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JAEA Reports

Optimization of mercury flow with microbubbles in the target-vessel design by means of machine learning

Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Tsuzuki, Takayuki*; Murai, Tetsuro*

JAEA-Technology 2022-023, 128 Pages, 2022/11

JAEA-Technology-2022-023.pdf:9.0MB

In a mercury target of the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex), pulsed proton beams repeatedly bombard the flowing mercury which is confined in a stainless-steel vessel (target vessel). Cavitation damage caused by the propagation of the pressure waves is a factor of the life of the target vessel. As a measure to reduce damages, we developed a bubbler to inject the gas microbubbles into the flowing mercury, which can reduce the pressure waves. To operate the mercury target vessel stably with the 1 MW high-intensity proton beams, further reduction of the damage is required. The bubbler setting position should be closer to the beam window to increase the bubble population, which could enhance the reduction effect on the pressure waves and damage. However, the space at the beam window of the target vessel is restricted. The bubbler design and setting position as well as the vane design for the mercury flowing pattern are optimized by means of a machine learning technique to get more suitable bubble distribution, increasing in bubble population and optimizing bubble size nearby the beam window of the target vessel. The results of CFD analyses performed with 1000 cases were used for machine learning. Since the flow rate of mercury affects the temperature of the target vessel, this was used for the constraint condition. As a result, we found a design of mercury target vessel that can increase the bubble population by ca. 20% higher than the current design.

Journal Articles

Material properties evaluation on radiation shielding lead glasses irradiated by pulsed laser

Wakui, Takashi; Yamasaki, Kazuhiko*; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Advanced Experimental Mechanics, 7, p.103 - 109, 2022/08

As part of the development of technique to cut and reduce the volume of highly radioactive components in the closed space, pulsed Nd:YAG laser was irradiated to radiation shielding glasses with the different lead content in the different irradiation condition; power and number of irradiation. The large black irradiated area with concave shape and cracks around it occurred with an increase of the lead content, power and number of irradiation. General mechanical properties in unirradiated and irradiated area were investigated to investigate the influence of mechanical properties on the irradiation damage. The thermal impact fracture toughness calculated based on the estimated mechanical properties decreased with increasing the lead content. The micro hardness in black irradiated area was 10% smaller than that in the unirradiated area. The change of the mechanical property due to the laser irradiation was confirmed.

Journal Articles

Effect of pulsed laser irradiation on the micro-plastic behavior of radiation shielding lead glasses

Wakui, Takashi; Yamasaki, Kazuhiko*; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Jikken Rikigaku, 22(2), p.96 - 104, 2022/06

Pulsed laser irradiation and indentation tests on radiation shielding glasses and a lead-free glass were carried out. The size of irradiation damage of the glass with high lead content was larger than that with low content. The micro plastic behavior of glasses was quantitatively determined using the inverse analyses based on indentation results. Flow stress decreased with an increase of lead content and that in irradiated area was lower than that in unirradiated area. On the other hand, plastic flow resistance increased with an increase of the lead content and that in irradiated area was higher than that in unirradiated area. Fracture energy and critical size of plastic zone around tip of crack in unirradiated and irradiated areas were calculated based on experimental results including constants evaluated using the inverse analysis. These values decreased with an increase of the lead content and these values in irradiated area were lower than that in unirradiated area.

Journal Articles

Development of the high-power spallation neutron target of J-PARC

Haga, Katsuhiro; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Naoe, Takashi; Wakui, Takashi; Wakai, Eiichi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Proceedings of 19th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-19) (Internet), 13 Pages, 2022/03

The cross-flow type target was developed as the basic design of mercury target in J-PARC, and the design has been improved to realize the MW-class pulsed spallation neutron source. When the high-power and short-pulsed proton beam is injected into the mercury target, pressure waves are generated in mercury by rapid heat generation. The pressure waves induce the cavitation damages on the target vessel. Two countermeasures were adopted, namely, the injection of microbubbles into mercury and the double walled structure at the beam window. The bubble generator was installed in the target vessel to absorb the volume inflation of mercury and mitigate the pressure waves. Also, the double walled target vessel was designed to suppress the cavitation damage by the large velocity gradient of rapid mercury flow in the narrow channel of double wall. Finally, we could attain 1 MW beam operation with the duration time of 36.5 hours in 2020, and achieved the long term stable operation with 740 kW from April in 2021. This report shows the technical development of the high-power mercury target vessel in view of thermal hydraulics to attain 1 MW operation.

Journal Articles

Nanosecond laser-induced coloration of radiation resistant lead glasses

Yamasaki, Kazuhiko*; Kato, Hironori*; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Teshigawara, Makoto

Jikken Rikigaku, 21(4), p.308 - 313, 2021/12

In this study, coloration and damage of radiation-resistant lead glasses by nanosecond pulse laser with visible wavelength are evaluated. Three kinds of radiation resistance glasses with different lead content: PbO-55 wt%, 71 wt% and PbO free glass are used. As a result, the transitional coloration and damage formation with phase differences had observed by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation at peak power of 1 kW. Although high-lead concentration glass has lower thresholds for coloration in laser intensity, damage-formation thresholds for both PbO glasses were almost the same. On the other hand, no change was observed after laser-irradiation to PbO-free glass. In addition, photochemical and thermal reaction of PbO by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation is considered from the result of intensity change at wave numbers 200-500$$^{-1}$$ and 1000 cm$$^{-1}$$ in Raman spectrums.

Journal Articles

Pressure wave induced sound measurement for diagnosing the operation status of the J-PARC pulsed spallation neutron source

Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Teshigawara, Makoto; Haga, Katsuhiro; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 982, p.164566_1 - 164566_6, 2020/12

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:18.89(Instruments & Instrumentation)

A liquid mercury target for the spallation neutron source is installed in the J-PARC. The liquid mercury is enclosed with the multi-walled stainless steel vessel. At the time of highly intense proton beams hits the target at a repetition rate of 25 Hz, pressure waves, that causes cavitation erosion, are generated owing the rapidly thermal expansion of mercury. We have installed the target diagnostic system consisting of a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) and a dynamic microphone to remotely investigate the structural integrity of the target under high-radiation environment. In this study, aiming to understand correlation between the acoustic vibration and the operation conditions such as the proton beam power and beam profile, proton beam induced acoustic vibration was measured by parametrically changing the target operation conditions. The result showed that the sound is well correlated with the operation conditions.

Journal Articles

Water leakage due to the welding defect and improvement to reach 1-MW beam operation in the mercury target of J-PARC

Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Naoe, Takashi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Takada, Hiroshi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(5), p.487 - 494, 2020/05

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:18.46(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Neutron flux per pulse reached world record at neutron source in the J-PARC. In the J-PARC, mercury target system is used as a spallation neutron source. A target vessel has the multi-walled protection system that comprises a mercury vessel enclosed with a double-walled water shroud. This is to prevent the leakage of the mercury outside the mercury vessel. The multi-walled structure needed to be complicated with a lot of welding lines. However, during the operation, we faced an unscheduled shutdown due to water leakage to the intermediate layer between the mercury vessel and water shroud. An investigation on the cause of the leakage was carried out. It is deduced that the leakage path was formed due to the crack propagation from welding defects that is caused by the complicated multi-walled structure. The crack propagation is attributed to the repeated stress by pressure waves generated in the mercury target. Based on the investigation results, the design was improved to remove the welding line on the complicated structure and to realize the stable operation with 1 MW proton beam.

Journal Articles

Change in mechanical properties by high-cycle loading up to Gigacycle for 316L stainless steel

Naoe, Takashi; Harjo, S.; Kawasaki, Takuro; Xiong, Z.*; Futakawa, Masatoshi

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 28, p.061009_1 - 061009_6, 2020/02

At the J-PARC, a mercury target vessel made of 316L SS suffers proton and neutron radiation environment. The target vessel also suffers cyclic impact stress caused by the proton beam-induced pressure waves. The vessel suffers higher than 4.5$$times$$10$$^8$$ cyclic loading during the expected service life of 5000 h. We have investigated fatigue strength 316L SS up to gigacycle in the previous studies. The cyclic hardening and softening behavior were observed. In this study, to evaluate the cyclic hardening/softening behavior, the dislocation densities of specimens were measured using the neutron diffraction method at the MLF BL-19. The result showed that the dislocation density of a 316L SS was increased with increasing the number of loading cycles. By contrast, in the case of cold-rolled 316L SS, annihilation and re-accumulation of dislocation by cyclic loading were observed. In the workshop, result of neutron diffraction measurement will be introduced with the progress of fatigue test.

Journal Articles

Pulsed pressure induced cavitation erosion in mercury narrow channel under flowing conditions

Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Nobuatsu*; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Advanced Experimental Mechanics, 4, p.17 - 21, 2019/08

We have introduced the following two techniques to mitigate the pressure wave-induced cavitation damage in the mercury target. One is the gas microbubble injection into the flowing mercury, and the other is the double-walled structure with a narrow gap channel at the proton beam entrance portion of the mercury vessel. The latter is expected to mitigate the cavitation damage due to the high-speed liquid flow ($$sim$$ 4 m/s) and the narrow gap boundary (2 mm). To quantitatively investigate the effect of double-walled structure on cavitation damage, cavitation damage tests were conducted by parametrically changing mercury flow velocity and gap width of the channel wall. The results showed that the damage evaluated as a surface roughness was reduced by increasing the flow velocity. By contrast, the effect of gap width on cavitation damage was hardly observed under flowing conditions.

Journal Articles

Evaluation growing and collapsing behaviors of cavitation bubbles under flowing condition

Kawamura, Shunsuke; Naoe, Takashi; Ikeda, Tsubasa*; Tanaka, Nobuatsu*; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Advanced Experimental Mechanics, 4, p.33 - 37, 2019/08

A mercury enclosure vessel made of stainless steel is used as a spallation target in the pulsed spallation neutron source at J-PARC. It is severely damaged by the cavitation induced with pressure waves in association with the pulsed proton beam injection. A double-walled structure with a narrow mercury channel was adopted in the front end of the target vessel to reduce the cavitation damage. It has been experimentally demonstrated that the cavitation damage could be mitigated in the narrow channel but its mechanism has been unclarified yet. In this study, we investigated the cavitation from growing to collapsing through visualizing the spark-induced cavitation bubbles under flow field using a high-speed video camera. Furthermore, we measured the wall vibration due to the cavitation bubble collapse with changing flow velocity parametrically. It was found that the microjet collided perpendicular to the wall in the stagnant flow condition while it collided with an inclined angle from the perpendicular direction, suggesting that the collision pressure on the wall was reduced by flowing.

Journal Articles

Optimum temperature for HIP bonding invar alloy and stainless steel

Wakui, Takashi; Ishii, Hideaki*; Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Haga, Katsuhiro; Wakai, Eiichi; Takada, Hiroshi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Materials Transactions, 60(6), p.1026 - 1033, 2019/06

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:8.37(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The mercury target has large size as 1.3$$times$$1.3$$times$$2.5 m$$^{3}$$. In view of reducing the amount of wastes, we studied the structure so that the fore part could be separated. The flange is required to have high seal performance less than 1$$times$$10$$^{-6}$$ Pa m$$^{3}$$/s. Invar with low thermal expansion is a candidate. Due to its low stiffness, however, the flange may deform when it is fastened by bolts. Practically invar is reinforced with stainless steel where all interface between them has to be bonded completely with the HIP bonding. In this study, we made specimens at four temperatures and conducted tensile tests. The specimen bonded at 973 K had little diffusion layer, and so fractured at the interface. The tensile strength reduced with increasing the temperature, and the reduced amount was about 10% at 1473 K. The analyzed residual stresses near the interface increased by 50% at maximum. Then, we concluded that the optimum temperature was 1173 K.

Journal Articles

Development on laser cutting technique to suppress spatter particles aiming at disposal of radio-active waste

Naoe, Takashi; Teshigawara, Makoto; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Mizutani, Haruki; Muramatsu, Toshiharu; Yamada, Tomonori; Ushitsuka, Yuji*; Tanaka, Nobuatsu*; Yamasaki, Kazuhiko*

Proceedings of 8th International Congress on Laser Advanced Materials Processing (LAMP 2019) (Internet), 5 Pages, 2019/05

Laser cutting is one of the options in the disposal of radio-active waste, such as spallation neutron target vessel in J-PARC, etc. Due to unique characteristic of laser, such as non-contact system, it is more easily to provide remote-controlled system in comparison with conventional one, such as mechanical cutting machine, etc. However, a demerit of laser cutting is the sputter and fume caused by laser cutting, resulting in contamination with radio-active materials its surroundings. Recently it was developed that the spatter suppression technique by controlling laser beam profile in laser welding process. In order to apply this suppression technique to laser cutting, first of all, we attempted to observe the phenomenon at melting area during laser cutting using a high-speed video camera in order to make the physical model. The result showed that the appearance of fume and sputter were independently confirmed in the time evolution.

Journal Articles

Effect of artificial defects on the very high cycle fatigue behavior of 316L stainless steel

Xiong, Z.*; Naoe, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Metals, 9(4), p.412_1 - 412_11, 2019/04

AA2019-0011.pdf:2.4MB

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:43.26(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The effect of surface defects on the very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) behavior were investigated on the solution annealed (SA) and cold-rolled (CW) 316L. Surface defects were artificially created using indentation. VHCF test was conducted using an ultrasonic fatigue method. The results showed that the fatigue crack initiation was independent of the indent with the applied range of depth in this research. Furthermore, the critical depth of the indent was evaluated based on an empirical formula. In the case of SA, the VHCF strength was not affected when the indent depth was less than 40 $$mu$$m, which is consistent with the value obtained from the empirical formula. In the case of 20% CW, VHCF strength was not affected when the indent depth was less than 80 $$mu$$m. The results were much larger than the results obtained from the empirical formula and might have been caused by the plastic deformation, residual stress and probable deformation induced martensite transition around the indent.

Journal Articles

Numerical study on the potential of cavitation damage in a lead-bismuth eutectic spallation target

Wan, T.; Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Obayashi, Hironari; Sasa, Toshinobu

Materials, 12(4), p.681_1 - 681_15, 2019/02

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:8.37(Chemistry, Physical)

Journal Articles

Development on high-power spallation neutron sources with liquid metals

Futakawa, Masatoshi

Proceedings of 13th International Symposium on Advanced Science and Technology in Experimental Mechanics (13th ISEM'18) (USB Flash Drive), 6 Pages, 2018/10

Issues on the engineering technologies relating to high-power spallation neutron sources with liquid metals are introduced. The present status on research activities and results was reviewed.

Journal Articles

Temperature measurement for in-situ crack monitoring under high-frequency loading

Naoe, Takashi; Xiong, Z.*; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 506, p.12 - 18, 2018/08

BB2016-1012.pdf:0.95MB

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:60.34(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

A mercury target for neutron source (made of 316L SS) suffers not only proton and neutron radiation damage, but also cyclic impact stress caused by pressure waves. In the previous study, we carried out an ultrasonic fatigue test to investigate the gigacycle fatigue strength of 316L SS, concluding that specimen surface temperature rose abruptly more than 300$$^{circ}$$C just before failure. In this study, to clarify the mechanism of the temperature rise, we measured temperature distribution with a thermography during the fatigue test. The experimental results showed that the temperature rose locally only at the crack tip and the peak position moved with the crack propagation. We also carried out a nonlinear structural analysis by LS-DYNA to estimate the temperature rise with strain energy of elements. The analytical result showed that the heat due to plastic deformation at the crack tip is dominant for the temperature rise rather than the friction between crack surface.

Journal Articles

Cavitation damage in double-walled mercury target vessel

Naoe, Takashi; Wakui, Takashi; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Haga, Katsuhiro; Harada, Masahide; Takada, Hiroshi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 506, p.35 - 42, 2018/08

BB2016-1013.pdf:0.96MB

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:53.46(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

A mercury target vessel made of 316L SS is damaged due to the cavitation caused by the pressure waves in mercury. Cavitation damage reduces the structural integrity of the target front, called "beam window", being major factor to determine the lifetime of target vessel. Aiming at mitigating the cavitation damage by faster mercury flow in narrow channel, we employed a target vessel with a double-walled structure at the beam window along with a gas microbubbles injection. After operating the double-walled target vessel with a beam power of 300 to 500 kW, we cut out the beam window using an annular cutter to examine the damage inside it, and found that damages with maximum pit depth of approximately 25 $$mu$$m distributed in a belt on the specimen facing narrow channel. Furthermore, numerical simulation result showed that the distribution of negative pressure period from beam injection to 1 ms was correlated with the damage distribution in the narrow channel. It was suggested that the cavitation induced by relatively short negative pressure period contributed to the damage formation.

Journal Articles

Recent studies for structural integrity evaluation and defect inspection of J-PARC spallation neutron source target vessel

Wakui, Takashi; Wakai, Eiichi; Naoe, Takashi; Shintaku, Yohei*; Li, T.*; Murakami, Kazuya*; Kanomata, Kenichi*; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Haga, Katsuhiro; Takada, Hiroshi; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 506, p.3 - 11, 2018/08

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:36.01(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The mercury target vessel is designed as multi-walled structure with thin wall (min. 3 mm), and assembled by welding. In order to estimate the structural integrity of the vessel, it is important to measure the defects in welding accurately. For nondestructive tests of the welding, radiographic testing is applicable but it is difficult to detect for some defect shapes. Therefore it is effective to do ultrasonic testing together with it. Because ultrasonic methods prescribed in JIS inspect on the plate with more than 6 mm in thickness, these methods couldn't be applied as the inspection on the vessel with thin walls. In order to develop effective method, we carried out measurements using some testing method on samples with small defect whose size is specified. In the case of the latest phased array method, measured value agreed with actual size. It was found that this method was applicable to detect defects in the thin-walled structure for which accurate inspection was difficult so far.

Journal Articles

Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, 1; Pulsed spallation neutron source

Takada, Hiroshi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Teshigawara, Makoto; Aso, Tomokazu; Meigo, Shinichiro; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Naoe, Takashi; Wakui, Takashi; Oi, Motoki; Harada, Masahide; et al.

Quantum Beam Science (Internet), 1(2), p.8_1 - 8_26, 2017/09

At the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), a pulsed spallation neutron source provides neutrons with high intensity and narrow pulse width to promote researches on a variety of science in the Materials and life science experimental facility. It was designed to be driven by the proton beam with an energy of 3 GeV, a power of 1 MW at a repetition rate of 25 Hz, that is world's highest power level. A mercury target and three types of liquid para-hydrogen moderators are core components of the spallation neutron source. It is still on the way towards the goal to accomplish the operation with a 1 MW proton beam. In this paper, distinctive features of the target-moderator-reflector system of the pulsed spallation neutron source are reviewed.

Journal Articles

Mitigation technologies for damage induced by pressure waves in high-power mercury spallation neutron sources, 4; Measurement of pressure wave response and microbubble effect on mitigation in mercury target at J-PARC

Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Naoe, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Wakui, Takashi; Harada, Masahide; Takada, Hiroshi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 54(7), p.733 - 741, 2017/07

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:71.5(Nuclear Science & Technology)

A mercury target system has been operated to produce neutron beams at the spallation neutron source in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). Pressure waves are generated in mercury by rapid heat generation at the time of high-intensity short-pulse proton beam injection. Not only they cause cyclic stress but also induce the cavitation damage on the target vessel made from type 316L stainless steel. Reduction of these pressure waves is very important issue to ensure enough lifetime of the target vessel. To solve the issue, we have been developing the technique to inject microbubbles into mercury. In this study, we installed a microbubble generator in the mercury target vessel, and investigate the effect of proton beam condition and the microbubbles on the pressure wave mitigation by measuring the displacement velocity of the target vessel with an in-situ diagnostic system. As a result, we observed that the peak displacement velocity of the target vessel decreased down to 1/3 and 2/3 for the injected gas fractions of 0.4% and 0.1%, respectively.

352 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)