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Journal Articles

Anisotropic reconstructed silicon (110)-"16$$times$$2" surface

Asaoka, Hidehito

2018 IEEE 8th International Conference on Nanomaterials; Applications & Properties (NAP 2018), Vol.3, 5 Pages, 2020/03

Journal Articles

Kinetics of silver photodiffusion into amorphous S-rich germanium sulphide; Neutron and optical reflectivity

Sakaguchi, Yoshifumi*; Asaoka, Hidehito; Mitkova, M.*

Pure and Applied Chemistry, 91(11), p.1821 - 1835, 2019/11

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:54.95(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

${it In situ}$ optical microscopy of crystal growth of graphene using thermal radiation

Terasawa, Tomoo; Taira, Takanobu*; Obata, Seiji*; Saiki, Koichiro*; Yasuda, Satoshi; Asaoka, Hidehito

Vacuum and Surface Science, 62(10), p.629 - 634, 2019/10

Graphene, an atomically thin sheet composed of sp$$^{2}$$ carbon atoms, has been the most attractive material in this decade. The fascinating properties of graphene are exhibited when it is monolayer. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is widely used to produce monolayer graphene selectively in large-area. Here we introduce "radiation-mode optical microscopy" which we have developed in order to realize the ${it in situ}$ observation of the CVD growth of graphene. We show the method to observe graphene as bright contrast on Cu substrates in thermal radiation images. The growth mechanism, the nucleation site and rate limiting process, revealed by the ${it in situ}$ observation is presented. Finally, we show the CVD growth of graphene on Au substrates, resulting in the tuning of the emissivity of graphene by the pre-treatment procedures. Our method is not only a way to observe the graphene growth but also shed light on the thermal radiation property of graphene.

Journal Articles

Effect of hydrogen on chemical vapor deposition growth of graphene on Au substrates

Terasawa, Tomoo; Taira, Takanobu*; Yasuda, Satoshi; Obata, Seiji*; Saiki, Koichiro*; Asaoka, Hidehito

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 58(SI), p.SIIB17_1 - SIIB17_6, 2019/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Physics, Applied)

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on substrates with low C solubility such as Cu and Au is promising to grow monolayer graphene selectively in a large scale. Hydrogen is often added to control the domain size of graphene on Cu, while Au does not require H$$_{2}$$ since Ar is inert against oxidation. The effect of H$$_{2}$$ should be revealed to improve the quality of graphene on Au. Here we report the effect of H$$_{2}$$ on the CVD growth of graphene on Au substrates using in situ radiation-mode optical microscopy. The in situ observation and ex situ Raman spectroscopy revealed that whether H$$_{2}$$ was supplied or not strongly affected the growth rate, thermal radiation contrast, and compressive strain of graphene on Au. We attributed these features to the surface reconstruction of Au(001) depending on H$$_{2}$$ supply. Our results are essential to achieve the graphene growth with high quality on Au for future applications.

Journal Articles

In-situ microscopic observation of crystal growth of graphene using thermal radiation

Terasawa, Tomoo; Saiki, Koichiro*; Yasuda, Satoshi; Asaoka, Hidehito

Dai-39-Kai Nippon Netsu Bussei Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (CD-ROM), p.262 - 264, 2018/11

Graphene, monolayer graphite, has been expected as one of the new materials targeting the next generation electronics since its first isolation in 2004, due to the ultrahigh carrier mobility up to 100,000 cm2/Vs and high transparency of 97.7%. The high transparency of graphene make it invisible on various substrates. Particularly, graphene on Cu, one of the common growth substrates for high-quality graphene, cannot be observed by optical microscopes. Here, we report the optical microscopic method to visualize graphene using thermal radiation. We observed a Cu surface by a zoom-lens and a CMOS camera during the growth of graphene by chemical vapor deposition. When graphene was grown on Cu substrates, the thermal radiation intensity increased at the area covered with graphene. The thermal radiation contrast between Cu surfaces with and without graphene showed that the thermal radiation intensity increased as the number of graphene layers in a layer-by-layer manner. We quantitatively analyzed the thermal radiation contrasts at various temperatures. We found the thermal radiation contrast was independent from the sample temperature. This result suggests that the emissivity of graphene is independent from the temperature, which is consistent with the theory of the optical properties of graphene. Our findings are essential for the discussion of the thermal radiation from the atomically thin materials including graphene.

Journal Articles

Absorbent property of fullerene for cesium isotope separation investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

Sekiguchi, Tetsuhiro; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Uozumi, Yuki*; Yano, Masahiro; Asaoka, Hidehito; Suzuki, Shinichi; Yaita, Tsuyoshi

Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 5, p.161 - 164, 2018/11

For nuclear transmutation of cesium-135 ($$^{135}$$Cs), which is long-lived fission product, we are developing selective absorbent which takes only Cs atom in, but does not CsI. In this study, absorbing property of Cs atom onto the surface of fullerene (C$$_{60}$$) film has been investigated using synchrotron-based angle-dependent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results were compared with those of CsI. It was found that Cs penetrates into C$$_{60}$$ deep bulk. In contrast, CsI deposits on shallow surface. Furthermore, XPS spectra were measured as a function of Ar$$^{+}$$-sputtering time in order to know Cs concentration profiles in deep region. Results showed that Cs penetrates into deep region of several hundreds ${AA}$.

Journal Articles

Enhancement of Fe-N-C carbon catalyst activity for the oxygen reduction reaction; Effective increment of active sites by a short and repeated heating process

Yasuda, Satoshi; Uchibori, Yosuke*; Wakeshima, Makoto*; Hinatsu, Yukio*; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Yano, Masahiro; Asaoka, Hidehito

RSC Advances (Internet), 8(66), p.37600 - 37605, 2018/11

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:67.72(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

We present a quantitative study on the effect of a newly obtained thermal history on the formation of Fe-N-C catalytic sites. A short and repeated heating process is employed as the new thermal history, where short heating (1 min) followed by quenching is applied to a sample with arbitrary repetition. Through electrochemical quantitative analysis, it is found that the new process effectively increases the Fe-N-C mass-based site density (MSD) to almost twice that achieved using a conventional continuous heating process, while the turn-over frequency (TOF) is independent of the process. Elemental analysis shows that the new process effectively suppresses the thermal desorption of Fe and N atoms during the initial formation stage and consequently contributes to an increase in the Fe-N-C site density. The resultant catalytic activity (gravimetric kinetic current density (0.8 V vs. RHE)) is 1.8 times higher than that achieved with the continuous heating process.

Journal Articles

STM-induced SiO$$_{2}$$ decomposition on Si(110)

Yano, Masahiro; Uozumi, Yuki*; Yasuda, Satoshi; Asaoka, Hidehito; Tsukada, Chie*; Yoshida, Hikaru*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka

e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology (Internet), 16, p.370 - 374, 2018/08

Journal Articles

Characterization of SiO$$_{2}$$ reduction reaction region at void periphery on Si(110)

Yano, Masahiro; Uozumi, Yuki*; Yasuda, Satoshi; Tsukada, Chie*; Yoshida, Hikaru*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Asaoka, Hidehito

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 57(8S1), p.08NB13_1 - 08NB13_4, 2018/07

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:86.78(Physics, Applied)

Journal Articles

Uniform Si nano-dot fabrication using reconstructed structure of Si(110)

Yano, Masahiro; Uozumi, Yuki*; Yasuda, Satoshi; Asaoka, Hidehito

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 57(6S1), p.06HD04_1 - 06HD04_4, 2018/06

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:60.22(Physics, Applied)

Journal Articles

Kinetics of silver photodiffusion into amorphous Ge$$_{20}$$S$$_{80}$$ films; Case of pre-reaction

Sakaguchi, Yoshifumi*; Hanashima, Takayasu*; Aoki, Hiroyuki; Asaoka, Hidehito; Simon, A.-A. A.*; Mitkova, M.*

Physica Status Solidi (A), 215(12), p.1800049_1 - 1800049_12, 2018/06

Journal Articles

Silver photodiffusion into Ge-rich amorphous germanium sulfide; Neutron reflectivity study

Sakaguchi, Yoshifumi*; Asaoka, Hidehito; Mitkova, M.*

Journal of Applied Physics, 122(23), p.235105_1 - 235105_12, 2017/12

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:49.18(Physics, Applied)

Journal Articles

Stress evolution during Si(111)7$$times$$7 surface reconstruction

Asaoka, Hidehito; Uozumi, Yuki

Hyomen Kagaku, 37(9), p.446 - 450, 2016/09

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Silver photo-diffusion and photo-induced macroscopic surface deformation of Ge$$_{33}$$S$$_{67}$$/Ag/Si substrate

Sakaguchi, Yoshifumi*; Asaoka, Hidehito; Uozumi, Yuki; Kondo, Keietsu; Yamazaki, Dai; Soyama, Kazuhiko; Ailavajhala, M.*; Mitkova, M.*

Journal of Applied Physics, 120(5), p.055103_1 - 055103_10, 2016/08

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:46.15(Physics, Applied)

Journal Articles

Processes of silver photodiffusion into Ge-chalcogenide probed by neutron reflectivity technique

Sakaguchi, Yoshifumi*; Asaoka, Hidehito; Uozumi, Yuki; Kawakita, Yukinobu; Ito, Takayoshi*; Kubota, Masato; Yamazaki, Dai; Soyama, Kazuhiko; Sheoran, G.*; Mitkova, M.*

Physica Status Solidi (A), 213(7), p.1894 - 1903, 2016/07

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:50.73(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Synthesis of heterostructured SiC and C-SiC nanotubes by ion irradiation-induced changes in crystallinity

Taguchi, Tomitsugu; Yamamoto, Shunya; Kodama, Katsuaki; Asaoka, Hidehito

Carbon, 95, p.279 - 285, 2015/12

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:65.29(Chemistry, Physical)

Amorphous SiC nanotubes are successfully synthesized by 340 keV Si$$^{+}$$ ions irradiation of polycrystalline SiC nanotubes for the first time. A polycrystalline/amorphous heterostructure SiC nanotube, in which polycrystalline SiC and amorphous SiC coexist in the same nanotube, is also synthesized by ions irradiation with a mask in front of polycrystalline SiC nanotube. According to electron energy loss spectroscopy evaluation, the plasmon energies of SiC nanotube change rapidly at the interface between polycrystalline and amorphous regions. The volume swelling by amorphization evaluated from the differences of plasmon energies is approximately 5.0%. This result reveals that the further relaxed amorphous SiC nanotubes with higher density can be produced. The graphitic shells in carbon layer of C-SiC nanotube gradually bend to the radial direction of nanotube by the ion irradiation. Since the graphite (002) spots in the selected area electron diffraction pattern are clearly observed even after the ion irradiation, the carbon layer in C-SiC nanotube has certain crystallinity. Moreover, the new multi-walled carbon nanotube with the graphitic shells completely parallel to the radial direction of nanotube is also produced inside the amorphous SiC tubular layer in the case of C-SiC nanotube with large caliber.

Journal Articles

Measurement of transient photo-induced changes in thin films at J-PARC; Time-resolved neutron reflectivity measurements of silver photo-diffusion into Ge-chalcogenide films

Sakaguchi, Yoshifumi*; Asaoka, Hidehito; Uozumi, Yuki; Kawakita, Yukinobu; Ito, Takayoshi*; Kubota, Masato; Yamazaki, Dai; Soyama, Kazuhiko; Ailavajhala, M.*; Wolf, K.*; et al.

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 8, p.031023_1 - 031023_6, 2015/09

We report recent results of time-resolved neutron reflectivity measurements for silver photo-diffusion into Ge$$_{x}$$S$$_{1-x}$$ (x=0.20, 0.33, 0.40) films performed on BL17 (SHARAKU). It is well known that silver diffuses into Ge-chalcogenide layer by visible light exposure with a distinct diffusion front, where the silver concentration abruptly drops off. Using an event recording system at the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility, neutron reflectivity profiles were collected with a time-resolution of 30 seconds in the shortest case. It was found from the measurements that a relatively stable Ag-rich phase in the reaction layer is firstly formed, and then, slower diffusion occurs at the interface between Ag-rich and Ag-poor layers. Fourier transform analysis showed that the position of the interface is essentially fixed. This result is in contrast to the previously reported model of silver diffusion that postulates a mechanism involving progression of the diffusion front. The results of the measurements on Ag/Ge-Se films performed on the INTER instrument at ISIS are also reported.

Journal Articles

Surface stress measurement of Si(111) 7$$times$$7 reconstruction by comparison with hydrogen-terminated 1$$times$$1 surface

Asaoka, Hidehito; Uozumi, Yuki

Thin Solid Films, 591(Part B), p.200 - 203, 2015/09

We have focused on measurements of the surface stress in Si(111) as a function of 7$$times$$7 reconstruction by comparison with the hydrogen (H)-terminated Si(111) 1$$times$$1 surface. In order to obtain information on both the surface stress and the surface reconstruction simultaneously, we have combined the surface-curvature and the reflection-high-energy-electron-diffraction instrumentations in an identical ultrahigh vacuum system. The stress evolution shows a decrease of tensile stress corresponding to the formation of H-termination at the beginning of the atomic H exposure of Si(111) 7$$times$$7 surface. After the above treatment, a complete transformation of the surface structure occurs from the reconstructed surface to the 1$$times$$1 one. As a result, we find the H-terminated Si(111) 1$$times$$1 surface releases 1.7 N/m (=J/m$$^{2}$$), or (1.4 eV/(1$$times$$1 unit cell)), of the surface energy from the strong tensile Si(111) 7$$times$$7 reconstruction.

Journal Articles

Dynamics of silver photo-diffusion into Ge-chalcogenide films; Time-resolved neutron reflectometry

Sakaguchi, Yoshifumi*; Asaoka, Hidehito; Uozumi, Yuki; Kawakita, Yukinobu; Ito, Takayoshi*; Kubota, Masato; Yamazaki, Dai; Soyama, Kazuhiko; Ailavajhala, M.*; Latif, M. R.*; et al.

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 619(1), p.012046_1 - 012046_4, 2015/06

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:1.83

We report the results of time-resolved neutron reflectivity measurements of Ag/a- Ge$$_{20}$$S$$_{80}$$/Si and a- Ge$$_{40}$$Se$$_{60}$$/Ag/ Si films taken while the films are exposed to visible light. Silver diffuses into an amorphous (a-) chalcogenide layer while visible light illuminates Ag/a-chalcogenide films. Neutron reflectometry is a suitable technique probing time evolution of the multi-layer structure without damaging the sample by the probe beam itself. It was found from the measurements of Ag/a-Ge$$_{20}$$S$$_{80}$$/Si films that a relatively stable Ag-rich phase in the reaction layer is first formed, and then, slower diffusion occurs at the interface between Ag-rich and Ag-poor layers. This result is in contrast to the previously reported model of silver diffusion that suggests a mechanism involving progression of the diffusion front. From the measurements of a-Ge$$_{40}$$Se$$_{60}$$/Ag/ Si films, we found enormous changes in the neutron reflectivity profile, including loss of total reflection region, with continuous illumination even after forming one homogeneous layer, which was about 60 min after starting illumination. At this stage, clear off-specular scattering was observed by a linear detector and a surface roughness was observed with naked eyes.

Journal Articles

Crystal structure and electron density distribution analyses of Nd$$_{x}$$Ce$$_{1-x}$$O$$_{2-delta}$$ for electrolyte by Rietveld/ maximum entropy method

Taguchi, Tomitsugu; Igawa, Naoki; Birumachi, Atsushi; Asaoka, Hidehito; Miwa, Shuhei; Osaka, Masahiko

e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology (Internet), 13, p.339 - 342, 2015/06

Rare-earth doped ceria exhibits both ionic and electronic conductions, and those ceria with higher ratio of ionic conduction against electronic conduction is used as a solid electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells. The electron density distributions in crystals are closely related to the electron diffusing pathway which affects the electronic conduction. In this study, we investigated the electron density distribution of doped ceria as a function of the content of Nd$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$-dopant to deduce the ratio of the electronic to ionic conduction. The crystal structure was refined with the space group, ${it Fm}$-3${it m}$, which is the same as undoped ceria. Ce and Nd ions randomly occupied the 4${it a}$ site and O ion the 8${it c}$ site. The electron conduction pathway was distributed through the 4${it a}$-8${it c}$ and 8${it c}$-8${it c}$ sites. The relationship between crystal structural change and electron density distribution as a function of the content of Nd$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ dopant will be discussed.

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