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Journal Articles

Visualizing cation vacancies in Ce:Gd$$_{3}$$Al$$_{2}$$Ga$$_{3}$$O$$_{12}$$ scintillators by gamma-ray-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

Fujimori, Kosuke*; Kitaura, Mamoru*; Taira, Yoshitaka*; Fujimoto, Masaki*; Zen, H.*; Watanabe, Shinta*; Kamada, Kei*; Okano, Yasuaki*; Kato, Masahiro*; Hosaka, Masahito*; et al.

Applied Physics Express, 13(8), p.085505_1 - 085505_4, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:24.67(Physics, Applied)

To clarify the existence of cation vacancies in Ce-doped Gd$$_{3}$$Al$$_{2}$$Ga$$_{3}$$O$$_{12}$$ (Ce:GAGG) scintillators, we performed gamma-ray-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (GiPALS). GiPAL spectra of GAGG and Ce:GAGG comprised two exponential decay components, which were assigned to positron annihilation at bulk and defect states. By an analogy with Ce:Y$$_{3}$$Al$$_{5}$$O$$_{12}$$, the defect-related component was attributed to Al/Ga-O divacancy complexes. This component was weaker for Ce, Mg:GAGG, which correlated with the suppression of shallow electron traps responsible for phosphorescence. Oxygen vacancies were charge compensators for Al/Ga vacancies. The lifetime of the defect-related component was significantly changed by Mg co-doping. This was understood by considering aggregates of Mg$$^{2+}$$ ions at Al/Ga sites with oxygen vacancies, which resulted in the formation of vacancy clusters.

Journal Articles

Soft-X-ray high-resolution photoemission study on the valence transitions in YbInCu$$_{4}$$

Sato, Hitoshi*; Yoshikawa, Kunta*; Hiraoka, Koichi*; Arita, Masashi*; Fujimoto, Koji*; Kojima, Kenichi*; Muro, Takayuki*; Saito, Yuji; Sekiyama, Akira*; Suga, Shigemasa*; et al.

Physical Review B, 69(16), p.165101_1 - 165101_6, 2004/04

 Times Cited Count:31 Percentile:77.88(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

no abstracts in English

Oral presentation

Recent studies of heat and particle loadings in long pulse discharges and influence on PWI in JT-60U

Asakura, Nobuyuki; Nakano, Tomohide; Kawashima, Hisato; Masaki, Kei; Fujimoto, Kayoko; Ono, Noriyasu*; Tanabe, Tetsuo*

no journal, , 

ELMy H-mode plasmas have been recently operated during long duration under the wall saturated condition in JT-60U. Investigation of the heat and particle handling and PSI studies such as erosion and deposition of carbon have been progressed. Deuterium gas balance has been studied in short term, and it was found that globally saturated condition of PFCs is caused mostly by an increase in wall temperature near the divertor. Increase in the divertor pumping was investigated to demonstrate particle control under the globally saturated condition. Erosion and deposition of the carbon target has been analyzed at the divertor tiles after the experiment campaigns. Deposition pattern and its rate on the tile surface were similar to those at other tokamaks such as JET. On the other hand, deposition depth of the tile edge was relatively smaller, which suggests difference of tile arrangement. Deuterium co-deposition was found to be smaller. Influence of operation temperature is discussed.

Oral presentation

Non-destructive inspection system for hidden special nuclear materials, 3; Non-destructive detection of isotopes by LCS $$gamma$$-rays

Hajima, Ryoichi; Kando, Masaki; Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Hayakawa, Takehito; Ogaki, Hideaki*; Daito, Izuru*; Negm, H.*; Hori, Toshitada*; Fujimoto, Shinya*; Sakai, Fumio*

no journal, , 

no abstracts in English

Oral presentation

Development of gamma-ray induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

Taira, Yoshitaka*; Fujimoto, Masaki*; Fujimori, Kosuke*; Kitaura, Mamoru*; Zen, H.*; Okano, Yasuaki*; Hosaka, Masahito*; Yamazaki, Junichiro*; Kato, Masahiro*; Hirade, Tetsuya; et al.

no journal, , 

For general positron sources, radioisotopes such as $$^{22}$$Na are often used. However, there is a problem that positrons cannot probe the deep region of metal materials with a thickness of 1 mm or more. Gamma-ray induced positron annihilation lifetime measurement (GiPALS) is a method for generating positrons in bulk samples with a thickness of several centimeters and samples placed in vessels such as high temperature and/or pressure furnaces. The annihilation lifetime of positrons is about 200 ps for metal materials, so it is important to use gamma rays with a shorter pulse width for GiPALS in order to accurately measure the positron lifetime. We have succeeded in the proof-of-principle experiment for GiPALS of ultra-short pulse gamma rays with a pulse width of 2 ps, which was originally developed using 90$$^{circ}$$ collision laser Compton scattering at UVSOR.

Oral presentation

Development of gamma-ray induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy at UVSOR

Taira, Yoshitaka*; Fujimoto, Masaki*; Fujimori, Kosuke*; Kitaura, Mamoru*; Zen, H.*; Okano, Yasuaki*; Hosaka, Masahito*; Yamazaki, Junichiro*; Kato, Masahiro*; Hirade, Tetsuya; et al.

no journal, , 

For general positron sources, radioisotopes such as $$^{22}$$Na are often used. However, there is a problem that positrons cannot probe the deep region of metal materials with a thickness of 1 mm or more. Gamma-ray induced positron annihilation lifetime measurement (GiPALS) is a method for generating positrons in bulk samples with a thickness of several centimeters and samples placed in vessels such as high temperature and/or pressure furnaces. The annihilation lifetime of positrons is about 200 ps for metal materials, so it is important to use gamma rays with a shorter pulse width for GiPALS in order to accurately measure the positron lifetime. We have succeeded in the proof-of-principle experiment for GiPALS of ultra-short pulse gamma rays with a pulse width of 2 ps, which was originally developed using 90$$^{circ}$$ collision laser Compton scattering at UVSOR.

Oral presentation

Vacancy-type defects in garnet crystals revealed by gamma-ray-induced positron annihilation spectroscopy

Kitaura, Mamoru*; Fujimori, Kosuke*; Taira, Yoshitaka*; Fujimoto, Masaki*; Zen, H.*; Hirade, Tetsuya; Kamada, Kei*; Watanabe, Shinta*; Onishi, Akimasa*

no journal, , 

Positron annihilation spectroscopy is the only way to investigate the properties of cation vacancies because they are negatively charged. We generated high-energy pulsed gamma rays by the vertical collision of an ultrashort pulse laser and electron beam. In this study, we investigated the vacancy-type defects present in the crystals of GAGG(Gd$$_{3}$$Al$$_{2}$$Ga$$_{3}$$O$$_{12}$$), GAGG: Ce and GAGG: Ce, Mg by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy using the high-energy gamma rays. The lifetime of the defect-related component was significantly changed by Mg co-doping. This was understood by considering aggregates of Mg$$^{2+}$$ ions at Al/Ga sites with oxygen vacancies, which resulted in the formation of vacancy clusters.

Oral presentation

Origin of phosphorescence in Ce:Gd$$_{3}$$Al$$_{2}$$Ga$$_{3}$$O$$_{12}$$ crystals revealed by gamma-ray induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

Fujimori, Kosuke*; Kitaura, Mamoru*; Taira, Yoshitaka*; Fujimoto, Masaki*; Zen, H.*; Hirade, Tetsuya; Kamada, Kei*; Watanabe, Shinta*; Onishi, Akimasa*

no journal, , 

We generated high-energy pulsed gamma rays by the vertical collision of an ultrashort pulse laser and electron beam. In this study, we investigated the vacancy-type defects present in the crystals of GAGG(Gd$$_{3}$$Al$$_{2}$$Ga$$_{3}$$O$$_{12}$$), GAGG: Ce and GAGG: Ce, Mg by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy using the high-energy gamma rays. The lifetime of the defect-related component was significantly changed by Mg co-doping. This indicates that the Al/Ga vacancies disappear. This fact corresponds well with the suppression of the phosphorescence component and is an important result showing that the Mg co-doping is effective in suppressing the shallow electron capture center.

Oral presentation

Development of gamma-ray induced positron annihilation spectroscopy

Taira, Yoshitaka*; Sugita, Kento*; Okano, Yasuaki*; Fujimoto, Masaki*; Hirade, Tetsuya

no journal, , 

Positron annihilation spectroscopy is a powerful analytical method that can observe single-atom vacant defects in crystals and micro voids in insulating materials. UVSOR-III installed at the Institute of Molecular Science is promoting the development and user use of Gamma-ray induced positron annihilation spectroscopy (GiPAS) by ultrashort pulse gamma rays. Since the ultrashort pulse gamma rays generate positrons inside the material by pair production, positron annihilation experiments of bulk materials with a thickness of several cm can be performed non-destructively. We have succeeded in the generation of ultrashort pulse gamma rays and positron annihilation experiments such as the lifetime measurement and the positron age-momentum correlation measurement.

Oral presentation

Positron annihilation spectroscopy using ultra-short pulsed laser Thomson scattered gamma-rays

Taira, Yoshitaka*; Fujimoto, Masaki*; Okano, Yasuaki*; Kitaura, Mamoru*; Hirade, Tetsuya

no journal, , 

Laser Thomson/Compton scattering is a unique technique to generate gamma-rays with features such as quasi-monochromatic and tunable energy, highly polarized, low divergence angle, and low background. We have developed GiPALS using an ultra-short pulsed gamma-ray generated at the synchrotron radiation facility UVSOR-III. The gamma-rays are generated via laser Thomson scattering with 90 degree collisions between a 750-MeV electron beam and a Ti:Sa laser. The pulse width of the gamma-rays is calculated to be 5 ps (FWHM). The gamma-ray induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (GiPALS) is currently available for users. In addition to GiPALS, we develop gamma-ray induced age-momentum correlation (GiAMOC), which measures the lifetime and Doppler broadening of annihilation gamma-rays simultaneously. In this conference, we will present a generation method of the ultra-short pulsed gamma-rays and details of GiPALS and GiAMOC.

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