Schaffer, M. J.*; Snipes, J. A.*; Gohil, P.*; de Vries, P.*; Evans, T. E.*; Fenstermacher, M. E.*; Gao, X.*; Garofalo, A. M.*; Gates, D. A.*; Greenfield, C. M.*; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 51(10), p.103028_1 - 103028_11, 2011/10
Experiments at DIII-D investigated the effects of ferromagnetic error fields similar to those expected from proposed ITER Test Blanket Modules (TBMs). Studied were effects on: plasma rotation and locking; confinement; L-H transition; edge localized mode (ELM) suppression by resonant magnetic perturbations; ELMs and the H-mode pedestal; energetic particle losses; and more. The experiments used a 3-coil mock-up of 2 magnetized ITER TBMs in one ITER equatorial port. The experiments did not reveal any effect likely to preclude ITER operations with a TBM-like error field. The largest effect was slowed plasma toroidal rotation v across the entire radial profile by as much as via non-resonant braking. Changes to global , and were 3 times smaller. These effects are stronger at higher and lower . Other effects were smaller.
Murakami, Masanori*; Park, J. M.*; Giruzzi, G.*; Garcia, J.*; Bonoli, P.*; Budny, R. V.*; Doyle, E. J.*; Fukuyama, Atsushi*; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Honda, Mitsuru; et al.
Proceedings of 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2010) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2011/03
Sips, A. C. C.*; Casper, T.*; Doyle, E. J.*; Giruzzi, G.*; Gribov, Y.*; Hobirk, J.*; Hogeweij, G. M. D.*; Horton, L. D.*; Hubbard, A. E.*; Hutchinson, I.*; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 49(8), p.085015_1 - 085015_11, 2009/08
Key parts of the ITER scenarios are determined by the capability of the proposed poloidal field (PF) coil set. They include the plasma breakdown at low loop voltage, the current rise phase, the performance during the flat top (FT) phase and a ramp down of the plasma. The ITER discharge evolution has been verified in dedicated experiments. New data are obtained from C-Mod, ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D, JT-60U and JET. Results show that breakdown for 0.23-0.33 V m is possible unassisted (ohmic) for large devices like JET and attainable in devices with a capability of using ECRH assist. For the current ramp up, good control of the plasma inductance is obtained using a full bore plasma shape with early X-point formation. This allows optimization of the flux usage from the PF set. Additional heating keeps (3) 0.85 during the ramp up to = 3. A rise phase with an H-mode transition is capable of achieving (3) 0.7 at the start of the FT. Operation of the H-mode reference scenario at 3 and the hybrid scenario at = 4-4.5 during the FT phase is documented, providing data for the (3) evolution after the H-mode transition and the (3) evolution after a back-transition to L-mode. During the ITER ramp down it is important to remain diverted and to reduce the elongation. The inductance could be kept 1.2 during the first half of the current decay, using a slow ramp down, but still consuming flux from the transformer. Alternatively, the discharges can be kept in H-mode during most of the ramp down, requiring significant amounts of additional heating.
Roach, C. M.*; Walters, M.*; Budny, R. V.*; Imbeaux, F.*; Fredian, T. W.*; Greenwald, M.*; Stillerman, J. A.*; Alexander, D. A.*; Carlsson, J.*; Cary, J. R.*; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 48(12), p.125001_1 - 125001_19, 2008/12
This paper documents the public release PR08 of the International Tokamak Physics Activity profile database, which should be of particular interest to the magnetic confinement fusion community. Data from a wide variety of interesting discharges from many of the world's leading tokamak experiments are now made available in PR08, which also includes predictive simulations of an initial set of operating scenarios for ITER. In this paper we describe the discharges that have been included and the tools that are available to the reader who is interested in accessing and working with the data.
Shimada, Michiya; Campbell, D. J.*; Mukhovatov, V.*; Fujiwara, Masami*; Kirneva, N.*; Lackner, K.*; Nagami, Masayuki; Pustovitov, V. D.*; Uckan, N.*; Wesley, J.*; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 47(6), p.S1 - S17, 2007/06
The Progress in the ITER Physics Basis document is an update of the ITER Physics Basis (IPB), which was published in 1999. The IPB provided methodologies for projecting the performance of burning plasmas, developed largely through coordinated experimental, modeling and theoretical activities carried out on today's tokamaks (ITER Physics R&D). In the IPB, projections for ITER (1998 Design) were also presented. The IPB also pointed out some outstanding issues. These issues have been addressed by the International Tokamak Physics Activities (ITPA), which were initiated by the European Union, Japan, Russia and the U.S.A.. The new methodologies of projection and control developed through the ITPA are applied to ITER, which was redesigned under revised technical objectives, but will nonetheless meet the programmatic objective of providing an integrated demonstration of the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy.
Doyle, E. J.*; Houlberg, W. A.*; Kamada, Yutaka; Mukhovatov, V.*; Osborne, T. H.*; Polevoi, A.*; Bateman, G.*; Connor, J. W.*; Cordey, J. G.*; Fujita, Takaaki; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 47(6), p.S18 - S127, 2007/06
no abstracts in English
Shimada, Michiya; Campbell, D.*; Stambaugh, R.*; Polevoi, A. R.*; Mukhovatov, V.*; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Costley, A. E.*; Donn, A. J. H.*; Doyle, E. J.*; Federici, G.*; et al.
Proceedings of 20th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2004) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2004/11
This paper summarises recent progress in the physics basis and its impact on the expected performance of ITER. Significant progress has been made in many outstanding issues and in the development of hybrid and steady state operation scenarios, leading to increased confidence of achieving ITER's goals. Experiments show that tailoring the current profile can improve confinement over the standard H-mode and allow an increase in beta up to the no-wall limit at safety factors 4. Extrapolation to ITER suggests that at the reduced plasma current of 12MA, high Q 10 and long pulse (1000 s) operation is possible with benign ELMs. Analysis of disruption scenarios has been performed based on guidelines on current quench rates and halo currents, derived from the experimental database. With conservative assumptions, estimated electromagnetic forces on the in-vessel components are below the design target values, confirming the robustness of the ITER design against disruption forces.
Snipes, J. A.*; Schaffer, M. J.*; Gohil, P.*; de Vries, P.*; Fenstermacher, M. E.*; Evans, T. E.*; Gao, X. M.*; Garofalo, A.*; Gates, D. A.*; Greenfield, C. M.*; et al.
no journal, ,
A series of experiments was performed on DIII-D to mock-up the field that will be induced in a pair of ferromagnetic Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) in ITER to determine the effects of such error fields on plasma operation and performance. A set of coils producing both poloidal and toroidal fields was placed inside a re-entrant horizontal port close to the plasma. The coils produce a localized ripple due to the toroidal field (TF) + TBM up to 5.7%, which is more than four times that expected from a pair of representative 1.3 ton TBMs in ITER. The experiments show that the reduction in the toroidal rotation is sensitive to the ripple. On the other hand, the confinement is reduced by up to 15-18% for local ripple 3% but is hardly affected at 1.7% local ripple.