, where fracture development creates an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) that increases the hydraulic conductivity of the surrounding rock mass and can provide a pathway for the migration of radionuclides from the storage facilities. It is therefore important to understand the long-term evolution of the EDZ and perform a comprehensive HLW disposal risk assessment. An in situ engineered barrier system experiment was conducted in the 350 m gallery at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Japan, to observe the near-field coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) process in situ and validate coupled THMC models. Here we investigate the evolution of the EDZ around the gallery and model a test pit that was excavated below the floor of the gallery using a series of seismic tomography surveys. There was a significant decrease in the seismic velocity field around the test pit due to its excavation, which became slightly more pronounced over time after the excavation. These seismic results, coupled with hydraulic tests and pore pressure measurements around the pit, indicate that fracture development and the decrease in saturation around the test pit resulted in a decrease in the seismic velocity field after the excavation of the test pit. Furthermore, the increase in saturation around the test pit is a key reason for the increase in the seismic velocity field after the heater test.

Journal Articles

Estimation of in situ stress based on the measurement of convergence during gallery excavation

Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Kamemura, Katsumi*; Sugawara, Kentaro*; Hagihara, Takeshi*

Dai-53-Kai Jiban Kogaku Kenkyu Happyokai Happyo Koenshu (DVD-ROM), p.11 - 12, 2018/07

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

A Study of the evaluation of the excavation damaged zone in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, 1; Investigation in the 140 m gallery (Joint research)

Sugita, Yutaka; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Kubota, Kenji*; Nakata, Eiji*; Oyama, Takahiro*

JAEA-Research 2018-002, 72 Pages, 2018/06

JAEA-Research-2018-002.pdf:6.16MB

In a excavation of shafts and galleries in the deep underground for disposing radioactive waste, an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) is developed around the galleries and shafts owing to the stress redistribution. Since the characteristic changes of the rock mass in the EDZ affects the radionuclides migration behavior, it is important to understand the long-term behavior of the EDZ. Thus, we performed the in situ experiment to investigate the long-term behavior of EDZ as part of the collaborative research between Japan Atomic Energy Agency and Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in the 140m gallery in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. In this research, we investigated the extent, mechanism of the change of hydro-mechanical characteristic, and long-term behavior of the EDZ on the basis of the comprehensive estimation of the results of the observation of the drift wall and the various investigations using boreholes such as geological investigation, the seismic and resistivity tomography, hydraulic test, water content monitoring, borehole loading test, convergence measurement, and so on. In addition, we clarified applicability and future tasks of the testing method used in this research for the investigation of the long-term behavior of the EDZ.

Journal Articles

Status of rock dynamics study in Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Japan

Sato, Toshinori; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Matsuzaki, Yoshiteru; Miyara, Nobukatsu; Miyakawa, Kazuya

Rock Dynamics; Experiments, Theories and Applications, p.575 - 580, 2018/06

Rock dynamics is one of key issue for research and development of techniques for safe geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) is off-site URL constructed in soft sedimentary rock to the depth of 350m with three shafts and three level experimental galleries. Earthquake-resistant design of underground openings, observation of seismic records and groundwater pressure change due to earthquakes, and excavation disturbed zone experiment have been performed relating to the study of rock dynamics in URL project. This paper shows current status of Horonobe URL project and results of earthquake-resistant design of shafts, observation of seismic records and groundwater pressure change due to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake.

Journal Articles

Investigation of the excavation disturbed zone due to the excavation of horizontal galleries; Study in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Kubota, Kenji*; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Sugita, Yutaka

Koeki Shadan Hojin Butsuri Tansa Gakkai Dai-138-Kai (Heisei-30-Nendo Shuki) Gakujutsu Koenkai Koen Rombunshu, p.51 - 54, 2018/05

In an excavation of shafts and galleries in the deep underground for disposing high level radioactive waste, an excavation disturbed zone (EdZ) or excavation damaged zone (EDZ) is developed around the shafts and galleries owing to the stress redistribution. It is important to understand the behavior of the EdZ or EDZ because these zone could have an effect on the transfer behavior of radioactive nuclide. Therefore, the authors performed the in situ experiment to investigate the behavior of EdZ or EDZ in the 140m and 250m gallery in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. From the result of the experiments, the authors compared the characteristics of EdZ or EDZ between those in 140m and 250m gallery. The extent of the fractures induced by the gallery excavation, i.e., EDZ was about 0.45m in the 140m gallery and about 1m in the 250m gallery. The extent of the unsaturated zones related with EdZ was about 1m in the 140m gallery, however, unsaturated zone was not appeared in the 250m gallery.

Journal Articles

Fracture characterization and rock mass damage induced by different excavation methods in the Horonobe URL of Japan

Tokiwa, Tetsuya*; Tsusaka, Kimikazu*; Aoyagi, Kazuhei

International Journal of Civil Engineering, 16(4), p.371 - 381, 2018/04

Journal Articles

Temporal trend in excavation disturbed zone around a modeled disposal pit in Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Miyara, Nobukatsu; Ishii, Eiichi; Matsuzaki, Yoshiteru

Shigen, Sozai Koenshu (Internet), 5(1), 7 Pages, 2018/03

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Study on characterisation of colloidal silica grout under condition of sea water

Toguri, Satohito*; Okihara, Mistunobu*; Tsuji, Masakuni*; Nakashima, Hitoshi*; Sugiyama, Hirokazu*; Saito, Akira*; Sato, Toshinori; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Masunaga, Kosuke

JAEA-Research 2017-013, 131 Pages, 2018/02

JAEA-Research-2017-013.pdf:8.49MB

The discussions on scientifically promising site for the geological disposal has been made at the council of studying group on techniques for geological disposal of radioactive wastes, which is held by Resources and Energy Agency. From the aspect of ensuring safety during the transportation of disposal waste, the coastal area is discussed to be a more suitable area. This report shows the result of the first year of this project as following items; Study on the state-of-art technology and remain tasks; laboratory tests on characterization of colloidal silica grout under sea water; Study on the development of grouting technology (design and the evaluation method of influence on the rock mass).

JAEA Reports

Visualization of fractures in an Excavation Damaged Zone in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (Joint research)

Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Chen, Y.*; Sakurai, Akitaka; Ishii, Eiichi; Ishida, Tsuyoshi*

JAEA-Research 2017-014, 49 Pages, 2018/01

JAEA-Research-2017-014.pdf:16.29MB

In this research, we performed the resin injection experiment at the 350 m gallery of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory in order to identify the three dimensional distribution of fractures induced around the gallery owing to excavation. To this end, the low viscosity resin mixed with a fluorescent substance was developed and applied to the in situ resin injection experiment. As a result, the resin was successfully penetrated into the fractures around the gallery without disturbing their situation and then fixed within them. After the experiment, the rock cores around the injection borehole were drilled for the observation. The observation under ultraviolet light revealed that the extent of the development of fractures was about 0.9 m into the borehole wall. In addition, the aperture of the fractures distributed within 0.3 m from the gallery wall was ranged 1 to 2 mm, and that distributed from 0.3 to 0.9 m was less than 1 mm. On the other hand, in the borehole televiewer (BTV) survey, only one fracture within 0.2 m from the wall could be detected owing to the resolution of the survey system. Thus, it is expected that the BTV survey underestimate the extent of the development of fractures.

Journal Articles

Development of in situ stress estimation method based on the measured convergence and geological observations

Kamemura, Katsumi*; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Nago, Makito*; Sugawara, Kentaro*

Dai-45-Kai Gamban Rikigaku Ni Kansuru Shimpojiumu Koenshu (CD-ROM), p.43 - 48, 2018/01

In situ stress state is very important for the design of deep underground facility of high-level radioactive waste disposal repository. This study establishes a practical and effective method for estimating in situ stress state based on the measured convergence and detailed geological observations during gallery excavation. The convergence was measured in various directions of the loop gallery at 350m depth of the Horonobe URL; this allows determination of the stress state corresponding to the rock mass behavior in 120m $$times$$ 200m area. In situ stress state estimated by the back analysis considering existing faults and fractures showed a good agreement with that of estimated from hydraulic fracturing method.

Journal Articles

Study on analysis methodology of AE signal wave at great depth excavation

Niunoya, Sumio*; Hata, Koji*; Uyama, Masao*; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Wakasugi, Keiichiro

Dai-45-Kai Gamban Rikigaku Ni Kansuru Shimpojiumu Koenshu (CD-ROM), p.226 - 231, 2018/01

The objective of this research is to investigate the long-term hydro-mechanical behavior of rock mass around the shaft in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The long-term monitoring has been carried out by optical AE sensors, optical water pressure sensors, and optical temperature sensors below 350m depth of the shaft in the Horonobe URL. From the first analytical results, it was too hard to discriminate the uncleared AE wave by using the resonant characteristic. Thus, at this time, we tried to reanalysis by using the half width of spectrum, we could discriminate it correctly as AE from the breaking of rock.

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