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Journal Articles

Basic study on seismic respnse of soil-structure interaction system using equivalent linear three-dimensional FEM analysis of reactor building

Ichihara, Yoshitaka*; Nakamura, Naohiro*; Nabeshima, Kunihiko*; Choi, B.; Nishida, Akemi

Kozo Kogaku Rombunshu, B, 68B, p.271 - 283, 2022/04

This paper aims to evaluate the applicability of the equivalent linear analysis method for reinforced concrete, which uses frequency-independent hysteretic damping, to the seismic design of reactor building of the nuclear power plant. To achieve this, we performed three-dimensional FEM analyses of the soil-structure interaction system, focusing on the nonlinear and equivalent linear seismic behavior of a reactor building under an ideal soil condition. From these results, the method of equivalent analysis showed generally good correspondence with the method of the nonlinear analysis, confirming the effectiveness. Moreover, the method tended to lower the structural stiffness compared to the nonlinear analysis model. Therefore, in the evaluation of the maximum shear strain, we consider that the results were more likely to be higher than the results of nonlinear analysis.

JAEA Reports

Standard guideline for the seismic response analysis method using 3D finite element model of reactor buildings (Contract research)

Choi, B.; Nishida, Akemi; Kawata, Manabu; Shiomi, Tadahiko; Li, Y.

JAEA-Research 2021-017, 174 Pages, 2022/03

JAEA-Research-2021-017.pdf:9.33MB

Standard methods such as lumped mass models have been used in the assessment of seismic safety and the design of building structures in nuclear facilities. Recent advances in computer capabilities allow the use of three-dimensional finite element (3D FE) models to account for the 3D behavior of buildings, material nonlinearity, and the nonlinear soil-structure interaction effect. Since the 3D FE model enables more complex and high-level treatment than ever before, it is necessary to ensure the reliability of the analytical results generated by the 3D FE model. Guidelines for assuring the dependability of modeling techniques and the treatment of nonlinear aspects of material properties have already been created and technical certifications have been awarded in domains other than nuclear engineering. The International Atomic Energy Agency performed an international benchmark study in nuclear engineering. Multiple organizations reported on the results of seismic response studies using the 3D FE model based on recordings from the Niigata-ken Chuetsuoki Earthquake in 2007. The variation in their analytical results was significant, indicating an urgent need to improve the reliability of the analytical results by standardization of the analytical methods using 3D FE models. Additionally, it has been pointed out that it is necessary to understand the 3D behavior in the seismic fragility assessment of buildings and equipment, which requires evaluating the realistic nonlinear behavior of building facilities when assessing their seismic fragility. In view of these considerations, a standard guideline for the seismic response analysis method using a 3D FE model was produced by incorporating the latest knowledge and findings in this area. The purpose of the guideline is to improve the reliability of the seismic response analysis method using 3D FE model of reactor buildings. The guideline consists of a main body, commentaries, and appendixes; it also provides standard procedures

Journal Articles

Applicability of equivalent linear analysis to reinforced concrete shear walls; 3D FEM simulation of experiment results of seismic wall ultimate behavior

Ichihara, Yoshitaka*; Nakamura, Naohiro*; Moritani, Hiroshi*; Horiguchi, Tomohiro*; Choi, B.

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 21(1), p.1 - 14, 2022/03

In this study, we aim to approximately evaluate the effect of nonlinearity of reinforced concrete structures through seismic response analysis using the equivalent linear analysis method. A simulation analysis was performed for the ultimate response test of the shear wall of the reactor building used in an international competition by OECD/NEA in 1996. The equivalent stiffness and damping of the shear wall were obtained from the trilinear skeleton curves proposed by the Japan Electric Association and the hysteresis curves proposed by Cheng et al. The dominant frequency, maximum acceleration response, maximum displacement response, inertia force-displacement relationship, and acceleration response spectra of the top slab could be simulated well up to a shear strain of approximately $$gamma$$=2.0$$times$$10$$^{-3}$$. The equivalent linear analysis used herein underestimates the maximum displacement response at the time of ultimate fracture of approximately $$gamma$$=4.0$$times$$10$$^{-3}$$. Moreover, the maximum shear strain of the shear wall could not capture the locally occurring shear strain compared with that of the nonlinear analysis. Therefore, when employing this method to evaluate the maximum shear strain and test results, including those during the sudden increase in displacement immediately before the fracture, sufficient attention must be paid to its applicability.

Journal Articles

Assessment of seismic fragility using a three-dimensional structural model of a reactor building

Nishida, Akemi; Choi, B.; Shiomi, Tadahiko; Kawata, Manabu; Li, Y.

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering; Nuclear Energy the Future Zero Carbon Power (ICONE 28) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2021/08

The new regulatory requirements in Japan have strengthened the mitigation of damage caused by natural disasters, such as earthquakes, and the operational guide for safety improvement evaluation recommends the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) as the evaluation method in Japan. In the PRA of an earthquake, also known as the seismic PRA, the realistic assessment of the structural seismic response and the damage probability (fragility) assessment using the realistic response assessment of the nuclear buildings and equipment is one of the most important issues. Accordingly, the authors have conducted this study on the realistic seismic response analysis methods and seismic fragility assessment methods to ensure the seismic safety of the nuclear buildings and equipment. In this study, a nonlinear seismic response analysis is conducted for input ground motions beyond the ground motions assumed in the design by using a three-dimensional (3D) structural model of a reactor building. In addition, the damage mode of the structural components of the reactor building associated with the equipment is identified, and the seismic fragility is assessed based on the 3D behavior of the reactor building. The local response and detailed damage process of the reactor building that have been obtained through seismic response analysis, are reported in this study, along with the results of the seismic fragility assessment.

Journal Articles

Outline of guideline for seismic response analysis method using 3D finite element model of reactor building

Choi, B.; Nishida, Akemi; Shiomi, Tadahiko; Kawata, Manabu; Li, Y.

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering; Nuclear Energy the Future Zero Carbon Power (ICONE 28) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2021/08

In the seismic safety assessment of building structures in nuclear facilities, lumped mass models are conventionally used. However, they cannot possess the required high-accuracy evaluation of nuclear facilities, such as the local response at the equipment location in a reactor building. In this point of view, a seismic response analysis method using a three-dimensional finite element (3D FE) model is indispensable. Although, it has been reported that the analysis results obtained using 3D FE models vary greatly depending on the experience and knowledge of analysts, the quality of analysis results should be insured by developing a standard analysis method. In the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, we have developed a guideline for seismic response analysis methods that adopt 3D FE models of reactor buildings. The guideline consists of a main body, commentary, and several supplements; it also includes procedures, recommendations, points of attention, and a technical basis for conducting seismic response analysis using 3D FE models of reactor buildings. In this paper, the outline of the guideline and analysis examples based on the guideline are presented.

Journal Articles

3D FEM soil-structure interaction analysis for Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant considering soil separation and sliding

Ichihara, Yoshitaka*; Nakamura, Naohiro*; Moritani, Hiroshi*; Choi, B.; Nishida, Akemi

Frontiers in Built Environment (Internet), 7, p.676408_1 - 676408_14, 2021/06

The objective of this study is the improvement of response evaluations of structures, facilities and equipment in evaluation of three-dimensional seismic behavior of nuclear power plant facilities, by three-dimensional finite element method model, including separation and sliding between the soil and the basement walls. To achieve this, simulation analyses of Kashiwazaki Kariwa nuclear power plant unit 7 reactor building under the 2007 Niigataken-chuetsu-oki earthquake event were carried out. These simulation analyses consider soil-structure interaction using a three-dimensional finite element method model in which the soil and building are three-dimensionally modeled by the finite element method. It is found that basemat uplift is generated on east side of the basemat edge, and this has an important influence on the results. The importance is evidenced by the difference of local response in soil pressure characteristics beneath the edge of basemat, the soil pressure characteristics along the east side of basement wall and the maximum acceleration response at the west end of the embedded surface. Although, in this particular study, basemat uplift, separation and sliding have only a relatively small influence on the maximum acceleration response of embedded surface and the soil pressure characteristics along the basement walls and beneath the basemat, under strong earthquake motion, these influences can be significant, therefore appropriate evaluation of this effect should be considered.

Journal Articles

Development of negative muonium ion source for muon acceleration

Kitamura, Ryo; Bae, S.*; Choi, S.*; Fukao, Yoshinori*; Iinuma, Hiromi*; Ishida, Katsuhiko*; Kawamura, Naritoshi*; Kim, B.*; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Mibe, Tsutomu*; et al.

Physical Review Accelerators and Beams (Internet), 24(3), p.033403_1 - 033403_9, 2021/03

A negative muonium ion (Mu$$^{-}$$) source using an aluminum foil target was developed as a low-energy muon source. An experiment to produce Mu$$^{-}$$ ions was conducted to evaluate the performance of the Mu$$^{-}$$ ion source. The measured event rate of Mu$$^{-}$$ ions was $$(1.7 pm 0.3) times 10^{-3}$$ Mu$$^{-}$$/s when the event rate of the incident muon beam was $$1.3times10^{6}$$/s. The formation probability, defined as the ratio of the Mu$$^{-}$$ ions to the incident muons on the Al target, was $$(1.1 pm 0.2(textrm{stat.})^{-0.0}_{+0.1}(textrm{syst.})) times10^{-6}$$. This Mu$$^{-}$$ ion source boosted the development of the muon accelerator, and the practicality of this low-energy muon source obtained using a relatively simple apparatus was demonstrated.

Journal Articles

Temporally decoherent and spatially coherent vibrations in metal halide perovskites

Zhang, D.*; Hu, X.*; Chen, T.*; Abernathy, D. L.*; Kajimoto, Ryoichi; Nakamura, Mitsutaka; Kofu, Maiko; Foley, B. J.*; Yoon, M.*; Choi, J. J.*; et al.

Physical Review B, 102(22), p.224310_1 - 224310_10, 2020/12

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:24.67(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Uncertainty quantification of seismic response of reactor building considering different modeling methods

Choi, B.; Nishida, Akemi; Muramatsu, Ken*; Itoi, Tatsuya*; Takada, Tsuyoshi*

Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 5 Pages, 2020/08

After the 2011 Fukushima accident, the seismic regulation for Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) have been strengthened to take countermeasures against accidents beyond design basis conditions. Therefore, the importance of seismic probabilistic risk assessment has drawn much attention. Uncertainty quantification is a very important issue in the fragility assessment for NPP buildings. In this study, the authors focus on the epistemic uncertainty that can be reduced, and aims to clarify the effects due to different modeling methods of NPP buildings on seismic response results. As the first step of this study, the authors compared the effects on seismic response using two kinds of modeling methods. In order to evaluate the effect, seismic response analysis was performed on two types of building models; the three dimensional finite element model and the conventional lumped mass with sway-rocking model. As the input ground motion, the authors adopted 200 types of simulated seismic ground motions generated by fault rupture models with stochastic seismic source characteristics. For the uncertainty quantification, the authors conducted statistical analyses of the effects on seismic response results of two kinds of modeling methods on building response for each input ground motions, and quantitatively evaluated the uncertainty of response considering different modeling methods. In particular, the difference in modeling methods clearly appeared near the openings of the floors and walls. The authors also report on the knowledge about these three-dimensional effects in seismic response analysis.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of the effects of differences in building models on the seismic response of a nuclear power plant structure

Choi, B.; Nishida, Akemi; Muramatsu, Ken*; Takada, Tsuyoshi*

Nihon Jishin Kogakkai Rombunshu (Internet), 20(2), p.2_1 - 2_16, 2020/02

AA2018-0122.pdf:2.15MB

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

PARaDIM; A PHITS-based Monte Carlo tool for internal dosimetry with tetrahedral mesh computational phantoms

Carter, L. M.*; Crawford, T. M.*; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Furuta, Takuya; Choi, C.*; Kim, C. H.*; Brown, J. L.*; Bolch, W. E.*; Zanzonico, P. B.*; Lewis, J. S.*

Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 60(12), p.1802 - 1811, 2019/12

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:78.97(Radiology, Nuclear Medicine & Medical Imaging)

Voxel human phantoms have been used for internal dose assessment. More anatomically accurate representation become possible for skins or layer tissues owing to recent developments of advanced polygonal mesh-type phantoms and thus internal dose assessment using those advanced phantoms are desired. However, the Monte Carlo transport calculation by implementing those phantoms require an advanced knowledge for the Monte Carlo transport codes and it is only limited to experts. We therefore developed a tool, PARaDIM, which enables users to conduct internal dose calculation with PHITS easily by themselves. With this tool, a user can select tetrahedral-mesh phantoms, set radionuclides in organs, and execute radiation transport calculation with PHITS. Several test cases of internal dosimetry calculations were presented and usefulness of this tool was demonstrated.

Journal Articles

Beam commissioning of muon beamline using negative hydrogen ions generated by ultraviolet light

Nakazawa, Yuga*; Bae, S.*; Choi, H.*; Choi, S.*; Iijima, Toru*; Iinuma, Hiromi*; Kawamura, Naritoshi*; Kitamura, Ryo; Kim, B.*; Ko, H. S.*; et al.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 937, p.164 - 167, 2019/09

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:23.13(Instruments & Instrumentation)

A muon linac is under development for the precise measurement of the muon anomalous magnetic moment ($$g$$-2) and electric dipole moment (EDM) with a reaccelerated thermal muon beam. An H$$^-$$ source driven by an ultraviolet light has been developed for the muon acceleration experiment. Prior to the acceleration experiment, a beamline commissioning was performed using this H$$^-$$ beam, since the accelerated muon intensity is very low. We successfully measured the magnetic rigidity, which is essential for identifying the accelerated muons. This H$$^-$$ source is capable of utilizing as a general-purpose beam source for other beamline.

Journal Articles

Uncertainty of different modeling methods of NPP building subject to seismic ground motions

Choi, B.; Nishida, Akemi; Shiomi, Tadahiko; Muramatsu, Ken*; Takada, Tsuyoshi*

Proceedings of 25th International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology (SMiRT-25) (USB Flash Drive), 8 Pages, 2019/08

In this study, to clarify the influence of the uncertainty of the input seismic ground-motion response of a nuclear power plant (NPP) building, we examined seismic-response analysis results using two different methods of modeling buildings and then compared the results to evaluate effects related to differences between the models. The two methods we used are the three-dimensional (3D) finite-element (FE) model (mainly composed of shell elements) and the conventional sway-rocking (SR) model. Also, using features of the 3D FE model, we analyzed the spatial features of the response results. In this paper, we describe the differences in seismic response obtained by the 3D FE model and the SR model based on simulated input ground motions, and we discuss the influence of the characteristics of the input ground motion on the maximum-response acceleration of the modeled NPP building.

Journal Articles

Development of seismic counter measures against cliff edges for enhancement of comprehensive safety of nuclear power plants, 10; Avoidance of cliff edge for reactor vessel

Yamano, Hidemasa; Nishida, Akemi; Choi, B.; Takada, Tsuyoshi*

Proceedings of 25th International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology (SMiRT-25) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2019/08

The objective of this study is to assess cliff edge effects, which are greatly important for nuclear power plants. Through assessments of failure probabilities (fragility), this study examined seismic margins of simulated two kinds of thin- and thick-walled reactor vessels by using response waveforms of the reactor building with/without a seismic isolation system obtained by seismic response analyses. The fragility analyses showed that the seismic isolation technology largely reduced the structural response effects nearly twice as much as that of the non-isolated plant. In focusing on uncertainty of response factor of components, the seismic isolation plant has a significant margin compared to the non-isolated plant even if factors from 0.5 to 2.0 are taken into account. This study concluded that the seismic isolation technology is effective to avoid cliff-edge effects.

Journal Articles

Development of seismic counter measures against cliff edges for enhancement of comprehensive safety of nuclear power plants, 8; Identification and assessment of cliff edges of NPP structural system

Nishida, Akemi; Choi, B.; Yamano, Hidemasa; Itoi, Tatsuya*; Takada, Tsuyoshi*

Proceedings of 25th International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology (SMiRT-25) (USB Flash Drive), 9 Pages, 2019/08

In this research, the seismic safety of a nuclear power plant (NPP) is treated as a system in which the various cliff edge effects are identified and quantified based on the concepts of risk and defense in depth. An aim of this research is to develop a methodology for avoiding these cliff edge effects. In order to examine how the cliff edge state specified and evaluated in the seismic response analysis of the building system, we investigated the seismic isolation mechanism related to physical cliff edges and the modeling effects of the building system related to knowledge oriented cliff edges. In particular, with regard to knowledge-oriented cliff edges, we quantitatively evaluated the uncertainty within the same floor which is evaluated by a three-dimensional building model and tried to reflect it on the fragility evaluation. This paper presents and discusses these results.

Journal Articles

Computation speeds and memory requirements of mesh-type ICRP reference computational phantoms in Geant4, MCNP6, and PHITS

Yeom, Y. S.*; Han, M. C.*; Choi, C.*; Han, H.*; Shin, B.*; Furuta, Takuya; Kim, C. H.*

Health Physics, 116(5), p.664 - 676, 2019/05

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:81.33(Environmental Sciences)

Recently, Task Group 103 of the ICRP developed the mesh-type reference computational phantoms (MCRPs), which are planned for use in future ICRP dose coefficient calculation. Performance of major Monte Carlo particle transport codes (Geant4, MCNP6, and PHITS) were tested with MCRP. External and internal exposure of various particles and energies were calculated and the computational times and required memories were compared. Additionally calculation for voxel-mesh phantom was also conducted so that the influence of different mesh-representation in each code was studied. Memory usage of MRCP was as large as 10 GB with Geant4 and MCNP6 while it is much less with PHITS (1.2 GB). In addition, the computational time required for MRCP tends to increase compared to voxel-mesh phantoms with Geant4 and MCNP6 while it is equal or tends to decrease with PHITS.

Journal Articles

Passive sweat collection and colorimetric analysis of biomarkers relevant to kidney disorders using a soft microfluidic system

Zhang, Y.*; Guo, H.*; Kim, S. B.*; Wu, Y.*; Ostojich, D.*; Park, S. H.*; Wang, X.*; Weng, Z.*; Li, R.*; Bandodkar, A. J.*; et al.

Lab on a Chip, 19(9), p.1545 - 1555, 2019/05

 Times Cited Count:54 Percentile:99.34(Biochemical Research Methods)

This paper introduces two important advances in recently reported classes of soft, skin-interfaced microfluidic systems for sweat capture and analysis: (1) a simple, broadly applicable means for collection of sweat that bypasses requirements for physical/mental exertion or pharmacological stimulation and (2) a set of enzymatic chemistries and colorimetric readout approaches for determining the concentrations of creatinine and urea in sweat, across physiologically relevant ranges. The results allow for routine, non-pharmacological capture of sweat across patient populations, such as infants and the elderly, that cannot be expected to sweat through exercise, and they create potential opportunities in the use of sweat for kidney disease screening/monitoring.

Journal Articles

Battery-free, skin-interfaced microfluidic/electronic systems for simultaneous electrochemical, colorimetric, and volumetric analysis of sweat

Bandodkar, A. J.*; Gutruf, P.*; Choi, J.*; Lee, K.-H.*; Sekine, Yurina; Reeder, J. T.*; Jeang, W. J.*; Aranyosi, A. J.*; Lee, S. P.*; Model, J. B.*; et al.

Science Advances (Internet), 5(1), p.eaav3294_1 - eaav3294_15, 2019/01

 Times Cited Count:194 Percentile:99.9(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Interest in advanced wearable technologies increasingly extends beyond systems for biophysical measurements to those that enable continuous, non-invasive monitoring of biochemical markers in biofluids. Here, we introduce battery-free, wireless microelectronic platforms that perform sensing via schemes inspired by the operation of biofuel cells. Combining these systems in a magnetically releasable manner with chrono-sampling microfluidic networks that incorporate assays based on colorimetric sensing yields thin, flexible, lightweight, skin-interfaced technologies with broad functionality in sweat analysis. A demonstration device allows simultaneous monitoring of sweat rate/loss, along with quantitative measurements of pH and of lactate, glucose and chloride concentrations using biofuel cell and colorimetric approaches.

Journal Articles

Soft, skin-interfaced microfluidic systems with wireless, battery-free electronics for digital, real-time tracking of sweat loss and electrolyte composition

Kim, S. B.*; Lee, K.-H.*; Raj, M. S.*; Reeder, J. T.*; Koo, J.*; Hourlier-Fargette, A.*; Bandodkar, A. J.*; Won, S. M.*; Sekine, Yurina; Choi, J.*; et al.

Small, 14(45), p.1802876_1 - 1802876_9, 2018/11

 Times Cited Count:41 Percentile:92.78(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

Excretion of sweat from eccrine glands is a dynamic physiological process that varies with body position, activity level, and health status. Information content embodied in sweat rate and chemistry can be used to assess health status and athletic performance. This paper presents a thin, miniaturized, skin-interfaced microfluidic technology that includes a reusable, battery-free electronics module for measuring sweat conductivity and rate in real-time using wireless power from and data communication with capabilities in near field communications (NFC). Systematic studies of these combined microfluidic/electronic systems, accurate correlations of measurements performed with them to those of laboratory standard instrumentation, and field tests on human subjects establish the key operational features and their utility in sweat analytics.

Journal Articles

A Fluorometric skin-interfaced microfluidic device and smartphone imaging module for ${{it in situ}}$ quantitative analysis of sweat chemistry

Sekine, Yurina; Kim, S. B.*; Zhang, Y.*; Bandodkar, A. J.*; Xu, S.*; Choi, J.*; Irie, Masahiro*; Ray, T. R.*; Kohli, P.*; Kozai, Naofumi; et al.

Lab on a Chip, 18(15), p.2178 - 2186, 2018/08

The rich composition of solutes and metabolites in sweat and its relative ease of collection upon excretion from skin pores make this class of biofluid an attractive candidate for point of care analysis. Here, we present a complementary approach that exploits fluorometric sensing modalities integrated into a soft, skin-interfaced microfluidic system which, when paired with a simple smartphone-based imaging module, allows for in-situ measurement of important biomarkers in sweat. A network array of microchannels and a collection of microreservoirs pre-filled with fluorescent probes that selectively react with target analytes in sweat (e.g. probes), enable quantitative, rapid analysis. Field studies on human subjects demonstrate the ability to measure the concentrations of chloride, sodium and zinc in sweat, with accuracy that matches that of conventional laboratory techniques.

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