Kojima, Atsushi; Umeda, Naotaka; Hanada, Masaya; Yoshida, Masafumi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Akino, Noboru; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 55(6), p.063006_1 - 063006_9, 2015/06
Significant progresses in the extension of pulse durations of powerful negative ion beams have been made to realize the neutral beam injectors for JT-60SA and ITER. In order to overcome common issues of the long pulse production/acceleration of negative ion beams in JT-60SA and ITER, the new technologies have been developed in the JT-60SA ion source and the MeV accelerator in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. As for the long pulse production of high-current negative ions for JT-60SA ion source, the pulse durations have been successfully increased from 30 s at 13 A on JT-60U to 100 s at 15 A by modifying the JT-60SA ion source, which satisfies the required pulse duration of 100 s and 70% of the rated beam current for JT-60SA. This progress was based on the R&D efforts for the temperature control of the plasma grid and uniform negative ion productions with the modified tent-shaped filter field configuration. Moreover, the each parameter of the required beam energy, current and pulse has been achieved individually by these R&D efforts. The developed techniques are useful to design the ITER ion source because the sustainment of the cesium coverage in large extraction area is one of the common issues between JT-60SA and ITER. As for the long pulse acceleration of high power density beams in the MeV accelerator for ITER, the pulse duration of MeV-class negative ion beams has been extended by more than 2 orders of magnitude by modifying the extraction grid with a high cooling capability and a high-transmission of negative ions. A long pulse acceleration of 60 s has been achieved at 70 MW/m (683 keV, 100 A/m) which has reached to the power density of JT-60SA level of 65 MW/m.
Umeda, Naotaka; Kojima, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Dairaku, Masayuki; Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Hanada, Masaya
AIP Conference Proceedings 1655, p.050001_1 - 050001_10, 2015/04
For ITER neutral beam system, negative deuterium ion beam of 1 MeV, 40 A (current density of 200 A/m) is required for 3600 s. To demonstrate ITER relevant negative ion beam acceleration, beam acceleration test has been carried out at MeV test facility in JAEA. The present target is H ion beam acceleration up to 1 MeV with 200 A/m for 60 s, which beam energy and pulse length are the present facility limit. To extend pulse duration time up to facility limit at high power density beam, new extraction grid has been developed with high cooling capability, which electron suppression magnet is placed under cooling channel. In addition, the aperture size of the electron suppression grid is enlarged from 14 mm to 16 mm and the aperture displacement is modified to reduce collision of negative ion beam on the grid. By these modifications, total grid power loading has reduced from 14% to 11%. As a result, beam acceleration up to 60 s which is the facility limit, has achieved at 700 kV, 100 A/m of negative ion beam without breakdown.
Umeda, Naotaka; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Taniguchi, Masaki; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Dairaku, Masayuki; Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Inoue, Takashi; Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya
Review of Scientific Instruments, 85(2), p.02B304_1 - 02B304_3, 2014/02
In order to realize neutral beam systems in ITER whose target is to produce D ion beam of 1 MeV, 200 A/m during 3600s, the electrostatic five-stages negative ion accelerator has been developed at JAEA. To extend pulse length, heat load of the acceleration grids was reduced by controlling the ion beam trajectory. Namely, the beam deflection due to the residual magnetic filter in the accelerator was suppressed with the newly developed extractor with a 0.5 mm off-set aperture displacement. The use of new extractor improved the deflection angle from 6 mrad to 1 mrad, resulting in the reduction of direct interception of negative ions from 23% to 15% of the total acceleration power, respectively. As a result, the pulse length of 130 A/m, 881 keV H ion beam has been successfully extended from a previous value of 0.4s to 8.7s.
Kashiwagi, Mieko; Umeda, Naotaka; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Atsushi; Yoshida, Masafumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Dairaku, Masayuki; Maejima, Tetsuya; Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; et al.
Review of Scientific Instruments, 85(2), p.02B320_1 - 02B320_3, 2014/02
The negative ion extractor for high power and long-pulse operations is newly developed toward the neutral beam injector (NBI) for heating & current drive of future fusion machines such as ITER, JT-60 Super Advanced (SA) and DEMO reactor. The satisfactory cooling capability is designed in the thermal analysis. A negative ion production and a suppression of electrons are experimentally validated for this new extractor. As the results, the negative ion current shows increases by a factor of 1.3 with suppressing the electron current. The beam divergence angle is also maintained small enough, 4 mrad.
Tobari, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Takashi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Umeda, Naotaka; Dairaku, Masayuki; Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Sakamoto, Keishi; Kuriyama, Masaaki*; et al.
Fusion Engineering and Design, 88(6-8), p.975 - 979, 2013/10
The HV bushing, one of the ITER NB components, which is to be procured by JADA, is a multi-conductor feed through composed of five-stage double-layered insulator columns with large brazed ceramic ring and fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) ring. The HV bushing is a bulk head between insulation gas at 0.6 MPa and vacuum. The FRP ring is required to sustain the pressure load, seismic load and dead weight. Brazing area of the ceramic ring with Kovar is required to maintain vacuum leak tightness and pressure tightness against the air filled at 0.6 MPa. To design the HV bushing satisfying the safety factor of 3.5, mechanical analyses were carried out. As for the FRP ring, it was confirmed that isotropic fiber cloth FRP rings should be used for sufficient strength against shear stress. Also, shape and fixation area of the Kovar sleeve were modified to lower the stress at the joint area. As a result, a design of the insulator for the HV bushing was established satisfying the requirement.
Kashiwagi, Mieko; Taniguchi, Masaki; Umeda, Naotaka; Dairaku, Masayuki; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Takashi; DeEsch, H. P. L.*; Grisham, L. R.*; et al.
AIP Conference Proceedings 1515, p.227 - 236, 2013/02
In a five stage multi-aperture multi-grid (MAMuG) accelerator for the ITER neutral beam injector (NBI), 1 MeV, 40 A D ion beam is required for 1 hour. However, beamlets are deflected due to (1) magnetic field for electron suppression and (2) space charge repulsion between beamlets, and consequently, cause excess grid heat load. A three dimensional beam analysis has been carried out to compensate the beamlet deflections. This paper shows that the beamlet deflections due to (1) and (2) are compensated by an aperture offset of only 0.6 mm applied to the aperture of 17 mm in diameter in the extractor and by a metal bar attached around aperture area beneath the extractor, respectively. When the metal bar is increased to 3 mm in thickness and installed 30 mm away from the aperture area, the beamlet is steered gently by the weaker electric field distortion. The beam optics was confirmed not deteriorated by those compensations. The presentation also discusses application of these compensation techniques to the ITER design.
Shibata, Takanori; Terasaki, Ryo*; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Inoue, Takashi; Dairaku, Masayuki; Taniguchi, Masaki; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Umeda, Naotaka; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Sakamoto, Keishi; et al.
AIP Conference Proceedings 1515, p.177 - 186, 2013/02
In the neutral beam injector in JT-60SA, one of issues is that negative ion beam is partially intercepted at acceleration grids due to a spatial non-uniformity of negative ion production on large extraction area (0.90.45m). Previous experiments showed that fast electrons emitted from filament cathodes are transported in a longitudinal direction by drift and the spatial distribution of electron temperature () strongly relates with the non-uniformity. In this study, a three-dimensional electron transport analysis has been developed. Electron temperature in the analysis agreed well with measurements in JAEA 10A ion source. This study clarified that the bias of distribution are caused by the following reasons; (1) fast electrons drifted in the longitudinal direction survives near the end wall with energy up to = 25-60 eV and (2) they produces thermal electrons by collision with plasma particles there.
Tobari, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Masaki; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Dairaku, Masayuki; Umeda, Naotaka; Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Tsuchida, Kazuki; Takemoto, Jumpei; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Takashi; et al.
Plasma Science and Technology, 15(2), p.179 - 183, 2013/02
Vacuum insulation is a common issue for the accelerator and the HV bushing for the ITER NBI. The HV bushing has five-stage structure and each stage consists of double-layered insulators. Hence, several triple points exist around the insulators. To reduce electric field at those points simultaneously, three types of stress ring were developed. In voltage holding test of a full-scale mockup equipped with those stress rings, 120% of rated voltage was sustained and the voltage holding capability required in ITER was verified. In the MeV accelerator, voltage holding capability was not sufficient due to breakdown triggered by electric field concentration at edge and corner on grid components. By extending gap length, 1 MV was sustained in vacuum. Furthermore, with new accelerator grids which compensates beam deflection due to magnetic field and space charge repulsion between beamlets, 980 keV, 185 A/m H ion beam acceleration was demonstrated, which was close to ITER requirement.
Taniguchi, Masaki; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Umeda, Naotaka; Dairaku, Masayuki; Takemoto, Jumpei; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Tsuchida, Kazuki; Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kojima, Atsushi; et al.
Review of Scientific Instruments, 83(2), p.02B121_1 - 02B121_3, 2012/02
JAEA has developed the MeV accelerator to demonstrate 1 MeV, 200 A/m H ion beam acceleration required for ITER NBI. A key to realize such a high power accelerator is improvement of voltage holding capability. Based on detailed investigation of the voltage holding characteristics, MeV accelerator was modified to reduce electric field concentration by extending gaps between the grid supports and increasing curvature radiuses at the support corners. After the modifications, accelerator succeeded in sustaining -1 MV in vacuum without beam acceleration. Moreover, beam deflection due to the magnetic field for electron suppression and space charge repulsion was compensated by aperture displacement technique. As the result, beam deflection was compensated and voltage holding during the beam acceleration was improved. Beam parameter of the MeV accelerator was increased to 980 keV, 185 A/m, which is close to the requirement of ITER accelerator.
Shibata, Takanori; Koga, Shojiro*; Terasaki, Ryo*; Inoue, Takashi; Dairaku, Masayuki; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Taniguchi, Masaki; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Tsuchida, Kazuki; Umeda, Naotaka; et al.
Review of Scientific Instruments, 83(2), p.02A719_1 - 02A719_3, 2012/02
In the NBI for large fusion devices, production of uniform negative ion beam is one of important issues. A physical model is proposed to understand the non-uniformity. It has been qualitatively shown that the non-uniform beam intensity is due to the following process; (1) formation of non-uniform EEDF, (2) localized production of hydrogen atoms/ions (H/H) due to (1), (3) non-uniform flux of H/H to the PG and (4) localized surface production of negative ions. However, in the past studies, the EEDF was assumed as two temperature Maxwellian distribution from measurements. Thus effects of high energy electrons are not taken into account precisely. In the present research, local EEDF is calculated by the 3D Monte-Carlo kinetic model which takes into account the spatial and magnetic configurations of the real negative ion source. The numerical result show that high energy component of the EEDF enhances the spatial non-uniformity in the production rate of H/H.
Jeong, S. H.*; Chang, D. H.*; Kim, T. S.*; In, S. R.*; Lee, K. W.*; Jin, J. T.*; Chang, D. S.*; Oh, B. H.*; Bae, Y. S.*; Kim, J. S.*; et al.
Review of Scientific Instruments, 83(2), p.02B102_1 - 02B102_3, 2012/02
The first NB (neutral beam) injection system of the KSTAR tokamak was partially completed in 2010 with only 1/3 of its full design capability, and NB heating experiments were carried out during the 2010 KSTAR operation campaign. The ion source is composed of a JAEA bucket plasma generator and a KAERI large multi-aperture accelerator assembly. Before the beam injection experiments, characteristics of the ion source were investigated. A minimum beam divergence angle was 0.8 . The ion species ratio was D:D:D=75:20:5. The arc efficiency is more than 1.0 A/kW. In the 2010 KSTAR campaign, the deuterium NB power of 0.7-1.5 MW was successfully injected into the KSTAR plasma with the beam energy of 70-90 keV. L-H transitions were observed within a wide range of beam powers relative to a threshold value. In every deuterium NB injection, a burst of D-D neutrons was recorded, and increases in the ion temperature and the plasma stored energy were found.
Taniguchi, Masaki; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Inoue, Takashi; Umeda, Naotaka; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Dairaku, Masayuki; Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Tsuchida, Kazuki; Kojima, Atsushi; et al.
AIP Conference Proceedings 1390, p.449 - 456, 2011/09
At JAEA, MeV accelerator has been developed as a proof-of-principle accelerator for ITER NBI. To achieve the acceleration of 1 MeV, 200 A/m beam required for ITER, improvement of the voltage holding capability is essential. Review of voltage holding results ever obtained with various geometries of the accelerators showed that voltage holding capability was about a half of that for ideal small electrode. This is due to local electric field concentration in the accelerators, such as edge and corner between grids and its support structures. Based on these results, accelerator was modified to reduce the electric field concentration by reshaping the support structures and expanding the gap length. After the modifications, voltage holding capability in vacuum was increased from 835 kV to 1 MV. Voltage holding progressed the energy and current to 879 keV, 0.36 A (157 A/m).
Kashiwagi, Mieko; Inoue, Takashi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Umeda, Naotaka; Grisham, L. R.*; Dairaku, Masayuki; Takemoto, Jumpei; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Tsuchida, Kazuki; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; et al.
AIP Conference Proceedings 1390, p.457 - 465, 2011/09
In a five stage multi-aperture and multi-grid (MAMuG) accelerator in JAEA, beam acceleration tests are in progress toward 1 MeV, 200 A/m H ion beams for ITER. The 1 MV voltage holding has been successfully demonstrated for 4000 s with the accelerator of expanded gap length that lowered local electric field concentrations. The led to increase of the beam energy up to 900 keV-level. However, it was found that beamlets were deflected more in long gaps and direct interceptions of the deflected beamlet caused breakdowns. The beamlet deflection and its compensation methods were studied utilizing a three-dimensional multi beamlet analysis. The analysis showed that the 1 MeV beam can be compensated by a combination of the aperture offset of 0.8 mm applied in the electron suppression (ESG) and the metal bar called a field shaping plate with a thickness of 1 mm attached beneath the ESG. The paper reports analytical predictions and experimental results of the MAMuG accelerator.
Chang, D. H.*; Jeong, S. H.*; Jin, J. T.*; Chang, D. S.*; Kim, T. S.*; Lee, K. W.*; In, S. R.*; Oh, B. H.*; Bae, Y. S.*; Kim, J. S.*; et al.
Journal of the Korean Physical Society, 59(2), p.275 - 280, 2011/08
A long pulse ion source (LPIS) for the neutral beam injector (NBI) has been developed for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) superconducting tokamak. The arc discharge characteristics of the ion source were investigated on the first KSTAR neutral beam injector (NBI-1). The ion source consists of a magnetic bucket plasma generator with multi-pole cusp fields and a set of prototype tetrode accelerators with circular apertures. Stable and efficient arc plasmas up to an arc power of 70 kW have been produced by using a constant power-mode operation of the arc power supply. The reliable operation region of the arc discharges has been investigated for various filament heating voltages, arc powers, and amounts of injected deuterium gas.
Chang, D. H.*; Jeong, S. H.*; Kim, T. S.*; Lee, K. W.*; In, S. R.*; Jin, J. T.*; Chang, D. S.*; Oh, B. H.*; Bae, Y. S.*; Kim, J. S.*; et al.
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 50(6), p.066302_1 - 066302_7, 2011/06
A stable ion beam extraction of the LPIS-1 was achieved up to 85 kV/32 A for a 5 s pulse length and 80 kV/25 A for a 14 s pulse length. An optimum beam perveance of 1.15 perv was observed at an acceleration voltage of 60 kV. Neutralization efficiency was measured by a water-flow calorimetry (WFC) method using a calorimeter and the operation of a bending magnet. The full-energy species of ion beams were detected by using the diagnostic method of optical multichannel analyzer (OMA). An arc efficiency of the LPIS was 0.6-1.1 A/kW depending on the operating conditions of arc discharge. A neutral beam power of 1.0 MW must be sufficiently injected into the KSTAR plasmas from the LPIS-1 at a beam energy of 80 keV.
Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Dairaku, Masayuki; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Inoue, Takashi; Hanada, Masaya; Jeong, S. H.*; Chang, D. H.*; Kim, T. S.*; Kim, B. R.*; et al.
Review of Scientific Instruments, 82(6), p.063507_1 - 063507_6, 2011/06
A long pulse plasma generator for neutral beam injectors has been developed. The plasma generator was designed to produce 65 A at 120 keV from a beam extraction area of 12 cm 46 cm. A type of the plasma generator is a multi-cusp plasma generator with SmCo permanent magnets. A long pulse test of the plasma generator was performed at the KSTAR NBI test stand in Korea under the Japan - Korea Fusion collaboration. It was successfully demonstrated of the long pulse operation of the plasma generator for 200 s at an arc discharge power of 70 kW which can produce 65 A beams. Plasma spatial uniformity at the beam extraction area was confirmed to be smaller than 8% of the deviation from an averaged ion saturation current density. A high arc efficiency of 0.9-1.1 A/kW was obtained at the beam extraction with 73 keV, 41 A for 5 sec. From these experimental studies, a performance of this plasma generator for long pulse ion sources was confirmed.
Tobari, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Takashi; Hanada, Masaya; Dairaku, Masayuki; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Umeda, Naotaka; Taniguchi, Masaki; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Takemoto, Jumpei; et al.
Proceedings of 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2010) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2011/03
High voltage (HV) bushing in the ITER NBI is one of critical components, which acts as a feedthrough for electric power and cooling water from the -1 MV power supply in SF gas to beam source inside vacuum. JAEA has overcome a longstanding issue on manufacturing of a large bore ceramic ring with 1.56 m in diameter as the insulator of the five-stage HV bushing. Joining method of the ceramic and metal flange with thick Kovar plate to form vacuum boundary was also developed. By assembling components, a full-size mockup bushing simulating one stage of the HV bushing was successfully manufactured. In the voltage holding test, the high voltage of 240 kV including the margin of 20 % of a rated voltage was sustained for 3600 s without breakdown, and the voltage holding capability required in ITER was successfully verified.
Kashiwagi, Mieko; Taniguchi, Masaki; Kojima, Atsushi; Dairaku, Masayuki; Hanada, Masaya; Hemsworth, R. S.*; Mizuno, Takatoshi*; Takemoto, Jumpei; Tanaka, Masanobu*; Tanaka, Yutaka*; et al.
Proceedings of 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2010) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2011/03
At JAEA, a multi-aperture multi-grid accelerator has been developed for the ITER neutral beam system. A target is H ion beam acceleration of 0.5 A (200 A/m) at 1 MeV. In real accelerators, it was found that the voltage holding was about a half of that obtained in an ideal small electrode. After applying necessary gap length and radii of edges of grid supports to lower local electric field concentrations, the accelerator succeeded in sustaining 1 MV for 4000 s. As a result, beam parameters were increased to 879 keV, 0.36 A (157 A/m) at perveance matched condition from 796 kV, 0.32 A (140 A/m) reported in FEC2008. In the beam acceleration, the beamlet deflections due to magnetic field and space charge repulsion caused direct interceptions, that resulted in limitations in the beam energy and current. Compensation of these beamlet deflections has been tested applying aperture offset and field shaping plate, which were examined in a three-dimensional beam analysis.
Bae, Y. S.*; Park, Y. M.*; Kim, J. S.*; Han, W. S.*; Kwak, S. W.*; Chang, Y. B.*; Park, H. T.*; Song, N. H.*; Chang, D. H.*; Jeong, S. H.*; et al.
Proceedings of 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2010) (CD-ROM), 9 Pages, 2011/03
The neutral beam injection (NBI) system is designed to provide the ion heating and current drive for the high performance operation and long pulse operation of the Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR). The KSTAR NBI consists of two beam lines. Each beam line contains three ion sources of which one ion source has been designed to deliver more than 2.5 MW of deuterium neutral beam power with maximum 120-keV beam energy. Consequently, the final goal of the KSTAR NBI system aims to inject more than 14 MW of deuterium beam power with the two beam lines. According to the planned NBI system, the first NBI system is to demonstrate the beam injection from one ion source into the KSTAR tokamak plasma in 2010 campaign including the system commissioning of each components and subsystems. In this paper, the construction and the commissioning of the first NBI system with one ion source is presented.
Ezato, Koichiro; Seki, Yohji; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Hirose, Takanori; Tsuru, Daigo; Nishi, Hiroshi; Dairaku, Masayuki; Yokoyama, Kenji; Suzuki, Satoshi; Enoeda, Mikio
Fusion Engineering and Design, 85(7-9), p.1255 - 1260, 2010/12
no abstracts in English