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JAEA Reports

The States of the art of the nondestructive assay of spent nuclear fuel assemblies; A Critical review of the Spent Fuel NDA Project of the U.S. Department of Energy's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative

Bolind, A. M.*; Seya, Michio

JAEA-Review 2015-027, 233 Pages, 2015/12

JAEA-Review-2015-027.pdf:30.21MB

This report surveys the 14 advanced NDA techniques that were examined by the Spent Fuel NDA Project of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE-NNSA. It discusses and critique NDA techniques from a view point of obtaining higher accuracies. The report shows the main problem, large uncertainties in the assay results are caused primarily by using too few independent NDAs. In this report authors shows that at least three independent NDA techniques are required for obtaining better accuracies, since the physics of the NDA of SFAs is three dimensional.

Journal Articles

JAEA development programmes of advanced NDA technologies for nuclear materials

Seya, Michio; Bolind, A.; Kobayashi, Naoki; Hajima, Ryoichi; Kureta, Masatoshi; Soyama, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Hironobu; Harada, Hideo

Proceedings of International Conference on Nuclear Security; Enhancing Global Efforts (CD-ROM), 12 Pages, 2014/03

The Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) of JAEA has been undertaking to develop fundamental part of following advanced non-destructive assay (NDA) technologies for nuclear materials (NM), with collaborations among several divisions of JAEA. (1) NRF (Nuclear resonance fluorescence) NDA technology using laser Compton scattered (LCS) $$gamma$$-rays (intense mono-energetic $$gamma$$-rays). (2) Alternative to $$^{3}$$He neutron detection technology using ZnS/B$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ ceramic scintillator. (3) NRD (Neutron resonance densitometry) using NRTA (Neutron resonance transmission analysis) and NRCA (Neutron resonance capture analysis). These could be used as tools not only for safeguards but also for nuclear security, to detect nuclear materials. In this paper we roughly introduce our development program of each NDA technology and several ideas of application.

Journal Articles

A Summary of JAEA's R&D programs for advanced technologies for nuclear security and safeguards

Bolind, A.; Seya, Michio

Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai (INMM) Nippon Shibu Dai-34-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 10 Pages, 2013/10

This paper reports on the recent progress at JAEA concerning various R&D programs for advanced technologies for the measurement and detection of nuclear material for security and safeguards. These programs are being coordinated through the Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN). One program is the development of a neutron detector that uses a ZnS ceramic scintillator material instead of He-3 gas. JAEA is preparing to conduct benchmark experiments to compare the performance of an NDA system that uses the new scintillator detectors against the performance of the existing NDA system that uses He-3 detectors. The Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) program is developing NRF as an NDA technique to detect and measure nuclear-material isotopes in used fuel assemblies and in melted nuclear fuel debris. The Neutron Resonance Densitometry (NRD) program is similarly developing NRD to measure melted nuclear-fuel debris. This past year, JAEA has conducted several important NRF and NRD experiments, collaborated closely with international partners, and improved the NRF and NRD theories and computer-simulation codes. Lastly, JAEA has collaborated with Los Alamos National Laboratory to test a PNAR + SINRD NDA detector on used nuclear fuel assemblies at Fugen.

Journal Articles

A Proposal for integrating the PNAR, CIPN, and total $$gamma$$-ray techniques for the non-destructive assay of used nuclear fuel assemblies

Bolind, A.

Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai (INMM) Nippon Shibu Dai-34-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 2 Pages, 2013/10

This paper proposes to combine two neutron-based NDA techniques and one $$gamma$$-ray NDA technique, to assay used LEU and HEU fuel assemblies. The two neutron techniques are the "passive neutron albedo reactivity" technique (PNAR) and the "$$^{252}$$Cf interrogation with prompt neutron detection" technique (CIPN). The $$gamma$$-ray technique is a total $$gamma$$-ray measurement. The two neutron techniques are combined through a mathematical model, while the incorporation of the $$gamma$$-ray technique is empirical. By combining the measurements of three independent physical properties, the proposed method satisfies the requirements for a determinate solution of the isotopic content.

Journal Articles

Development of basic NDA technologies of nuclear material accountancy of debris of melted fuel formed in severe accidents

Seya, Michio; Harada, Hideo; Kitatani, Fumito; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Tsuchiya, Harufumi; Iimura, Hideki; Kureta, Masatoshi; Takamine, Jun; Hajima, Ryoichi; Hayakawa, Takehito; et al.

Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai (INMM) Nippon Shibu Dai-34-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 10 Pages, 2013/10

The forming of MF in severe accidents of nuclear reactors such as Units 1 - 3 of Fukushima-Daiichi NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) inevitably change the category of the nuclear reactor from "item facility" to "bulk-handling facility". At removal of the MF it is necessary to break chunks of MF into relatively small blocks by using some tools, resulting in debris that consists of cut or small rock-like debris and particle (or grain)-like debris in bulk form. This paper presents a categorization of debris of MF and two possible non-destructive assay (NDA) technologies for precise measurement which could be applied to the NM accountancy of MF debris. One of them is Neutron Resonance Densitometry (NRD) for particle-like (or grain-like) debris, and another is NRF (Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence) NDA using LCS (Laser Compton Scattered) $$gamma$$-rays (mono-energetic $$gamma$$-rays) for cut or small rock-like debris. The paper also describes about the recent development of these two technologies.

Journal Articles

Rehearsal and actual measurement of Fugen spent fuel assemblies by integrated PNAR and SINRD under the JAEA-USDOE collaboration program

Hayashi, Kenta; Nakamura, Takahisa; Takagi, Hisatsugu; Horie, Kaoru; Nakayama, Tamotsu; Hashimoto, Kazuhiko; Hayashi, Shoichi; Nakamura, Shinji; Takenaka, Shigeki; Ishizuka, Nobuo; et al.

Proceedings of INMM 54th Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2013/07

JAEA and USDOE (Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)) have been collaborating on spent fuel measurements with a PNAR/SINRD NDA instrument at Fugen, in the course of the NGSI Spent Fuel Nondestructive Assay Project. In this collaboration, LANL's role has been to design and fabricate the detector (integrated PNAR and SINRD system), while JAEA's role has been to undertake the installation of the detector at the appropriate position in the spent fuel pool and to prepare for the actual measurements. In this paper we report the rehearsal of the measurement using a mock-up detector and a dummy fuel assembly in December 2012 and the plan of actual measurements in June 2013 (at the time of submission of this paper).

Journal Articles

A Summary of JAEA's R&D programs for advanced technologies for nuclear security and safeguards

Bolind, A.; Seya, Michio

Proceedings of INMM 54th Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 9 Pages, 2013/07

This paper reports on the recent progress on research and development programs for advanced technologies for the measurement and detection of nuclear material for security and safeguards. One program is based on a neutron detector that uses a ZnS ceramic scintillator material instead of $$^{3}$$He gas. We will conduct benchmark experiments to compare the performance of NDA systems that use the new scintillator detectors against the existing NDA systems that use $$^{3}$$He detectors. Our Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) program is developing an NDA technique using NRF for measurement of nuclear material isotopes. NRF NDA uses a high-intensity, mono-energetic $$gamma$$ ray beam, which is produced by a Laser Compton Scattering (LCS) system with an energy-recovery linac (ERL). We have conducted several important NRF experiments this past year. Our Neutron Resonance Densitometry (NRD) program is also being designed to measure the nuclear material in melted nuclear-fuel debris. Also, our collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory to test a PNAR+SINRD NDA detector on used nuclear fuel assemblies at Fugen has greatly progressed.

Journal Articles

A Summary of the use of the BIC set to characterize used nuclear fuel assemblies for the purpose of nondestructive assay

Bolind, A.

Proceedings of INMM 54th Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2013/07

This paper summarizes a recent journal article that examines how the burnup, initial enrichment, and cooling time - collectively called the BIC set of variables - of a used nuclear fuel assembly are necessary and sufficient quantities to characterize it for the purposes of non-destructive assay (NDA). Though this fact has been generally recognized for many decades, this article re-examines it from a holistic standpoint. It collects, in one place, the effects that the BIC variables have on the physics properties of the fuel assemblies, rather than just their effects on the responses of specific detectors and instruments. This collection of information then sheds light on how different NDA techniques can and, in fact, must be integrated together to determine the isotopic content and residual reactivity of used nuclear fuel assemblies. Furthermore, the limitations of the applicability of the BIC set become apparent, so that corresponding limitations in the NDA techniques that rely on the BIC set are also highlighted.

Journal Articles

A Proposed method for integrating the PNAR, TN, and CIPN techniques for the non-destructive assay of used nuclear fuel assemblies

Bolind, A.

Proceedings of INMM 54th Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2013/07

In the first phase of its Spent Fuel Nondestructive Assay project, the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) examined 14 NDA techniques for measuring the Pu and/or fissile content of used nuclear fuel assemblies, including the 3 techniques of passive neutron albedo reactivity (PNAR), total neutron counting (TN), and californium-252 interrogation with prompt neutron detection (CIPN). These 3 techniques were not integrated with each other because they all rely on the same physics of the multiplication of neutrons by fissile material. The 3 techniques also have a common problem, though. None of them can independently determine the fissile content, without additional information from either the reactor operator or some other NDA technique regarding the burnup, initial enrichment, and/or cooling time of the fuel assembly. In a recent journal article, the author has proposed a new way to integrate these 3 techniques to overcome this problem. In this INMM paper, the author will summarize this new method and describe how it can be applied to safeguards practice.

Journal Articles

Development of basic NDA technologies for nuclear material accountancy of debris of melted fuel formed in severe accidents

Seya, Michio; Harada, Hideo; Kitatani, Fumito; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Tsuchiya, Harufumi; Iimura, Hideki; Kureta, Masatoshi; Takamine, Jun; Hajima, Ryoichi; Hayakawa, Takehito; et al.

Proceedings of INMM 54th Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 9 Pages, 2013/07

The forming of MF in a severe accident of a nuclear reactor may change the category of the nuclear reactor from item facility to non-item facility. Taking this removal process into account, the damaged reactor could be categorized as a bulk-handling facility. The NM accountancy is essential for the safeguards of a bulk-handling facility. This paper presents a categorization of debris of MF (into cut or small rock-like debris and particle (or grain)-like debris) and a selection of possible NDA technologies which could be applied to the NM accountancy of MF debris. The paper introduces two NDA technologies for NM accountancy of debris: NRD for particle-like (or grain-like) debris, and NRF NDA using LCS $$gamma$$ rays for cut or small rock-like debris. The paper also describes about the development of basic parts of these two technologies and near future plan.

Journal Articles

Categorization of the main techniques of neutron coincidence/multiplicity analysis

Bolind, A.

Proceedings of 35th ESARDA Annual Meeting (Internet), 17 Pages, 2013/05

Reactor noise analysis and neutron coincidence/multiplicity analysis both examine the non-random clustering of neutrons in time, caused by the simultaneous emission of multiple neutrons from each fission event and by the correlation of successive fissions in the same fission chain. Despite these same physical origins, the various kinds of techniques are not often compared with each other on an intuitive level. This paper makes this comparison, primarily by examining whether a given technique relies on the joint probability of detecting neutrons or on the conditional probability. The techniques are compared in other ways, too, such as their time scales and how they deal with fission chains. Subtleties are also addressed, such as the time origin of the Rossi-alpha diagram and the taking of moments. Specific instruments are not described in detail; the focus is the understanding of the physics and counting principles.

Journal Articles

Promising NDA technologies for material accountancy of nuclear material in debris of melted fuel of Fukushima-Daiichi NPP

Seya, Michio; Harada, Hideo; Kitatani, Fumito; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Tsuchiya, Harufumi; Hajima, Ryoichi; Hayakawa, Takehito; Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Angell, C.; Bolind, A.

Proceedings of 35th ESARDA Annual Meeting (Internet), 9 Pages, 2013/05

This introductory paper presents two promising NDA technologies for nuclear material accountancy of melted fuel debris of Fukushima Daiichi NPP, which JAEA has been developing basic part of them. One of the two is Neutron Resonance Densitometry based on NRTA and NRCA utilizing the Time of Flight method, which is intended for the analysis of particle-like debris. We JAEA and JRC-IRMM have started collaboration on NRD since May 2012. This paper describes the proposed NRD very roughly, while the some of the papers show the details of this method. Another NDA technology uses LCS $$gamma$$-rays to analyse nuclear material in cut / small rock-like debris. The application of the Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence method using LCS $$gamma$$-rays is presented here very roughly. Last 2 papers in this series show in detail the demonstration system of generation of intense mono-energetic $$gamma$$-rays using Energy Recovery Linac and laser storing cavity and measurement methods.

Journal Articles

HCM12A oxide layer investigation using scanning probe microscope

Kikuchi, Kenji*; Rivai, A. K.*; Saito, Shigeru; Bolind, A. M.*; Kogure, Akinori*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 431(1-3), p.120 - 124, 2012/12

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:42.4(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The oxide layer on the 12Cr steel, HCM12A, is investigated using a scanning probe microscope (SPM), which was formed in lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) at 450$$sim$$500$$^{circ}$$C, during 5500 hrs. Hitherto oxide formation mechanisms were studied from viewpoints of the location of original base metal surface, the pass for oxygen travel and Fe diffusion to understand the stability of oxide layer. The new findings in this research are that surface potential measurement detected the boundary between (FeCr)$$_{3}$$O$$_{4}$$ and Fe$$_{3}$$O$$_{4}$$, which is not found at the topographic mode measurement. The spinel layer can be distinguished from the bulk area with lower surface potential profile, but near the boundary between the spinel and magnetite layers the surface potential profile seems to be continuous except for the narrow path corresponding to the boundary line. The band structure penetrating magnetite and spinel layer was found, which was not found at the topography.

Journal Articles

Preparation for Pu measurement test of Fugen spent fuel assemblies by integrated PNAR/SINRD

Katano, Yoshiaki; Ebara, Noriyasu; Takagi, Hisatsugu; Nakamura, Takahisa; Bolind, A.; Seya, Michio

Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai (INMM) Nippon Shibu Dai-33-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 10 Pages, 2012/10

The ATR, "Fugen" was a prototype nuclear reactor moderated by heavy water but cooled by boiling light water. It terminated its operations in 2003 and is now being decommissioned. Nevertheless, the spent-fuel pool at Fugen still remains and currently contains both MOX spent-fuel assemblies, and it is flexible enough to be able to conduct Non Destructive Assays (NDA) experiments on the spent fuel assemblies. Therefore, JAEA and the U.S. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are planning to conduct a test of an integrated PNAR/SINRD NDA measurement system at Fugen in 2013. LANL is designing and constructing the system, and JAEA is preparing the Fugen site for the test. The total experience of preparing for and conducting NDA measurements on actual spent fuel assemblies will teach important lessons about the practicality of applying such measurements in the future to spent fuel assemblies from commercial LWR power plants, especially with regard to satisfying legal and safety requirements.

Journal Articles

JAEA development programs of advanced technologies for safeguards and security

Bolind, A.; Kureta, Masatoshi; Soyama, Kazuhiko; Hajima, Ryoichi; Harada, Hideo; Nakamura, Takahisa; Seya, Michio

Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai (INMM) Nippon Shibu Dai-33-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 10 Pages, 2012/10

JAEA has made progress in four development programs of advanced technologies for the measurement of nuclear material for safeguards and security. In the first program, we have designed and simulated a non-destructive assay (NDA) system that uses ZnS-ceramic-scintillator neutron detectors, instead of $$^{3}$$He neutron detectors. The second program is a basic demonstration of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) as an NDA technique for measuring the fissile isotopes in nuclear material. Construction of one loop of an energy-recovery linac (ERL) at KEK in Tsukuba was begun this past year, and will finish in this fiscal year. The ERL will produce a high-intensity, mono-energetic $$gamma$$-ray beam for NRF. Also JAEA and the US Department of Energy are evaluating NRF-simulation codes. In the third program, we have started to design and construct a prototype of a new NDA system to determine the quantity of nuclear material in particle debris of melted nuclear fuel. It uses both neutron resonance transmission analysis (NRTA) and neutron resonance capture analysis (NRCA). In the fourth program, we have made detailed preparations for testing a new NDA instrument (constructed by Los Alamos National Laboratory) on used nuclear fuel assemblies in the spent fuel pool at Fugen, next year. It uses a combined technique of passive neutron albedo reactivity (PNAR) and self-interrogation neutron resonance densitometry (SINRD).

Journal Articles

Feasibility studies and development of NDA technologies for nuclear materials in the melted fuels formed in severe accidents

Seya, Michio; Harada, Hideo; Kitatani, Fumito; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Tsuchiya, Harufumi; Iimura, Hideki; Kureta, Masatoshi; Takamine, Jun; Hajima, Ryoichi; Hayakawa, Takehito; et al.

Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai (INMM) Nippon Shibu Dai-33-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 10 Pages, 2012/10

This paper presents feasibility (selection) study of NDA techniques, NRD (Neutron Resonance Densitometry) and LCSG-NRF (LCS $$gamma$$-rays interrogation Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence), to measure nuclear material (NM) in debris of melted fuel with high precision. The melted fuel under consideration here is the one formed by the severe loss of coolant accidents of such as Units 1 - 3 of Fukushima-Daiichi NPP. NRD based on NRTA (Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis) and NRCA (Neutron Resonance Capture Analysis) utilizing the TOF (Time of Flight) method is intended for measurement of NM (all isotopes of U/Pu) in particle-like debris. LCSG-NRF using intense LCS (Laser Compton Scattered) $$gamma$$-rays (mono-energetic $$gamma$$-rays) is to measure NM (all isotopes of U/Pu) in small rock-like debris and cut-shape debris (cylindrical, slab-shpape). In this paper we also summarize advantages of two techniques compared with other NDA techniques.

Journal Articles

A Distillation of the important physics for understanding neutron-based non-destructive assay techniques for nuclear fuel

Bolind, A.; Seya, Michio

Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai (INMM) Nippon Shibu Dai-33-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 12 Pages, 2012/10

Since 2008, the US Department of Energy, through its Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), has renewed the research of non-destructive-assay (NDA) techniques for determining the plutonium mass in spent nuclear fuel assemblies. Of the fourteen technologies that are being considered in the NGSI, ten technologies measure neutrons to determine the fissile content of the nuclear material. These ten techniques can be categorized according to the characteristic of the neutrons that they measure. Five techniques measure the multiplication of neutrons by fissile material, three analyze the neutron energy spectrum for resonance reactions in fissile isotopes, and two measure the time coincidence of the neutrons that are emitted by fission. A basic knowledge of these principles is essential for understanding these techniques. This paper summarizes parts of this knowledge.

Journal Articles

A Collection and distillation of the important physics for understanding, interpreting, and evaluating neutron-based non-destructive assay techniques for nuclear fuel

Bolind, A.; Seya, Michio

Proceedings of INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2012/07

In recent years, the US Department of Energy has renewed research in a wide variety of non-destructive-assay (NDA) techniques, through its Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). Of the fourteen technologies that are being considered in the NGSI, ten measure neutrons to determine the fissile content of the nuclear material. These ten techniques can be categorized according to the characteristic of the neutrons that they measure. Five techniques measure the multiplication of neutrons by fissile material, three analyze the neutron energy spectrum for resonance reactions in fissile isotopes, and two measure the time coincidence of the neutrons that are emitted by fission. A basic knowledge of these principles is essential for understanding the these techniques. This paper summarizes parts of this knowledge.

Journal Articles

The JAEA part of the joint JAEA-U.S. DOE project for Pu measurement of Fugen spent fuel assemblies by integrated PNAR and SINRD

Ebara, Noriyasu; Katano, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Takahisa; Takagi, Hisatsugu; Bolind, A.; Seya, Michio

Proceedings of INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2012/07

The Fugen advanced thermal reactor stopped operations in 2003 and is now being decommissioned. Nevertheless, the spent-fuel pool at Fugen still remains and currently contains both MOX and UO$$_{2}$$ spent-fuel assemblies. Because Fugen was a prototype, the standard operations at the spent-fuel pool are flexible enough to be able to conduct NDA experiments on the spent fuel. Therefore, JAEA and the U.S.DOE are planning to conduct a test of an integrated PNAR and SINRD NDA measurement system at Fugen in 2013. LANL is designing and constructing the detector, and JAEA is preparing the Fugen site for the test. It will be report to select for install location of NDA test device in spent fuel pool, how to installation and study of test flow.

Journal Articles

JAEA development programs of advanced technologies for safeguards and security

Bolind, A.; Kureta, Masatoshi; Soyama, Kazuhiko; Hajima, Ryoichi; Harada, Hideo; Nakamura, Takahisa; Seya, Michio

Proceedings of INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2012/07

This paper reports the progress that has been made at JAEA concerning 4 development programs of advanced technologies for the measurement of nuclear material for safeguards and security. One program is developing a neutron detector based on a ZnS ceramic scintillator material, to replace $$^{3}$$He neutron detectors. The other 3 programs are developing new non-destructive assay (NDA) systems. One system measures the nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) induced in fissile material by a high-intensity, mono-energetic $$gamma$$ ray beam, produced by a Laser Compton Scattering (LCS) system in an energy-recovery linac (ERL). Another system uses both neutron resonance transmission analysis (NRTA) and neutron resonance capture analysis (NRCA) to determine the fissile content in particle debris of melted nuclear fuel. The last system is a neutron-based, spent-fuel, NDA system that is being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The system uses combines the techniques of self-interrogation neutron resonance densitometry (SINRD) and passive neutron albedo reactivity (PNAR). It will be tested on used nuclear fuel assemblies in the spent fuel pool at Fugen.

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