Angioni, C.*; Fable, E.*; Greenwald, M.*; Maslov, M.*; Peeters, A. G.*; Takenaga, Hidenobu; Weisen, H.*
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 51(12), p.124017_1 - 124017_14, 2009/12
The physical processes producing electron particle transport in the core of tokamak plasmas are described. Starting from the gyrokinetic equation, a simple analytical derivation is used as guidance to illustrate the main mechanisms driving turbulent particle convection. A review of the experimental observations on particle transport in tokamaks is presented and the consistency with the theoretical predictions is discussed. An overall qualitative agreement, and in some cases even a specific quantitative agreement, emerges between complex theoretical predictions and equally complex experimental observations, exhibiting different dependences on plasma parameters under different regimes. By these results, the direct connection between macroscopic transport properties and the character of microscopic turbulence is pointed out, and an important confirmation of the paradigma of microinstabilities and turbulence as the main cause of transport in the core of tokamaks is obtained. Finally, the impact of these results on the prediction of the peaking of the electron density profile in a fusion reactor is illustrated.
Roach, C. M.*; Walters, M.*; Budny, R. V.*; Imbeaux, F.*; Fredian, T. W.*; Greenwald, M.*; Stillerman, J. A.*; Alexander, D. A.*; Carlsson, J.*; Cary, J. R.*; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 48(12), p.125001_1 - 125001_19, 2008/12
This paper documents the public release PR08 of the International Tokamak Physics Activity profile database, which should be of particular interest to the magnetic confinement fusion community. Data from a wide variety of interesting discharges from many of the world's leading tokamak experiments are now made available in PR08, which also includes predictive simulations of an initial set of operating scenarios for ITER. In this paper we describe the discharges that have been included and the tools that are available to the reader who is interested in accessing and working with the data.
Callen, J. D.*; Anderson, J. K.*; Arlen, T. C.*; Bateman, G.*; Budny, R. V.*; Fujita, Takaaki; Greenfield, C. M.*; Greenwald, M.*; Groebner, R. J.*; Hill, D. N.*; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 47(11), p.1449 - 1457, 2007/11
no abstracts in English
McDonald, D. C.*; Cordey, J. G.*; Thomsen, K.*; Kardaun, O. J. W. F.*; Snipes, J. A.*; Greenwald, M.*; Sugiyama, L.*; Ryter, F.*; Kus, A.*; Stober, J.*; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 47(3), p.147 - 174, 2007/03
This paper describes the updates to and analysis of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) Global H-node Confinement Database version 3 (DB3) over the period 1994-2004. Global data, for the energy confinement time and its controlling parameters, have now been collected from 18 machines of different sizes and shapes: ASDEX, ASDEX Upgrade, C-Mod CoMPASS-D, DIII-D, JET, JFT-2M, JT-60U, MAST, NSTX, PBX-M, PDX, START, T-10, TCV, TdeV, TFTR and TUMAN-3M. A wide range of physics studies has been performed on DB3 with particular progress made in the separation of core and edge behavior, dimensionless parameter analyses and the comparison of the database with one-dimensional transport code. A key aim of the database has always been to provide a basis for estimating the energy confinement properties of next step machines such as ITER, and so the impact of the database and its analysis on such machines is also discussed.
Rice, J. E.*; Ince-Cushman, A.*; de Grassie, J. S.*; Eriksson, L.-G.*; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Scarabosio, A.*; Bortolon, A.*; Burrell, K. H.*; Fenzi-Bonizec, C.*; Greenwald, M. J.*; et al.
Proceedings of 21st IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2006) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2007/03
Parametric scalings of the intrinsic (spontaneous, with no external momentum input) toroidal rotation observed on a large number of tokamaks have been combined with an eye toward revealing the underlying mechanism(s) and extrapolation to future devices. The intrinsic rotation velocity has been found to increase with plasma stored energy or pressure in JET, Alcator C-Mod, Tore Supra, DIII- D, JT-60U and TCV, and to decrease with increasing plasma current in some of these cases. Use of dimensionless parameters has led to a roughly unified scaling with Mach number in proportion to normalized beta, although a variety of Mach numbers works fairly well; scalings of the intrinsic rotation velocity with normalized gyro-radius or collisionality show no correlation. Whether this suggests the predominant role of MHD phenomena such as ballooning transport over turbulent processes in driving the rotation remains an open question. For an ITER discharge with =2.6, an intrinsic rotation Alfvn Mach number of M 0.02 may be expected from the above deduced scaling, possibly high enough to stabilize resistive wall modes without external momentum input.
Kaye, S. M.*; Valovic, M.*; Chudnovskiy, A.*; Cordey, J. G.*; McDonald, D.*; Meakins, A.*; Thomsen, K.*; Akers, R.*; Bracco, G.*; Brickley, C.*; et al.
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 48(5A), p.A429 - A438, 2006/05
The effects of aspect ratio and beta on confinement scaling are studied with the use of the H-mode database extended by the low aspect ratio data from NSTX and MAST. Various statistical methods are applied. Development of scalings using engineering parameters as predictor variables results in the inverse-aspect-ratio scaling with the range from 0.38 to 1.29. The transformation of these scalings to physics variables results in an unfavorouble dependence of the normalized energy confinement time on beta. There is a strong correlation between the inverse aspect ratio and beta, and this makes scalings based on physics variables imprecise.
Cordey, J. G.*; Thomsen, K.*; Chudnovskiy, A.*; Kardaun, O. J. W. F.*; Takizuka, Tomonori; Snipes, J. A.*; Greenwald, M.*; Sugiyama, L.*; Ryter, F.*; Kus, A.*; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 45(9), p.1078 - 1084, 2005/09
The condition of the latest version of the ELMy H-mode database has been re-examined. It is shown that there is bias in the ordinary least squares regression for some of the variables. To address these shortcomings three different techniques are employed: (a)principal component regression, (b)an error in variables technique and (c)the selection of a better conditioned dataset with fewer variables. Scalings in terms of the dimensionless physics valiables, as well as the standard set of engineering variables, are derived. The new scalings give a very similar performance for existing scalings for ITER at the standard beta, but a much improvement performance at higher beta.
Boucher, D.*; Connor, J. W.*; Houlberg, W. A.*; Turner, M. F.*; Bracco, G.*; Chudnovskiy, A.*; Cordey, J. G.*; Greenwald, M. J.*; Hoang, G. T.*; Hogeweij, G. M. D.*; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 40(12), p.1955 - 1981, 2000/12
no abstracts in English
Kaye, S. M.*; Greenwald, M. J.*; U.Stroth*; O.Kardaun*; A.Kus*; Schissel, D. R.*; J.DeBoo*; Bracco, G.*; K.Thomsen*; Cordey, J. G.*; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 37(9), p.1303 - 1328, 1997/00
no abstracts in English