Carter, L. M.*; Crawford, T. M.*; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Furuta, Takuya; Choi, C.*; Kim, C. H.*; Brown, J. L.*; Bolch, W. E.*; Zanzonico, P. B.*; Lewis, J. S.*
Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 60(12), p.1802 - 1811, 2019/12
Voxel human phantoms have been used for internal dose assessment. More anatomically accurate representation become possible for skins or layer tissues owing to recent developments of advanced polygonal mesh-type phantoms and thus internal dose assessment using those advanced phantoms are desired. However, the Monte Carlo transport calculation by implementing those phantoms require an advanced knowledge for the Monte Carlo transport codes and it is only limited to experts. We therefore developed a tool, PARaDIM, which enables users to conduct internal dose calculation with PHITS easily by themselves. With this tool, a user can select tetrahedral-mesh phantoms, set radionuclides in organs, and execute radiation transport calculation with PHITS. Several test cases of internal dosimetry calculations were presented and usefulness of this tool was demonstrated.
Schuemann, J.*; McNamara, A. L.*; Warmenhoven, J. W.*; Henthorn, N. T.*; Kirkby, K.*; Merchant, M. J.*; Ingram, S.*; Paganetti, H.*; Held, K. D.*; Ramos-Mendez, J.*; et al.
Radiation Research, 191(1), p.76 - 93, 2019/01
We propose a new Standard DNA Damage (SDD) data format to unify the interface between the simulation of damage induction in DNA and the biological modelling of DNA repair processes, and introduce the effect of the environment (molecular oxygen or other compounds) as a flexible parameter. Such a standard greatly facilitates inter-model comparisons, providing an ideal environment to tease out model assumptions and identify persistent, underlying mechanisms. Through inter-model comparisons, this unified standard has the potential to greatly advance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of radiation-induced DNA damage and the resulting observable biological effects when radiation parameters and/or environmental conditions change.
Chadwick, M. B.*; Capote, R.*; Trkov, A.*; Herman, M. W.*; Brown, D. A.*; Hale, G. M.*; Kahler, A. C.*; Talou, P.*; Plompen, A. J.*; Schillebeeckx, P.*; et al.
Nuclear Data Sheets, 148, p.189 - 213, 2018/02
The CIELO collaboration has studied neutron cross sections on nuclides that significantly impact criticality in nuclear facilities - U, U, Pu, Fe, O and H - with the aim of improving the accuracy of the data and resolving previous discrepancies in our understanding. This multi-laboratory pilot project, coordinated via the OECD/NEA Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) Subgroup 40 with support also from the IAEA, has motivated experimental and theoretical work and led to suites of new evaluated libraries that accurately reflect measured data and also perform well in integral simulations of criticality. This report summarizes our results and outlines plans for the next phase of this collaboration.
Chadwick, M. B.*; Capote, R.*; Trkov, A.*; Kahler, A. C.*; Herman, M. W.*; Brown, D. A.*; Hale, G. M.*; Pigni, M.*; Dunn, M.*; Leal, L.*; et al.
EPJ Web of Conferences (Internet), 146, p.02001_1 - 02001_9, 2017/09
The CIELO collaboration has studied neutron cross sections on nuclides (O, Fe, U and Pu) that significantly impact criticality in nuclear technologies with the aim of improving the accuracy of the data and resolving previous discrepancies in our understanding. This multi-laboratory pilot project, coordinated via the OECD/NEA Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) Subgroup 40 with support also from the IAEA, has motivated experimental and theoretical work and led to suites of new evaluated libraries that accurately reflect measured data and also perform well in integral simulations of criticality.
Furuta, Takuya; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Han, M. C.*; Yeom, Y. S.*; Kim, C. H.*; Brown, J. L.*; Bolch, W. E.*
Physics in Medicine and Biology, 62(12), p.4798 - 4810, 2017/06
A new function to treat tetrahedral-mesh geometry, a type of polygon-mesh geometry, was implemented in the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code Systems (PHITS). Tetrahedral-mesh is suitable to describe complex geometry including curving shapes. In addition, construction of three-dimensional geometry using CAD software becomes possible with file format conversion. We have introduced a function to create decomposition maps of tetrahedral-mesh objects at the initial process so that the computational time for transport process can be reduced. Owing to this function, transport calculation in tetrahedral-mesh geometry can be as fast as that for the geometry in voxel-mesh with the same number of meshes. Due to adaptability of tetrahedrons in size and shape, dosimetrically equivalent objects can be represented by tetrahedrons with much fewer number of meshes compared with the voxels. For dosimetric calculation using computational human phantom, significant acceleration of the computational speed, about 4 times, was confirmed by adopting the tetrahedral mesh instead of the voxel.
Hug, L. A.*; Baker, B. J.*; Anantharaman, K.*; Brown, C. T.*; Probst, A. J.*; Castelle, C. J.*; Butterfield, C. N.*; Hernsdorf, A. W.*; Amano, Yuki; Ise, Kotaro; et al.
Nature Microbiology (Internet), 1(5), p.16048_1 - 16048_6, 2016/05
The tree of life is one of the most important organizing principles in biology. Gene surveys suggest the existence of an enormous number of branches, but even an approximation of the full scale of The Tree has remained elusive. Here, we use newly available information from genomes of uncultivated organisms, along with other published sequences, to present a new version of the Tree of life, with Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryotes included. The depiction is both a global overview and a snapshot of the diversity within each major lineage. The results imply the predominance of bacterial diversification and underline the importance of organisms lacking isolated representatives, with substantial evolution concentrated in a major radiation of such organisms.
Chadwick, M. B.*; Dupont, E.*; Bauge, E.*; Blokhin, A.*; Bouland, O.*; Brown, D. A.*; Capote, R.*; Carlson, A. D.*; Danon, Y.*; De Saint Jean, C.*; et al.
Nuclear Data Sheets, 118, p.1 - 25, 2014/04
CIELO (Collaborative International Evaluated Library Organization) provides a new working paradigm to facilitate evaluated nuclear reaction data advances. It brings together experts from across the international nuclear reaction data community to identify and document discrepancies among existing evaluated data libraries, measured data, and model calculation interpretations, and aims to make progress in reconciling these discrepancies to create more accurate ENDF-formatted files. The focus will initially be on a small number of the highest-priority isotopes, namely H, O, Fe, U, and Pu. This paper identifies discrepancies between various evaluations of the highest priority isotopes. The evaluated data for these materials in the existing nuclear data libraries are reviewed, and some integral properties are given. The paper summarizes a program of nuclear science and computational work needed to create the new CIELO nuclear data evaluations.
Payne, T. E.*; Brendler, V.*; Ochs, M.*; Baeyens, B.*; Brown, P. L.*; Davis, J. A.*; Ekberg, C.*; Kulik, D.*; Lutzenkirchen, J.*; Missana, T.*; et al.
Environmental Modelling & Software, 42, p.143 - 156, 2013/04
Thermodynamic sorption models (TSMs) can be utilised to provide a scientific basis for Kd setting in the safety case, and for assessing the response of Kd to changes in chemical conditions. The TSM development involves a series of decisions on model features such as surface sites, sorption reactions and electrostatic corrections. There is a lack of consensus on the best ways to develop TSMs, and the NEA has therefore co ordinated an international project to assess the strategies and processes for building a TSM. This paper presents recommendations from the project on a number of aspects of TSM development in the context of radioactive waste disposal. Key recommendations include: definition of modelling objectives, identification of major decision points, a clear decision making rationale with reference to experimental or theoretical evidence, a suitable consultative and iterative model development process, testing to the maximum practicable extent, and documentation of key decisions.
Papuga, J.*; Bissell, M. L.*; Kreim, K.*; Blaum, K.*; Brown, B. A.*; De Rydt, M.*; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.*; Heylen, H.*; Kowalska, M.*; Neugart, R.*; et al.
Physical Review Letters, 110(17), p.172503_1 - 172503_5, 2013/04
no abstracts in English
Chadwick, M. B.*; Herman, M.*; Obloinsk, P.*; Dunn, M. E.*; Danon, Y.*; Kahler, A. C.*; Smith, D. L.*; Pritychenko, B.*; Arbanas, G.*; Arcilla, R.*; et al.
Nuclear Data Sheets, 112(12), p.2887 - 2996, 2011/12
The ENDF/B-VII.1 library is our latest recommended evaluated nuclear data file for use in nuclear science and technology applications, and incorporates advances made in the five years since the release of ENDF/B-VII.0. These advances focus on neutron cross sections, covariances, fission product yields and decay data, and represent work by the US Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) in nuclear data evaluation that utilizes developments in nuclear theory, modeling, simulation, and experiment. It features extension of covered nuclei, covariance data for 190 nuclei, R-matrix analyses of neutron reactions on light nuclei, updates for some medium-heavy and actinoid nuclei, etc. Criticality benchmark tests with a transport simulation code MCNP shows improved performances.
Steer, S. J.*; Podolyk, Z.*; Pietri, S.*; Grska, M.*; Grawe, H.*; Maier, K.*; Regan, P. H.*; Rudolph, D.*; Garnsworthy, A. B.*; Hoischen, R.*; et al.
Physical Review C, 84(4), p.044313_1 - 044313_22, 2011/10
Heavy neutron-rich nuclei were populated via the fragmentation of a E/A=1 GeV Pb beam. Secondary fragments were separated and identified and subsequently implanted in a passive stopper. By the detection of delayed rays, isomeric decays associated with these nuclei have been identified. A total of 49 isomers were detected, with the majority of them observed for the first time. Possible level schemes are constructed and the structure of the nuclei discussed. To aid the interpretation, shell-model as well as BCS calculations were performed.
Riley, L. A.*; Adrich, P.*; Baugher, T. R.*; Bazin, D.*; Brown, B. A.*; Cook, J. M.*; Cottle, P. D.*; Diget, C. A.*; Gade, A.*; Garland, D. A.*; et al.
Physical Review C, 78(1), p.011303_1 - 011303_5, 2008/07
no abstracts in English
Pietri, S.*; Regan, P. H.*; Podolyk, Zs.*; Rudolph, D.*; Steer, S. J.*; Garnsworthy, A. B.*; Werner-Malento, E.*; Hoischen, R.*; Grska, M.*; Gerl, J.*; et al.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 261(1-2), p.1079 - 1083, 2007/08
The first results from the stopped beam RISING experimental campaign performed at the GSI laboratory in Darmstadt, Germany, are presented. RISING constitutes a major new experimental program in European nuclear structure physics research aimed at using relativistic energy (typically around 1 GeV per nucleon) projectile fragmentation reactions to populate nuclei with highly exotic proton-to-neutron ratios compared to the line of beta stability. In its high-efficiency stopped beam configuration, the RISING -ray spectrometer consists of 105 individual germanium crystals which view a focal plane in which the exotic nuclei are brought to rest. Here, decays from metastable states with half-lives in the nano to milliseconds range can be observed. Results of initial commissioning experiments are also shown and details of the planned future experimental program are given.
Lelivre-Berna, E.*; Brown, P. J.*; Tasset, F.*; Kakurai, Kazuhisa; Takeda, Masayasu; Regnault, L.-P.*
Physica B; Condensed Matter, 397(1), p.120 - 124, 2007/07
no abstracts in English
Terry, J. R.*; Basin, D.*; Brown, B. A.*; Campbell, C. M.*; Church, J. A.*; Cook, J. M.*; Davies, A. D.*; Dinca, D.-C.*; Enders, J.*; Gade, A.*; et al.
Physics Letters B, 640(3), p.86 - 90, 2006/09
no abstracts in English
Brown, J. L.*; Furuta, Takuya; Bolch, W. E.*
no journal, ,
Computational human phantoms in a voxelized format have been used in radiation dose assessments with Monte Carlo radiation transport codes. Recently, the transport in human computational phantoms represented by polygon mesh structure becomes possible with the several Monte Carlo codes. Individual organs and body circumferences are better represented by mesh-type human phantom than by voxel-based phantoms. Tremendous number of voxel-based phantoms have been developed from CT or MR data, and thus there is a need for conversion of existing models to mesh-type formats to allow this additional benefit. We therefore developed an algorithm which accurately converts computational voxelized human phantoms into a polygon-mesh format by detecting boundaries of individual organs. The converted polygon-mesh phantoms can be visualized using CAD software as well as they can be used for radiation transport calculation in Monte Carlo codes.