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Journal Articles

Study on optimizing microwave heating denitration method and powder characteristics of uranium trioxide

Segawa, Tomoomi; Kawaguchi, Koichi; Kato, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Katsunori; Suzuki, Masahiro; Fujita, Shunya*; Kobayashi, Shohei*; Abe, Yutaka*; Kaneko, Akiko*; Yuasa, Tomohisa*

Proceedings of 2019 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2019) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2019/05

A solution of plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate is converted into a mixed oxide by microwave heating denitration method. In the present study, for improving the efficiency of microwave heating and achieving high-temperature uniformity to produce homogeneous UO$$_{3}$$ powder, the microwave heating test of potassium chloride and uranyl nitrate solution, and numerical simulation analysis were conducted. The potassium chloride agar was adjusted to the dielectric loss, which is close to that of the uranyl nitrate solution and the optimum support table height was estimated to be 50 mm for denitration of the uranyl nitrate solution by microwave heating. The adiabator improved the efficiency of microwave heating denitration. Moreover, the powder yield was improved by using the adiabator owing to ease of scraping of the denitration product from the bottom of the denitration vessel.

Journal Articles

Mechanism of flashing phenomena by microwave heating and influence of high dielectric constant solution

Fujita, Shunya*; Abe, Yutaka*; Kaneko, Akiko*; Yuasa, Tomohisa*; Segawa, Tomoomi; Kato, Yoshiyuki; Kawaguchi, Koichi; Ishii, Katsunori

Proceedings of 11th Korea-Japan Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS-11) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2018/11

Mixed uranium oxide and plutonium oxide powder is produced from uranyl nitrate and plutonium nitrate mixed solution by the microwave heating denitration method in the spent fuel reprocessing process. Since the microwave heating method is accompanied by a boiling phenomenon, it is necessary to fully grasp the operating conditions in order to avoid flashing and spilling in the mass production of denitrification technology for the future. In this research, it was clarified that the heat transfer coefficient became lower as the dielectric constant increased. The dominant factor of the blowing up phenomena is supposed to be generation of the innumerable bubble rather than bubble's growth.

Journal Articles

Mechanism of flashing phenomena induced by microwave heating

Fujita, Shunya*; Abe, Yutaka*; Kaneko, Akiko*; Yuasa, Tomohisa*; Segawa, Tomoomi; Yamada, Yoshikazu; Kato, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Katsunori

Proceedings of 26th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-26) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2018/07

Mixed uranium oxide and plutonium oxide powder is produced from uranyl nitrate and plutonium nitrate mixed solution by the microwave heating denitration method in the spent fuel reprocessing process. Since the microwave heating method is accompanied by a boiling phenomenon, it is necessary to fully grasp the operating conditions in order to avoid flashing and spilling in the mass production of denitrification technology for the future. In this research, it was confirmed that a potassium chloride aqueous solution as a simulant of uranyl nitrate aqueous solution with high dielectric loss cause loss of microwave at the solution surface as the dielectric loss increased with the increase of KCl concentration by experimental and electromagnetic field analysis, and revealed that the change in the heating condition affects the generation of flushing.

Journal Articles

Flushing phenomena and flow structure by microwave heating

Fujita, Shunya*; Abe, Yutaka*; Kaneko, Akiko*; Chonan, Fuminori*; Yuasa, Tomohisa*; Yamaki, Tatsunori*; Segawa, Tomoomi; Yamada, Yoshikazu

Proceedings of 25th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-25) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2017/07

From the observation results, in the process of flushing, the behaviors leading to flushing were classified divided into three types. First type is that first generation bubble from heating leads to flushing. Second type is that nucleate boiling continues during heating and stop, finally single bubble generates and leads to flushing. Third type is defined that gradual evaporation occurs without bubbles. It was revealed that the total quantities of heat released by flushing are approximately equal when assuming the flushing mechanism, it can be triggered that a large amount of micro bubbles are instantaneously generated and grew.

JAEA Reports

Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project; Synthesis of Phase II (Construction Phase) investigations to a depth of 350m

Sato, Toshinori; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Ishii, Eiichi; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Hayano, Akira; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Fujita, Tomoo*; Tanai, Kenji; Nakayama, Masashi; Takeda, Masaki; et al.

JAEA-Research 2016-025, 313 Pages, 2017/03

JAEA-Research-2016-025.pdf:45.1MB

The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formations at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido. This report summarizes the results of the Phase II investigations carried out from April 2005 to June 2014 to a depth of 350m. Integration of work from different disciplines into a "geosynthesis" ensures that the Phase II goals have been successfully achieved and identifies key issues that need to made to be addressed in the Phase II investigations Efforts are made to summarize as many lessons learnt from the Phase II investigations and other technical achievements as possible to form a "knowledge base" that will reinforce the technical basis for both implementation and the formulation of safety regulations.

Journal Articles

Mechanical characteristics of rock segment for reducing amount of cement use and stability of drift tunnel

Tada, Hiroyuki*; Kumasaka, Hiroo*; Saito, Akira*; Nakaya, Atsushi*; Ishii, Takashi*; Fujita, Tomoo; Sugita, Yutaka; Nakama, Shigeo; Sanada, Masanori*

Doboku Gakkai Rombunshu, F2 (Chika Kukan Kenkyu) (Internet), 73(1), p.11 - 28, 2017/03

This study examined the mechanical characteristics of rock segments and backfill materials and analyzed the stability of the drift that is supported by the rock segments and gravel backfill. The results confirmed the technical aspects of the formation of the rock segments and the effectiveness of the planned efforts to further reduce the amount of cement used.

JAEA Reports

Basic properties of the concrete using the low alkaline cement (HFSC) developed by JAEA

Seno, Yasuhiro*; Nakayama, Masashi; Sugita, Yutaka; Tanai, Kenji; Fujita, Tomoo

JAEA-Data/Code 2016-011, 164 Pages, 2016/11

JAEA-Data-Code-2016-011.pdf:8.45MB
JAEA-Data-Code-2016-011-appendix(CD-ROM).zip:0.1MB

The cementitious materials are used as candidate materials for the tunnel support of the deep geological repository of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW).Generally the pH of leachate from concrete mixed Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) shows a range of 12 to 13. The barrier function of bentonite used as a buffer material and that of host rock might be damaged by the high alkaline leachate from cementitious materials. Therefore, low alkalinity that does not damage each barrier function is necessary for cementitious materials used for the tunnel support system of the HLW geological repository. JAEA has developed a low alkaline cement named as HFSC (Highly Fly-ash contained Silicafume Cement) which the pH of the cement leachate could lower approximately 11. We have confirmed the applicability of HFSC for the tunnel support materials, by using experimentally as the shotcreting materials to the part of gallery wall at 140m, 250m and 350m depth in Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. And moreover, HFSC has been used as the cast-in-place concrete for the shaft lining concrete at the depth of 374m-380m. This Data/Code summarized the past HFSC mix proportion test results about the fresh concrete properties and hardened concrete properties, in order to offer the information as a reference for selecting the mix proportion of HFSC concrete adopted to the disposal galleries et al. in the future.

JAEA Reports

Synthesized research report in the second mid-term research phase, Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project, Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project and Geo-stability Project (Translated document)

Hama, Katsuhiro; Sasao, Eiji; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Onoe, Hironori; Sato, Toshinori; Fujita, Tomoo; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Takeda, Masaki; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; et al.

JAEA-Review 2016-014, 274 Pages, 2016/08

JAEA-Review-2016-014.pdf:44.45MB

We synthesized the research results from the Mizunami/Horonobe Underground Research Laboratories (URLs) and geo-stability projects in the second midterm research phase. This report can be used as a technical basis for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan/Regulator at each decision point from siting to beginning of disposal (Principal Investigation to Detailed Investigation Phase).

JAEA Reports

Long-term immersion experiments of low alkaline cementitious materials

Seno, Yasuhiro*; Noguchi, Akira*; Nakayama, Masashi; Sugita, Yutaka; Suto, Shunkichi; Tanai, Kenji; Fujita, Tomoo; Sato, Haruo*

JAEA-Technology 2016-011, 20 Pages, 2016/07

JAEA-Technology-2016-011.pdf:7.56MB

Cementitious materials are expected to be used for the construction of an underground repository for the geological disposal of radioactive wastes. Ordinary Portland Cement(OPC) would conventionally be used in the fields of civil engineering and architecture, however, OPC has the potential to generate a highly alkaline plume (pH$$>$$12.5), which will likely degrade the performance of other barriers in the repository such as the bentonite buffer and/or host rock. Low alkaline cementitious materials are therefore being developed that will mitigate the generation of a highly alkaline plume. JAEA has developed a High-volume Fly ash Silica fume Cement (HFSC) as a candidate low alkaline cementitious material. The workability of the HFSC shotcrete was confirmed by conducting In-situ full scale construction tests in the Horonobe underground research laboratory. This report summarizes the results of immersion tests to assess the long-term pH behavior of hardened HFSC cement pastes made with mix designs that are expected to be able to be used in the construction of an underground repository in Japan.

Journal Articles

A Study of efficient excavation limiting the extent of an excavation damaged zone in Horonobe URL

Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Tokiwa, Tetsuya*; Fujita, Tomoo

Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering; From the Past to the Future (EUROCK 2016), p.1023 - 1028, 2016/07

Journal Articles

Excavation damaged zone inferred by geophysical surveys on drift floor of Horonobe URL

Tokiwa, Tetsuya*; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Fujita, Tomoo

Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering; From the Past to the Future (EUROCK 2016), p.901 - 906, 2016/07

JAEA Reports

The In-situ experiment for performance confirmation of engineered barrier system at Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory; Examination of backfill material using muck from URL construction

Nakayama, Masashi; Ono, Hirokazu; Tanai, Kenji; Sugita, Yutaka; Fujita, Tomoo

JAEA-Research 2016-002, 280 Pages, 2016/06

JAEA-Research-2016-002.pdf:16.21MB

The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project has being pursued by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formation at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido. The URL Project consists of two major research areas, "Geoscientific Research" and "Research and Development on Geological Disposal Technologies", and proceeds in three overlapping phases, "Phase I: Surface-based investigations", "Phase II: Investigations during tunnel excavation" and "Phase III: Investigations in the underground facilities", over a period of around 20 years. Phase III investigation was started in 2010 fiscal year. The in-situ experiment for performance confirmation of engineered barrier system (EBS experiment) had been prepared from 2013 to 2014 fiscal year at G.L.-350m gallery (Niche No.4), and heating by electric heater in simulated overpack had started in January, 2015. One of objectives of the experiment is acquiring data concerned with Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) coupled behavior. These data will be used in order to confirm the performance of engineered barrier system. In EBS experiment, the backfill material using mixture of bentonite and muck from Horonobe URL construction was used for backfilling a part of Niche No.4. This report shows the results of properties of the backfill material, confirmation test of compaction method and making backfill material block, and so on. From these results, it was confirmed that the backfill material would satisfy target value of the permeability and the swelling pressure.

Journal Articles

A Study of excavation damaged zone induced around the modeled disposal pit in Horonobe Underground Research Center

Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Ishii, Eiichi; Nakayama, Masashi; Fujita, Tomoo

Nippon Zairyo Gakkai Dai-65-Ki Tsujo Sokai, Gakujutsu Koenkai Rombunshu (USB Flash Drive), p.19 - 20, 2016/05

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Design and verification of support system for underground excavations under anisotropic stress conditions

Motoshima, Takayuki*; Fujita, Tomoo; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Shirase, Mitsuyasu*; Nago, Makito*

Proceedings of 7th International Symposium on In-situ Rock Stress (RS 2016) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2016/05

JAEA Reports

Measurement of the deformation behavior of the rock mass in the 350 m gallery in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Sakurai, Akitaka; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Fujita, Tomoo; Motoshima, Takayuki*

JAEA-Data/Code 2015-023, 46 Pages, 2016/02

JAEA-Data-Code-2015-023.pdf:48.03MB
JAEA-Data-Code-2015-023-appendix(CD-ROM).zip:48.51MB

In a high level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal project, it is necessary to investigate the long-term behavior of thermos-hydro-mechanical-chemical of the rock mass around the engineered barrier system of the HLW waste for the safety assessment of the disposal system. In addition, long-term stability of the rock mass around the galleries are required for the disposal facility. Considering these backgrounds, the authors measure the deformation behavior of the vertical pit drilled on the floor of the 350 m gallery in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. In situ measurements of the deformation of the pit and rock mass around the pit was conducted to apply to the assessment of the long-term deformation behavior. The authors describe the drilling of the vertical pit, geological observation, specification of the measurement instrument, measurement method, and result of the measurement in this report.

Journal Articles

Investigation of an excavation damaged zone in the east access shaft at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Ishii, Eiichi; Fujita, Tomoo; Motoshima, Takayuki*

Dai-44-Kai Gamban Rikigaku Ni Kansuru Shimpojiumu Koenshu (CD-ROM), p.313 - 318, 2016/01

The objective of this research is to investigate the extent and failure mechanism of an Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) induced around the East Access Shaft in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. As a result of hydraulic tests, hydraulic conductivity within 2 m from the shaft wall was increased by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude. This result is consistent with the extent of the development of fractures detected by borehole televiewer surveys. Furthermore, the dominant failure mechanism of the fractures around the shaft wall was almost tensile; also these fractures were caused by the short-term excavation-induced unloading.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of EDZ (Excavated Damage Zone) by multi-optical measurement probe in Horonobe Underground Research Center

Hata, Koji*; Niunoya, Sumio*; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Fujita, Tomoo

Dai-44-Kai Gamban Rikigaku Ni Kansuru Shimpojiumu Koenshu (CD-ROM), p.319 - 324, 2016/01

Long-term monitoring and EDZ (Excavated Damage Zone) evaluation is carried out by this multi-optical measurement probe in the depth of 350m vertical shaft of Horonobe Underground Research Center project of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. We have developed a multi-optical measurement probe incorporating an optical AE sensor, an optical water pressure sensor and an optical temperature sensor. Result of the measurement of AE, water pressure and temperature, it was made clear the influence of the shaft excavation. And from the source location analysis, it was found EDZ was less than 1.5m from shaft wall.

Journal Articles

An Investigation on mechanical properties of in-situ rock mass at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Niunoya, Sumio*; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Fujita, Tomoo; Shirase, Mitsuyasu*

Dai-44-Kai Gamban Rikigaku Ni Kansuru Shimpojiumu Koenshu (CD-ROM), p.336 - 341, 2016/01

In the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, rock mass classification and determination of mechanical properties of rock mass was conducted considering the effect of the density of fractures in the rock mass. In this paper, the authors report the mechanical properties of rock mass detected by plate loading tests and in situ shear tests in the 250 m and 350 m galleries. As a result, the failure criteria based on the result of in situ shear tests provides the most conservative value for the design of support pattern and assessment of stability of the gallery.

Journal Articles

Estimation of initial stress based on the convergence measurement result during tunnel excavation

Kamemura, Katsumi*; Fujita, Tomoo; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Nago, Makito*; Shirase, Mitsuyasu*; Sugawara, Kentaro*

Dai-44-Kai Gamban Rikigaku Ni Kansuru Shimpojiumu Koenshu (CD-ROM), p.109 - 114, 2016/01

How to estimate the initial stress state as well as a mechanical characteristic of rock mass is important in the design of deep underground structures. Some stress measurement methods using borehole, which methodology and evaluation method have been discussed in detail, are carried out if necessary. However, obtained results are often varying widely, so the evaluation of initial stress is difficult. Here, the initial stress state corresponding to the rock mass behavior of about 120m$$times$$200m area is evaluated using the convergence measurement results during tunnel excavation in 350m depth. Analysed result corresponded to that of other method, so the validity of the proposed method was shown.

JAEA Reports

Research on engineering technology in the full-scale demonstration of EBS and operation technology for HLW disposal; Research report in 2014 (Joint research)

Kobayashi, Masato*; Saito, Masahiko*; Iwatani, Takafumi*; Nakayama, Masashi; Tanai, Kenji; Fujita, Tomoo; Asano, Hidekazu*

JAEA-Research 2015-018, 14 Pages, 2015/12

JAEA-Research-2015-018.pdf:5.43MB

JAEA and RWMC concluded the letter of cooperation agreement on the research and development of radioactive waste disposal in April, 2005, and have been carrying out the collaboration work based on the agreement. JAEA have been carrying out the Horonobe URL Project which is intended for a sedimentary rock in the Horonobe town, Hokkaido, since 2001. In the project, geoscientific research and research and development on geological disposal technology are being promoted. Meanwhile, The Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry has been promoting construction of equipments for the full-scale demonstration of engineered barrier system and operation technology for high-level radioactive waste disposal since 2008, to enhance public's understanding to the geological disposal of HLW, e.g. using underground facility. RWMC received an order of the project in fiscal year 2014 continuing since fiscal year 2008. Since topics in this project are included in the Horonobe URL Project, JAEA carried out this project as collaboration work continuing since fiscal year 2008. This report summarizes the results of the research on engineering technology carried out in this collaboration work in fiscal year 2014.

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