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荒木 康史; 三澤 貴宏*; 野村 健太郎*

Physical Review Research (Internet), 2(2), p.023195_1 - 023195_11, 2020/05

We theoretically manifest that the edge of a quantum spin Hall insulator (QSHI), attached to an insulating ferromagnet (FM), can realize a highly efficient spin-to-charge conversion. Based on a one-dimensional QSHI-FM junction, the electron dynamics on the QSHI edge is analyzed, driven by a magnetization dynamics in the FM. Under a large gap opening on the edge from the magnetic exchange coupling, we find that the spin injection into the QSHI edge gets suppressed while the charge current driven on the edge gets maximized, demanded by the band topology of the one-dimensional helical edge states.

荒木 康史

Annalen der Physik, 532(2), p.1900287_1 - 1900287_16, 2020/02

被引用回数：2 パーセンタイル：54.6(Physics, Multidisciplinary)Recent theoretical and experimental attempts have been successful in finding magnetic Weyl semimetal phases, which show both nodal-point structure in the electronic bands and magnetic orders. Beyond uniform ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic orders, nonuniform magnetic textures, such as domain walls and skyrmions, may even more enrich the properties of the Weyl electrons in such materials. This article gives a topical review on interplay between Weyl electrons and magnetic textures in those magnetic Weyl semimetals. The basics of magnetic textures in non-topological magnetic metals are reviewed first, and then the effect of magnetic textures in Weyl semimetals is discussed, regarding the recent theoretical and experimental progress therein. The idea of the fictitious "axial gauge fields" is pointed out, which effectively describes the effect of magnetic textures on the Weyl electrons and can well account for the properties of the electrons localized around magnetic domain walls.

田辺 哲朗*; 藤野 道彦*; 野口 宏*; 八木 康文*; 平野 洋一*; 清水 肇*; 秋場 真人; 荒木 政則; 久保田 雄輔*; 宮原 昭*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 200(1), p.120 - 127, 1993/03

被引用回数：9 パーセンタイル：31.33次期核融合実験炉用プラズマ対向機器表面材料として、幾つかの材料が検討されている。本報では、溶融型モリブデンについて、電子及びイオンビームによる熱衝撃試験を行い、溶融層の構造変化を調べた。溶融型Moは従来の粉末焼結型Moに比べ、結晶粒が大きく、延性が良いこと、不純物が少ないこと等の性質を有している。以下に主要結果を示す。(1)電子ビーム照射試験において、溶融型Moと粉末焼結型Moでは表面損傷状態に大きな違いがある。溶融型Moでは、多少の損傷は確認されたが、単結晶性は表面溶融後においても残っているのに対し、粉末焼結型Moでは、多数のクレータ痕が表面に生じた。これは、粉末焼結型Mo内に残っている不純物ガスによるものと考えられる。(2)電総研核融合実験装置において、Moリミターを採用したことにより、従来得られていた黒鉛リミターでのプラズマ閉じ込め特性と比べ、その特性が改善された。

荒木 康史

no journal, ,

The main focus of this presentation is the theory of spin current generation in topological Dirac semimetals (TDSMs), the newly-found three-dimensional topological materials. TDSMs are characterized by pair(s) of doubly-degenerate nodal points (Dirac points) in their momentum-space band structures, which are observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) in NaBi and CdAs. I focus on a lattice-strained TDSM, to obtain an additional contribution to the spin current generation. I propose that an electric field applied to the strained TDSM gives rise to a nonlinear spin Hall current, namely the spin current perpendicular to and quadratic in the electric field. The spin current response is obtained by the Boltzmann transport theory, regarding the strain as a pseudomagnetic field for the Dirac electrons. This nonlinear effect implies that one can obtain a rectified (dc) pure spin current out of an alternating (ac) electric field, which renders the TDSM an efficient spin-current injector.

荒木 康史

no journal, ,

Topological Dirac seimetals (TDSMs) form a new class of three-dimensional topological semimetals, characterized by pair(s) of doubly-degenerate nodal points (Dirac points) in their momentum(k)-space band structures. They show the intrinsic spin Hall effect (SHE), which comes from the k-space topology around the Dirac points. This spin Hall conductivity is topologically protected, while it cannot be easily tuned or enhanced at linear response. In order to overcome this problem, I theoretically propose that an electric field applied to a lattice-strained TDSM gives rise to an additional "nonlinear spin Hall current", namely the spin current perpendicular to and quadratic in the electric field. The spin current response is obtained by the Boltzmann transport theory, regarding the strain as a pseudomagnetic field for the Dirac electrons. The nonlinear SHE arises as the hybrid of the regular Hall effect driven by the pseudomagnetic field (strain) and the anomalous Hall effect from the k-space topology. This behavior implies that one can obtain a rectified (dc) pure spin current out of an alternating (ac) electric field, which renders the TDSM an efficient spin-current injector.

荒木 康史; 三澤 貴宏*; 野村 健太郎*

no journal, ,

We present our theoretical work on spin pumping into a two-dimensional (2D) quantum spin Hall inslator (QSHI). Recent theories and experiments have demonstrated the QSHI phase in a monolayer of transition metal dichalcogenide 1T'-WTe2, which can be easily engineered in contrast to traditionally-known HgTe/CdTe and InAs/GaSb quantum wells. While the theory of spin pumping is well established in normal metals by focusing on the spin-dependent electron scattering at the interface, it is unreliable for topologically nontrivial interfaces in such systems. In the present work, we consider a junction of a ferromagnet and a 2D QSHI at its 1D edge, and demonstrate the pumping of angular momentum from the spin-precessing ferromagnet into the QSHI. Using the Floquet theory for the electrons on the helical edge states, we analytically show that the time-periodic precession of the magnetization drives a charge current on the edge, for the whole range of precession frequency. This edge current can be regarded as a consequence of the inverse spin Hall effect intrinsic to the QSHI, which converts the injected spin current into a transverse charge current. By varying the precession frequency of the magnetization and the coupling strength at the junction, we find a clear crossover between two regimes: the adiabatic regime, where the slow magnetization precession drives a quantized pumping, and the resonant regime, where the fast precession leads to a suppressed pumping. We also incorporate the effect of orbital dependence in the exchange coupling at the edge, and show numerically that it shifts the crossover point between the adiabatic and resonant regimes.

荒木 康史; 三澤 貴宏*; 野村 健太郎*

no journal, ,

The two-dimensional quantum spin Hall insulator (2D QSHI) is the most primitive but quite important realization of topological insulator. It shows the helical edge states protected by time-reversal symmetry, whereas the quantized spin Hall conductivity in the bulk. In the present work, we theoretically investigate the spin pumping from a precessing ferromagnet into a 2D QSHI thoroughly from the adiabatic to nonadiabatic regimes, both analytically and numerically. We analytically treat the dynamics of the edge-state electrons coupled to the precessing ferromagnet by the Floquet theory, and derive the pumped current as a function of the exchange energy and the precession frequency. We find that a heat bath for the edge electrons governs the transition between the adiabatic and nonadiabatic regime: when the edge electrons are coupled with a heat bath, their spin and energy can dissipate into the bath by a certain rate, eventually reaching a periodic steady state. The pumped current on the becomes quantized when the exchange energy exceeds the dissipation rate. We also calculate the edge current numerically on the 2D lattice model, and find that the bulk states in the QSHI effectively serves as the heat bath for the edge electrons.

荒木 康史; 三澤 貴宏*; 野村 健太郎*

no journal, ,

We present our theoretical work on spin pumping into a two-dimensional (2D) quantum spin Hall inslator (QSHI). QSHI is a topological insulator in 2D exhibiting gapless helical edge stats, which are responsible for the quantized spin Hall conductivity. Recent theories and experiments have demonstrated the QSHI phase in a monolayer of transition metal dichalcogenide 1T'-WTe2, which can be easily engineered in contrast to traditionally-known HgTe/CdTe and InAs/GaSb quantum wells. While the theory of spin pumping is well established in normal metals by focusing on the spin-dependent electron scattering at the interface, it is unreliable for topologically nontrivial interfaces in such systems. In the present work, we consider a junction of a ferromagnet and a 2D QSHI at its 1D edge, and demonstrate the pumping of angular momentum from the spin-precessing ferromagnet into the QSHI. Using the Floquet theory for the electrons on the helical edge states, we analytically show that the time-periodic precession of the magnetization drives a charge current on the edge, for the whole range of precession frequency. This edge current can be regarded as a consequence of the inverse spin Hall effect intrinsic to the QSHI, which converts the injected spin current into a transverse charge current. By varying the precession frequency of the magnetization and the coupling strength at the junction, we find a clear crossover between two regimes: the adiabatic regime, where the slow magnetization precession drives a quantized pumping, and the resonant regime, where the fast precession leads to a suppressed pumping. We also incorporate the effect of orbital dependence in the exchange coupling at the edge, and show numerically that it shifts the crossover point between the adiabatic and resonant regimes.

荒木 康史; 三澤 貴宏*; 野村 健太郎*

no journal, ,

We present our theoretical work on dynamical spin-to-charge conversion at the edge of a quantum spin Hall insulator (QSHI), namely a two-dimensional topological insulator with helical edge states. Interconversion between spin- and charge-related quantities has been a key idea in making use of magnetic materials, especially in the context of spintronics. QSHI is a typical system showing a universal charge-to-spin conversion behavior, namely the quantum spin Hall effect, whereas the spin-to-charge conversion therein is still not clearly understood. At a lateral heterojunction of a ferromagnet (FM) and a QSHI, it has been theoretically demonstrated that magnetization dynamics induces a charge current along the edge of QSHI; however, its mechanism from the viewpoint of spin-to-charge conversion still remains to be clarified. In order to understand the spin transfer and the spin-to-charge conversion mechanism in QSHI, we investigate the many-body dynamics of the electrons under the magnetization dynamics at the QSHI-FM junction. We analytically treat the electron dynamics in terms of the Floquet-Keldysh formalism, and compare two physical quantities present on the edge: the spin injection rate from the FM into the QSHI, and the charge current induced along the edge. Whereas the edge current seen in the previous works is reproduced, we find that it is not proportional to the spin injection rate, especially when the exchange interaction at the junction is strong enough. This relation implies that the spin-to-charge conversion in this system cannot be considered as the inverse spin Hall effect, while it can be rather seen as the inverse Edelstein effect, in which an electron spin accumulation at the junction is converted to a charge current. We also focus on the energy transfer at the junction, and interpret this phenomenon in terms of magnon exchange.

荒木 康史; 三澤 貴宏*; 野村 健太郎*

no journal, ,

We present our theoretical work on dynamical spin-to-charge conversion at the edge of a quantum spin Hall insulator (QSHI), namely a two-dimensional topological insulator with helical edge states. Interconversion between spin- and charge-related quantities has been a key idea in making use of magnetic materials, especially in the context of spintronics. QSHI is a typical system showing a universal charge-to-spin conversion behavior, namely the quantum spin Hall effect, whereas the spin-to-charge conversion therein is still not clearly understood. We here investigate the many-body dynamics of the electrons under the magnetization dynamics at the QSHI-ferromagnet (FM) junction. We analytically treat the electron dynamics in terms of the Floquet-Keldysh formalism, and compare the spin injection rate from the FM into the QSHI and the charge current induced along the edge. Whereas the edge current seen in the previous works is reproduced, we find that it is not proportional to the spin injection rate, especially when the exchange interaction at the junction is strong enough. This relation implies that the spin-to-charge conversion in this system cannot be considered as the inverse spin Hall effect, while it can be rather seen as the inverse Edelstein effect.