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Journal Articles

Online chemical adsorption studies of Hg, Tl, and Pb on SiO$$_{2}$$ and Au surfaces in preparation for chemical investigations on Cn, Nh, and Fl at TASCA

Lens, L.*; Yakushev, A.*; D$"u$llmann, Ch. E.*; Asai, Masato; Ballof, J.*; Block, M.*; David, H. M.*; Despotopulos, J.*; Di Nitto, A.*; Eberhardt, K.*; et al.

Radiochimica Acta, 106(12), p.949 - 962, 2018/12

 Percentile:100(Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear)

Online gas-solid adsorption studies with single atom quantities of Hg, Tl, and Pb on SiO$$_{2}$$ and Au surfaces were carried out using short-lived radioisotopes with half-lives in the range of 4-49 s. This is a model study to measure adsorption enthalpies of superheavy elements Cn, Nh, and Fl. The short-lived isotopes were produced and separated by the gas-filled recoil separator TASCA at GSI. The products were stopped in He gas, and flushed into gas chromatography columns made of Si detectors whose surfaces were covered by SiO$$_{2}$$ or Au. The short-lived Tl and Pb were successfully measured by the Si detectors with the SiO$$_{2}$$ surface at room temperature. On the other hand, the Hg did not adsorb on the SiO$$_{2}$$ surface, but adsorbed on the Au surface. The results demonstrated that the adsorption properties of short-lived Hg, Tl, and Pb could be studied with this setup, and that this method is applicable to the experiment for Cn, Nh, and Fl.

Journal Articles

Identification of deformed intruder states in semi-magic $$^{70}$$Ni

Chiara, C. J.*; Weisshaar, D.*; Janssens, R. V. F.*; Tsunoda, Yusuke*; Otsuka, Takaharu*; Harker, J. L.*; Walters, W. B.*; Recchia, F.*; Albers, M.*; Alcorta, M.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 91(4), p.044309_1 - 044309_10, 2015/04

 Times Cited Count:22 Percentile:7.02(Physics, Nuclear)

The neutron-rich isotope $$^{70}$$Ni was produced by multi-nucleon transfer reactions of $$^{70}$$Zn in the Argonne National Laboratory, and an in-beam $$gamma$$-ray experiment were performed using the GRETINA array. The $$2^+_2$$ and $$4^+_2$$ levels of $$^{70}$$Ni were observed for the first time. Those levels are regarded as large deformed states associated with proton excitation from the $$f_{7/2}$$ orbit because they cannot be reproduced by a shell-model calculation assuming a small valence space without $$f_{7/2}$$. A theoretical analysis based on the Monte Carlo shell model published in 2014 indicates that those levels corresponds to a prolate deformed band. The present result demonstrates the occurrence of shape coexistence in neutron-rich Ni isotopes other than a known case of $$^{68}$$Ni, and confirms the predictive power of the Monte Carlo shell-model calculation.

Journal Articles

New approach to description of ($$d$$,$$xn$$) spectra at energies below 50 MeV in Monte Carlo simulation by intra-nuclear cascade code with distorted wave born approximation

Hashimoto, Shintaro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji*; Boudard, A.*; Cugnon, J.*; David, J.-C.*; Leray, S.*; Mancusi, D.*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 333, p.27 - 41, 2014/08

 Times Cited Count:16 Percentile:8.15(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Recently, accelerator-based neutron sources have been considered for scientific research and medical applications, where deuteron-induced reactions of Li, Be, or C targets at low ($$<$$50 MeV) incident energies are essential to produce high-intensity neutron beams. Description of the reactions in simulations of particle transport are required to estimate dose distributions. In this study, we developed a new method that combines the Intra-Nuclear Cascade of Li$`e$ge (INCL) and Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA), and incorporated it into the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS). A proton-stripping process and transitions between discrete states of nuclei are considered in the method by INCL and DWBA, respectively. We applied the method to reproduce neutron spectra in the reactions on thin and thick targets. Results obtained by PHITS with the method successfully agreed with experimental data, which were not reproduced by the old model.

Journal Articles

New approach for describing nuclear reactions based on intra-nuclear cascade coupled with DWBA

Hashimoto, Shintaro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji*; Boudard, A.*; Cugnon, J.*; David, J.-C.*; Leray, S.*; Mancusi, D.*

Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 4, p.418 - 421, 2014/04

There is a growing interest in the use of accelerator-based neutron sources for scientific and medical applications. For neutron source design, computer codes that can evaluate neutron yields are indispensable; PHITS (Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System) is one of suitable candidates. In this study, we proposed a new nuclear reaction model based on INCL coupled with the DWBA calculation for an accurate calculation of neutron yields. The DWBA calculation describes discrete peaks in neutron spectra. Although these peaks are not the major part of neutron sources, the estimation of their contributions is necessary, since neutrons from the peaks have high energies close to those of the incident particle. We will present the calculation method of our approach and results for proton and deuteron induced reactions on Li, Be, and C targets at incident energies from 10 to 100 MeV.

Journal Articles

Verification of high-energy transport codes on the basis of activation data

Titarenko, Yu. E.*; Batyaev, V. F.*; Butko, M. A.*; Dikarev, D. V.*; Florya, S. N.*; Pavlov, K. V.*; Titarenko, A. Yu.*; Tikhonov, R. S.*; Zhivun, V. M.*; Ignatyuk, A. V.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 84(6), p.064612_1 - 064612_19, 2011/11

 Times Cited Count:15 Percentile:24.74(Physics, Nuclear)

Nuclide production cross sections measured at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) for the targets of $$^{rm nat}$$Cr, $$^{56}$$Fe, $$^{rm nat}$$Ni, $$^{93}$$Nb, $$^{181}$$Ta, $$^{rm nat}$$W, $$^{rm nat}$$Pb, and $$^{209}$$Bi irradiated by protons with energies from 40 to 2600 MeV were used to estimate the predictive accuracy of several popular high-energy transport codes. A general agreement of the ITEP data with the data obtained by other groups, including the numerous GSI data measured by the inverse kinematics method was found. Simulations of the measured data were performed with a number of codes. Deviation factors between the calculated and experimental cross sections have been estimated for each target and for the whole energy range covered by our measurements. Further improvements of all tested here codes are recommended. In addition, new measurements at ITEP of nuclide yields from the $$^{208}$$Pb target irradiated by 500-MeV protons are presented.

Journal Articles

Event structure and double helicity asymmetry in jet production from polarized $$p + p$$ collisions at $$sqrt{s}$$ = 200 GeV

Adare, A.*; Afanasiev, S.*; Aidala, C.*; Ajitanand, N. N.*; Akiba, Y.*; Al-Bataineh, H.*; Alexander, J.*; Aoki, K.*; Aphecetche, L.*; Armendariz, R.*; et al.

Physical Review D, 84(1), p.012006_1 - 012006_18, 2011/07

 Times Cited Count:21 Percentile:29.45(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

We report on the event structure and double helicity asymmetry ($$A_{LL}$$) of jet production in longitudinally polarized $$p + p$$ collisions at $$sqrt{s}$$ = 200 GeV. Photons and charged particles were measured by the PHENIX experiment. Event structure was compared with the results from PYTHIA event generator. The production rate of reconstructed jets is satisfactorily reproduced with the next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD calculation. We measured $$A_{LL}$$ = -0.0014 $$pm$$ 0.0037 at the lowest $$P_T$$ bin and -0.0181 $$pm$$ 0.0282 at the highest $$P_T$$ bin. The measured $$A_{LL}$$ is compared with the predictions that assume various $$Delta G(x)$$ distributions.

Journal Articles

Verification of high-energy transport codes on the basis of activation data

Titarenko, Yu. E.*; Batyaev, V. F.*; Butko, M. A.*; Dikarev, D. V.*; Florya, S. N.*; Pavlov, K. V.*; Titarenko, A. Yu.*; Tikhonov, R. S.*; Zhivun, V. M.*; Ignatyuk, A. V.*; et al.

LA-UR-11-02704, 31 Pages, 2011/06

Nuclide production cross sections measured at ITEP for the targets of $$^{nat}$$Cr, $$^{56}$$Fe,$$^{nat}$$Ni, $$^{93}$$Nb, $$^{181}$$Ta, $$^{nat}$$W, $$^{nat}$$Pb, $$^{209}$$Bi irradiated by protons with energies from 40 to 2600 MeV were used to estimate the predictive accuracy of several popular high-energy transport codes. A general agreement of the ITEP data with the data obtained by other groups, including the numerous GSI data measured by the inverse kinematics method was found. Simulations of the measured data were performed with the MCNPX (Bertini and ISABEL options), CEM03.02, INCL4.2+ABLA, INCL4.5+ABLA07, PHITS, and CASCADE.07 codes. Deviation factors between the calculated and experimental cross sections have been estimated for each target and for the whole energy range covered by our measurements. Further improvements of all tested here codes are recommended.

Journal Articles

Identified charged hadron production in $$p + p$$ collisions at $$sqrt{s}$$ = 200 and 62.4 GeV

Adare, A.*; Afanasiev, S.*; Aidala, C.*; Ajitanand, N. N.*; Akiba, Yasuyuki*; Al-Bataineh, H.*; Alexander, J.*; Aoki, Kazuya*; Aphecetche, L.*; Armendariz, R.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 83(6), p.064903_1 - 064903_29, 2011/06

 Times Cited Count:114 Percentile:0.77(Physics, Nuclear)

Transverse momentum distributions and yields for $$pi^{pm}, K^{pm}, p$$, and ($bar{p}$) in $$p + p$$ collisions at $$sqrt{s}$$ = 200 and 62.4 GeV at midrapidity are measured by the PHENIX experiment at the RHIC. We present the inverse slope parameter, mean transverse momentum, and yield per unit rapidity at each energy, and compare them to other measurements at different $$sqrt{s}$$ collisions. We also present the scaling properties such as $$m_T$$ and $$x_T$$ scaling and discuss the mechanism of the particle production in $$p + p$$ collisions. The measured spectra are compared to next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations.

Journal Articles

Azimuthal correlations of electrons from heavy-flavor decay with hadrons in $$p+p$$ and Au+Au collisions at $$sqrt{s_{NN}}$$ = 200 GeV

Adare, A.*; Afanasiev, S.*; Aidala, C.*; Ajitanand, N. N.*; Akiba, Yasuyuki*; Al-Bataineh, H.*; Alexander, J.*; Aoki, Kazuya*; Aphecetche, L.*; Aramaki, Y.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 83(4), p.044912_1 - 044912_16, 2011/04

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:46.07(Physics, Nuclear)

Measurements of electrons from the decay of open-heavy-flavor mesons have shown that the yields are suppressed in Au+Au collisions compared to expectations from binary-scaled $$p+p$$ collisions. Here we extend these studies to two particle correlations where one particle is an electron from the decay of a heavy flavor meson and the other is a charged hadron from either the decay of the heavy meson or from jet fragmentation. These measurements provide more detailed information about the interaction between heavy quarks and the quark-gluon matter. We find the away-side-jet shape and yield to be modified in Au+Au collisions compared to $$p+p$$ collisions.

Journal Articles

Measurement of neutral mesons in $$p$$ + $$p$$ collisions at $$sqrt{s}$$ = 200 GeV and scaling properties of hadron production

Adare, A.*; Afanasiev, S.*; Aidala, C.*; Ajitanand, N. N.*; Akiba, Y.*; Al-Bataineh, H.*; Alexander, J.*; Aoki, K.*; Aphecetche, L.*; Armendariz, R.*; et al.

Physical Review D, 83(5), p.052004_1 - 052004_26, 2011/03

 Times Cited Count:120 Percentile:1.41(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has measured the invariant differential cross section for production of $$K^0_s$$, $$omega$$, $$eta'$$ and $$phi$$ mesons in $$p + p$$ collisions at $$sqrt{s}$$ = 200 GeV. The spectral shapes of all hadron transverse momentum distributions are well described by a Tsallis distribution functional form with only two parameters, $$n$$ and $$T$$, determining the high $$p_T$$ and characterizing the low $$p_T$$ regions for the spectra, respectively. The integrated invariant cross sections calculated from the fitted distributions are found to be consistent with existing measurements and with statistical model predictions.

Journal Articles

Gas production and activation calculation in MEGAPIE

Thiolliere, N.*; David, J.-C.*; Eid, M.*; Konobeyev, A. Y.*; Eikenberg, J.*; Fischer, U.*; Gr$"o$schel, F.*; Guertin, A.*; Latg$'e$, C.*; Lemaire, S.*; et al.

Proceedings of International Conference on the Physics of Reactors, Nuclear Power; A Sustainable Resource (PHYSOR 2008) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2008/09

Gas measurements by $$gamma$$ spectroscopy in the MEGAwatt PIlot Experiment (MEGAPIE) project has led to the determination of main radioactive isotopes released by the LBE. Comparison with calculations performed with several validated codes supplies important volatile elements release fraction estimation in a spallation target. In addition, calculations with MCNPX2.5.0, FLUKA and SNT codes coupled with evolution programs have been performed in order to study the activation of the target and structural materials. The induced database is relevant for safety and radioprotection during operation, for the post-irradiation experiments and for target dismantlement.

Journal Articles

Measurement of the neutron capture cross section of the $$s$$-only isotope $$^{204}$$Pb from 1 eV to 440 keV

Domingo-Pardo, C.*; Abbondanno, U.*; Aerts, G.*; $'A$lvarez, H.*; Alvarez-Velarde, F.*; Andriamonje, S.*; Andrzejewski, J.*; Assimakopoulos, P.*; Audouin, L.*; Badurek, G.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 75(1), p.015806_1 - 015806_9, 2007/01

 Times Cited Count:27 Percentile:13.21(Physics, Nuclear)

The neutron capture cross section of $$^{204}$$Pb has been measured at the CERN n_TOF installation with high resolution in the energy range from 1 eV to 440 keV. In the interval between 100 keV and 440 keV we report the average cross section. The background in the entire energy range was reliably determined from the measurement of a $$^{208}$$Pb sample. We obtain a Maxwellian average capture cross section for $$^{204}$$Pb at $$kT$$ = 30 keV of 79(3) mb, in agreement with previous experiments. However our cross section at $$kT$$ = 5 keV is about 35 % larger than the values reported so far. The implications of the new cross section for the $$s$$-process abundance contributions in the Pb/Bi region are discussed.

Journal Articles

Resonance capture cross section of $$^{207}$$Pb

Domingo-Pardo, C.*; Abbondanno, U.*; Aerts, G.*; $'A$lvarez, H.*; Alvarez-Velarde, F.*; Andriamonje, S.*; Andrzejewski, J.*; Assimakopoulos, P.*; Audouin, L.*; Badurek, G.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 74(5), p.055802_1 - 055802_6, 2006/11

 Times Cited Count:20 Percentile:20.91(Physics, Nuclear)

The radiative neutron capture cross section of $$^{207}$$Pb has been measured at the CERN n_TOF facility using the pulse height weighting technique in the resoleved region. The measurement has been performed with an optimized setup of two $$C_{6}D_{6}$$ scintillation detectors, which allowed us to reduce scattered neutron backgrounds down to a negligible level. Resonance parameters have been determined for 16 resonances by means of an R-matrix analysis in the neutron energy range from 3 keV to 320 keV. Good agreement with previous measurements was found at low neutron energies, whereas substantial discrepancies appear beyond 45 keV. With the present results, we obtain an s-process contribution of 77$$pm$$8 % to the solar abundance of $$^{207}$$Pb.

Journal Articles

New measurement of neutron capture resonances in $$^{209}$$Bi

Domingo-Pardo, C.*; Abbondanno, U.*; Aerts, G.*; $'A$lvarez, H.*; Alvarez-Velarde, F.*; Andriamonje, S.*; Andrzejewski, J.*; Assimakopoulos, P.*; Audouin, L.*; Badurek, G.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 74(2), p.025807_1 - 025807_10, 2006/08

 Times Cited Count:30 Percentile:13.18(Physics, Nuclear)

The neutron capture cross section of $$^{209}$$Bi has been measured at the CERN n_TOF facility by employing the pulse-height-weighting technique. Improvements over previous measurements are mainly because of an optimized detection system, which led to a practically negligible neutron sensitivity. Because $$^{209}$$Bi is the last stable isotope in the reaction path of the stellar s-process, the Maxwellian averaged capture cross section is important for the recycling of the reaction flow by alpha decays. In the relevant stellar range of thermal energies between $$kT$$ = 5 and 8 keV our new capture rate is about 16% higher than the presently accepted value used for nucleosynthesis calculations. The present cross section measurement is also of relevance for the design of accelerator driven systems based on a liquid metal Pb/Bi spallation target.

Journal Articles

Neutron capture cross section of $$^{232}$$Th measured at the n_TOF facility at CERN in the unresolved resonance region up to 1 MeV

Aerts, G.*; Abbondanno, U.*; $'A$lvarez, H.*; Alvarez-Velarde, F.*; Andriamonje, S.*; Andrzejewski, J.*; Assimakopoulos, P.*; Audouin, L.*; Badurek, G.*; Baumann, P.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 73(5), p.054610_1 - 054610_10, 2006/05

We have measured the neutron capture reaction yield of $$^{232}$$Th at the neutron tim-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN in the energy range from 1 eV to 1 MeV. The average capture cross section has been extracted in the energy range from 4 keV up to 1 MeV with an overall accuracy better than 4 %. An independent IAEA evaluation shows good agreement with the data.

Journal Articles

Neutron capture cross section of $$^{232}$$Th measured at the n_TOF facility at CERN in the unresolved resonance region up to 1 MeV

Aerts, G.*; Abbondanno, U.*; $'A$lvarez, H.*; Alvarez-Velarde, F.*; Andriamonje, S.*; Andrzejewski, J.*; Assimakopoulos, P.*; Audouin, L.*; Badurek, G.*; Baumann, P.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 73(5), p.054610_1 - 054610_10, 2006/05

 Times Cited Count:37 Percentile:9.99(Physics, Nuclear)

We have measured the neutron capture reaction yield of $$^{232}$$Th at the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN in the energy range from 1 eV to 1 MeV. The average capture cross section has been extracted in the energy range from 4 keV up to 1 MeV with an overall accuracy better than 4%. An independent IAEA evaluation shows good agreement with the data.

Journal Articles

Measurement of the resonance capture cross section of $$^{204,206}$$Pb and termination of the $$s$$-process

Domingo-Pardo, C.*; O'Brien, S.*; Abbondanno, U.*; Aerts, G.*; $'A$lvarez, H.*; Alvarez-Velarde, F.*; Andriamonje, S.*; Andrzejewski, J.*; Assimakopoulos, P.*; Audouin, L.*; et al.

AIP Conference Proceedings 819, p.288 - 292, 2006/03

The neutron capture cross sections of $$^{204}$$Pb and $$^{206}$$Pb have been measured at the CERN n_TOF installation using the time of flight method with the pulse height weighting technique. In a preliminary analysis of $$^{204}$$Pb we have determined by first time the capture cross sections for two strong $$s$$-wave resonances below 2.5 keV. In $$^{206}$$Pb we have determined capture cross sections for a large number of resonances, which were not reported in the two previous capture measurements. We discuss preliminary implications of the new cross sections in the stellar nucleosynthesis of the Pb isotopes.

Journal Articles

Measurement of $$^{139}$$La($$n$$,$$gamma$$) cross section

Terlizzi, R.*; Abbondanno, U.*; Aerts, G.*; $'A$lvarez, H.*; Alvarez-Velarde, F.*; Andriamonje, S.*; Andrzejewski, J.*; Assimakopoulos, P.*; Audouin, L.*; Badurek, G.*; et al.

AIP Conference Proceedings 819, p.283 - 287, 2006/03

We measured the neutron capture cross section of $$^{139}$$La relative to $$^{197}$$Au in the energy range of 0.6 eV to 9 keV at n_TOF, the neutron time-of-flight facility at CERN. The data were fitted using R-matrix formalism to extract resonance parameters which were used to calculate average level spacings. The data were used to determine Maxwellian-averaged neutron capture cross sections which, in turn, were used to calculate the $$^{139}$$La abundance synthesized in a steller model of the main component of the $$s$$ process.

Journal Articles

Neutron cross section measurements at n-TOF for ADS related studies

Mastinu, P. F.*; Abbondanno, U.*; Aerts, G.*; $'A$lvarez, H.*; Alvarez-Velarde, F.*; Andriamonje, S.*; Andrzejewski, J.*; Assimakopoulos, P.*; Audouin, L.*; Badurek, G.*; et al.

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 41, p.352 - 360, 2006/00

A neutron Time-of-Flight facility (n_TOF) is operative at CERN since 2001. The innovative features of the neutron beam, in particular the high instantaneous flux, the wide energy range, the high resolution and the low background, makes this facility unique for measurements of neutron induced reactions relevant to the field of Emerging Nuclear Technologies, as well as to Nuclear Astrophysics and fundamental Nuclear Physics. The scientific motivations that have led to the construction of this new facility are here presented.

Journal Articles

Measurements at n_TOF of the neutron capture cross section of minor actinides relevant to the nuclear waste transmutation

Cano-Ott, D.*; Abbondanno, U.*; Aerts, G.*; $'A$lvarez, H.*; $`A$lvarez-Velarde, F.*; Andriamonje, S.*; Andrzejewski, J.*; Assimakopoulos, P.*; Audouin, L.*; Badurek, G.*; et al.

AIP Conference Proceedings 769, p.1442 - 1445, 2005/05

Accurate and reliable neutron cross section data for actinides are necessary for the proper design, safety reguartion and precise performance assessment of transmutaion devices. In particular, the neutron capture cross sections of $$^{237}$$Np, $$^{240}$$Pu and $$^{243}$$Am play a key role in the design and optimization of a strategy for the Nuclear Waste Transmutation. The listed cross sections have been measured in 2004 at n_TOF with a high accuracy due to a combination of features unique in the world.

23 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)