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Journal Articles

Organ and detriment-weighted dose rate coefficients for exposure to radionuclide-contaminated soil considering body morphometries that differ from reference conditions; Adults and children

Kofler, C.*; Domal, S.*; Satoh, Daiki; Dewji, S.*; Eckerman, K.*; Bolch, W. E.*

Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 58(4), p.477 - 492, 2019/11

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:42.47(Biology)

In the current radiation protection system, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends to use the effective dose for dose estimation. The effective dose is derived from the organ doses calculated using the computational human models (phantoms) defined by the ICRP to represent the reference person at each age. Questions arise, however, among the general public regarding the accuracy of organ and effective dose estimates based upon reference phantom methodologies, especially for those individuals with heights and/or weights that differ from the nearest age-matched reference person. In this paper, the detriment-weighted dose was defined for non-reference persons as the same manner to the effective dose for reference person. The doses were calculated for external exposure to radionuclides in a soil using 351-member phantom library based on the data of the U.S. population reported by the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics. The results for 33 nuclides were listed in the paper. Especially, for the environmental relevant radionuclides of $$^{89}$$Sr, $$^{90}$$Sr, $$^{137}$$Cs, and $$^{131}$$I, the detriment-weighted dose of 1-year-old phantom agreed with the effective dose within 5%, while the range of percent differences in these two quantities increased with increases the body size and age, e.g. +15% to -40% for adults.

Journal Articles

Overview of the ICRP/ICRU adult reference computational phantoms and dose conversion coefficients for external idealised exposures

Endo, Akira; Petoussi-Henss, N.*; Zankl, M.*; Bolch, W. E.*; Eckerman, K. F.*; Hertel, N. E.*; Hunt, J. G.*; Pelliccioni, M.*; Schlattl, H.*; Menzel, H.-G.*

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 161(1-4), p.11 - 16, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:19.81(Environmental Sciences)

In 2007, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) revised its fundamental recommendations on radiation protection in ICRP Publication 103 (ICRP103). The recommendations updated the radiation and tissue weighting factors in the radiological protection quantities, equivalent and effective doses, and adopted reference computational phantoms for the calculation of organ doses. These revisions required calculations of conversion coefficients for the protection quantities. The sets of conversion coefficients for external exposures were compiled by the Task Group DOCAL of ICRP, and published in ICRP116. The presentation reviews the conversion coefficients for external radiations calculated using the reference computational phantoms. The conversion coefficients are compared with the existing values given in ICRP74. Contributing factors for any differences between these sets of conversion coefficients as well as the impact for radiation monitoring practice are discussed.

Journal Articles

ICRP Publication 116; The First ICRP/ICRU application of the male and female adult reference computational phantoms

Petoussi-Henss, N.*; Bolch, W. E.*; Eckerman, K. F.*; Endo, Akira; Hertel, N.*; Hunt, J.*; Menzel, H. G.*; Pelliccioni, M.*; Schlattl, H.*; Zankl, M.*

Physics in Medicine & Biology, 59(18), p.5209 - 5224, 2014/09

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:20.03(Engineering, Biomedical)

ICRP Publication 116 (ICRP116) on "Conversion Coefficients for Radiological Protection Quantities for External Radiation Exposures", provides fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for organ absorbed doses and effective dose for external exposures. ICRP116 supersedes the ICRP74, expanding also the particle types and energy ranges considered. The coefficients were calculated using the ICRP/ICRU computational phantoms representing the Reference Adult Male and Reference Adult Female, together with Monte Carlo codes simulating the radiation transport in the body. Idealised whole-body irradiation from unidirectional and rotational parallel beams as well as isotropic irradiation was considered. Comparison of the effective doses with operational quantities revealed that the latter quantities continue to provide a good approximation of effective dose for photons, neutrons and electrons for the conventional energy ranges considered previously, but not at the higher energies of ICRP116.

Journal Articles

Impact of the new nuclear decay data of ICRP Publication 107 on inhalation dose coefficients for workers

Manabe, Kentaro; Endo, Akira; Eckerman, K. F.*

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 138(3), p.245 - 250, 2010/03

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Environmental Sciences)

The impact a revision of nuclear decay data had on dose coefficients was studied using data newly published in ICRP Publication 107 (ICRP107) and existing data from ICRP Publication 38 (ICRP38). Committed effective dose coefficients for occupational inhalation of radionuclides were calculated using two sets of decay data with the Dose and Risk Calculation software DCAL for 90 elements, 774 nuclides, 1572 cases. The dose coefficients based on ICRP107 increased by over 10% to those based on ICRP38 in 98 cases, and decreased by over 10% in 54 cases. It was found that the differences in dose coefficients mainly originated from the radiation energy emitted per nuclear transformation having revised. In addition, revisions of the half-lives, radiation types and decay modes also resulted in changes in the dose coefficients.

JAEA Reports

Nuclear decay data for dosimetry calculation; Data for radionuclides with half-lives less than 10 minutes

Endo, Akira; Eckerman, K. F.*

JAEA-Data/Code 2007-021, 28 Pages, 2007/11

JAEA-Data-Code-2007-021.pdf:45.54MB

Nuclear decay data used for dose calculations have been compiled for 214 radionuclides with half-lives of less than 10 minutes. The decay data were assembled from decay data sets of the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF), the latest version as of May, 2007. Basic nuclear properties in the ENSDF that are particularly important for calculating the energies and intensities of radiations were examined and updated by referring to NUBASE2003/AME2003, the database for nuclear and decay properties of nuclides. In addition, modification of the incomplete ENSDF was done to determine their format errors, level schemes, normalization records, and so on. The energies and intensities of emitted radiations by the nuclear decay and the subsequent atomic process were computed from the ENSDF using the computer code EDISTR04. The compiled data are presented to enhance the nuclear decay database DECDC2, which was previously developed by the authors. The data will be used for dose calculations in the safety analysis for induced radionuclides in accelerator facilities and in treatment planning for the medical use of short-lived nuclides.

Journal Articles

Development of nuclear decay data for radiation dosimetry calculation

Endo, Akira; Eckerman, K. F.*

JAEA-Conf 2007-002, p.76 - 85, 2007/02

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Nuclear Decay Data for Dosimetry Calculation; Revised data of ICRP Publication 38

Endo, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Eckerman, K. F.*

JAERI 1347, 114 Pages, 2005/02

JAERI-1347.pdf:6.57MB

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Development and assessment of new radioactive decay database used for dosimetry calculation

Endo, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Eckerman, K. F.*

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 105(1-4), p.565 - 569, 2003/09

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:61.24(Environmental Sciences)

The present paper discusses a strategy for the development of a new radioactive decay database, which will succeed ICRP Publ.38 used for dosimetry calculations. The development of the database requires 1) Consistency checking of the ENSDF used for compilation of the decay data, 2) Improvement of the computer code EDISTR for processing the ENSDF, and 3) Comparison with other decay data prepared from the different computer codes and libraries for the verification of the compiled data. This paper identifies several technical issues that need to be addressed for the development of the new radioactive decay database.

Oral presentation

Planned revision of ICRP Publication 38

Eckerman, K. F.*; Endo, Akira

no journal, , 

The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has issued its 2007 recommendations which will be followed by the issuance of new dose coefficients for occupational intakes of radionuclides. Committee 2 has had underway several tasks in preparation for the calculations including the revision of its Publication 38 on the energies and intensities of emitted radiations. Publication 38, issued in 1983, provided nuclear decay data for 820 radionuclides. All dose coefficients for the intake of radionuclides published by ICRP in the past 30 years have been based on these data. Because of the special nature of these data, ICRP has not planned to make available the future publication for public comment. This presentation highlights the technical details underlying the analysis of the nuclear structure data and the nature of the planned publication.

Oral presentation

Impact of the new nuclear decay data on internal dose coefficients

Manabe, Kentaro; Endo, Akira; Eckerman, K. F.*

no journal, , 

no abstracts in English

Oral presentation

ICRP activities on dose coefficients for members of the public from external exposures to environmental sources

Petoussi-Henss, N.*; Bellamy, M.*; Bolch, W. E.*; Eckerman, K. F.*; Endo, Akira; Hertel, N.*; Hunt, J.*; Jansen, J.*; Kim, C. H.*; Lee, C.*; et al.

no journal, , 

A Task Group of the Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP, is currently working on the estimation of effective dose and organ dose coefficients for members of the public due to environmental external exposures to photons and electrons. The JAEA is contributing to the Task Group by calculating the doses with the radiation transport code PHITS which has been developed in the JAEA. Those calculations were performed using the ICRP adult and pediatric male and female reference computational phantoms for the environmental radiation sources in air, soil, and water. The obtained results of effective dose and organ dose are normalized to radioactivity concentration, ambient dose equivalent, and air kerma, and summarize in a database of the dose coefficients. Furthermore, dose coefficients for radionuclides in the environment are also evaluated by using the most recent nuclear decay data.

11 (Records 1-11 displayed on this page)
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