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Journal Articles

Progress of criticality control study on fuel debris by Japan Atomic Energy Agency to support Secretariat of Nuclear Regulation Authority

Tonoike, Kotaro; Watanabe, Tomoaki; Gunji, Satoshi; Yamane, Yuichi; Nagaya, Yasunobu; Umeda, Miki; Izawa, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

Proceedings of 11th International Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety (ICNC 2019) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2019/09

Criticality control of the fuel debris in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station would be a risk-informed control to mitigate consequences of criticality events, instead of a deterministic control to prevent such events. The Nuclear Regulation Authority of Japan has administrated a research and development program to tackle this challenge since 2014. The Nuclear Safety Research Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, commissioned by the authority, is conducting activities such as computations of criticality characteristics of the fuel debris, development of a criticality analysis code, preparation of criticality experiments, and development of a criticality risk analysis method.

Journal Articles

Design methodology for fuel debris experiment in the new STACY facility

Gunji, Satoshi; Clavel, J.-B.*; Tonoike, Kotaro; Duhamel, I.*

Proceedings of 11th International Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety (ICNC 2019) (Internet), 11 Pages, 2019/09

The new criticality experiments facility STACY will be able to contribute to the validation of criticality calculations related to the fuel debris. The experimental core design is in progress in the frame of JAEA/IRSN collaboration. This paper presents the method applied to optimize the design of core configurations of the new STACY to measure the criticality characteristics of pseudo fuel debris focused on Molten Core Concrete Interaction (MCCI) debris. To ensure that a core configuration is relevant for code validation, it is important to evaluate the reactivity worth of the main isotopes and the keff sensitivity to their cross sections. To obtain maximum sensitivity of $$^{28}$$Si capture reaction, some parameters of the core configuration, as for example the lattice pitch or the core dimensions, were adjusted using optimization algorithm to research efficiently the optimal core configurations.

Journal Articles

Study of experimental core configuration of the modified STACY for measurement of criticality characteristics of fuel debris

Gunji, Satoshi; Tonoike, Kotaro; Izawa, Kazuhiko; Sono, Hiroki

Progress in Nuclear Energy, 101(Part C), p.321 - 328, 2017/11

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:78.69(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Criticality safety of fuel debris, particularly MCCI (Molten-Core-Concrete-Interaction) products, is one of the major safety issues for decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Criticality or subcriticality condition of the fuel debris is still uncertain; its composition, location, neutron moderation, etc. are not yet confirmed. The effectiveness of neutron poison in cooling water is also uncertain for use as a criticality control of fuel debris. A database of computational models is being built by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), covering a wide range of possible conditions of such composition, neutron moderation, etc., to facilitate assessing criticality characteristics once fuel debris samples are taken and their conditions are known. The computational models also include uncertainties which are to be clarified by critical experiments. These experiments are planned and will be conducted by JAEA with the modified STACY (STAtic experiment Critical facilitY) and samples to simulate fuel debris compositions. Each of the samples will be cladded by a zircalloy tube whose outer shape is compatible with the fuel rod of STACY and loaded into an array of the fuel rods. This report introduces a study of experimental core configurations to measure the reactivity worth of samples simulating MCCI products. Parameters to be varied in the computation models for the experimental series are:(1) Uranium dioxide with $$^{235}$$U enrichments of 3, 4, and 5 wt.%; (2) Concrete volume fraction in the samples of 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80%; and (3) Porosity of the samples filled from 0 to 80% where the sample void is filled with water. It is concluded that the measurement is feasible in both under- and over-moderated conditions. Additionally, the required amount of samples was estimated.

Journal Articles

Study of experimental core configuration of the modified STACY for reactivity worth measurement of MCCI products

Gunji, Satoshi; Tonoike, Kotaro; Izawa, Kazuhiko; Sono, Hiroki

Proceedings of International Conference on the Physics of Reactors; Unifying Theory and Experiments in the 21st Century (PHYSOR 2016) (USB Flash Drive), p.3927 - 3936, 2016/05

Criticality safety of fuel debris including MCCI products is one of the major safety is-sues for decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Criticality or subcriticality condition of the fuel debris is still uncertain since its composition, location, neutron moderation, etc. are not confirmed. Also uncertain in criticality control of fuel debris is the effectiveness of neutron poison in cooling water. A database is being built by computation in JAEA, covering a wide range of possible conditions of such composition, neutron moderation, etc., to facilitate assessing criticality characteristics when fuel debris samples are taken and their conditions are known. The computation also has uncertainties to be clarified by critical experiments, which is planned by JAEA to be conducted with the modified STACY and samples simulating fuel debris compositions. This report introduces a study of experimental core configurations for reactivity worth measurements of samples simulating MCCI products. It is concluded that the measurement is feasible in both under- and over-moderated conditions. Additionally, required amount of samples was estimated.

Journal Articles

Void reactivity evaluation by modified conversion ratio measurements in LWR critical experiments

Yoshioka, Kenichi*; Kikuchi, Tsukasa*; Gunji, Satoshi*; Kumanomido, Hironori*; Mitsuhashi, Ishi*; Umano, Takuya*; Yamaoka, Mitsuaki*; Okajima, Shigeaki; Fukushima, Masahiro; Nagaya, Yasunobu; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 52(2), p.282 - 293, 2015/02

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

We have developed a void reactivity evaluation method by using modified conversion ratio measurements in a light water reactor (LWR) critical lattice. Assembly-wise void reactivity is evaluated from the "finite neutron multiplication factor", $$k^ast$$, deduced from the modified conversion ratio of each fuel rod. The distributions of modified conversion ratio and $$k^ast$$ on a reduced-moderation LWR lattice, for which the improvement of negative void reactivity is a serious issue, were measured. Measured values were analyzed with a continuous-energy Monte Carlo method. The measurements and analyses agreed within the measurement uncertainty. The developed method is useful for validating the nuclear design methodology concerning void reactivity.

Journal Articles

Intra-pellet neutron flux distribution measurements in LWR critical lattices

Yoshioka, Kenichi*; Kikuchi, Tsukasa*; Gunji, Satoshi*; Kumanomido, Hironori*; Mitsuhashi, Ishi*; Umano, Takuya*; Yamaoka, Mitsuaki*; Okajima, Shigeaki; Fukushima, Masahiro; Nagaya, Yasunobu; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 50(6), p.606 - 614, 2013/06

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:86.44(Nuclear Science & Technology)

We have developed an intra-pellet neutron flux and conversion ratio distribution measurement method. A foil activation method with special foils was used for the neutron flux distribution measurement. A $$gamma$$-ray spectrum analysis method with special collimators was used for the conversion ratio distribution measurement. Using the developed methods, intra-pellet neutron flux distributions and conversion ratio distributions were measured in critical experiments on a reduced-moderation LWR. Measured values were analyzed with a deterministic method and a Monte Carlo method. The neutron flux distribution measurements and analyses agreed within the range of 1% to 2%. The conversion ratio distribution measurements and analyses were consistent with each other. We found that the measurement methods are useful for the validation of neutron behavior in a fuel pellet, which is known as micro reactor physics.

Journal Articles

Azimuthal correlations of electrons from heavy-flavor decay with hadrons in $$p+p$$ and Au+Au collisions at $$sqrt{s_{NN}}$$ = 200 GeV

Adare, A.*; Afanasiev, S.*; Aidala, C.*; Ajitanand, N. N.*; Akiba, Yasuyuki*; Al-Bataineh, H.*; Alexander, J.*; Aoki, Kazuya*; Aphecetche, L.*; Aramaki, Y.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 83(4), p.044912_1 - 044912_16, 2011/04

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:49.24(Physics, Nuclear)

Measurements of electrons from the decay of open-heavy-flavor mesons have shown that the yields are suppressed in Au+Au collisions compared to expectations from binary-scaled $$p+p$$ collisions. Here we extend these studies to two particle correlations where one particle is an electron from the decay of a heavy flavor meson and the other is a charged hadron from either the decay of the heavy meson or from jet fragmentation. These measurements provide more detailed information about the interaction between heavy quarks and the quark-gluon matter. We find the away-side-jet shape and yield to be modified in Au+Au collisions compared to $$p+p$$ collisions.

Journal Articles

Current status and newly introduced analytical techniques for safeguards environmental samples at JAERI

Magara, Masaaki; Usuda, Shigekazu; Sakurai, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo; Esaka, Fumitaka; Hirayama, Fumio; Lee, C. G.; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Kono, Nobuaki; Inagawa, Jun; et al.

Proceedings of INMM 46th Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2005/00

JAERI has been developing analytical techniques for ultra-trace amounts of nuclear materials in the environmental samples in order to contribute to the strengthened safeguards system. Development of essential techniques for bulk and particle analysis of the environmental swipe sample has been established as an ultra-trace analytical method of uranium and plutonium. In January 2003, JAERI was qualified as a member of the IAEA network analytical laboratories for environmental samples. Since then, JAERI has conducted the analysis of domestic and the IAEA samples. From Japanese fiscal year 2003, the second phase of the project was started for the development of advanced techniques, such as analyzing minor actinides and fission products as well as uranium and plutonium, particle analysis using fission-track technique, more efficient particle analysis using ICP-TOFMS and screening by X-ray fluorescent analysis. This paper deals with the progress in the development of the new techniques, applications and future perspective.

JAEA Reports

Establishment of a clean chemistry laboratory at JAERI; Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research (CLEAR)

Hanzawa, Yukiko; Magara, Masaaki; Watanabe, Kazuo; Esaka, Fumitaka; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Gunji, Katsubumi*; Yamamoto, Yoichi; Takahashi, Tsukasa; Sakurai, Satoshi; et al.

JAERI-Tech 2002-103, 141 Pages, 2003/02

JAERI-Tech-2002-103.pdf:10.38MB

The JAERI has established a facility with a cleanroom: the Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research (CLEAR). This report is an overview of the design, construction and performance evaluation of the CLEAR in the initial stage of the laboratory operation in June 2001. The CLEAR is a facility to be used for ultra trace analyses of nuclear materials in environmental samples for the safeguards, for the CTBT verification and for researches on environmental sciences. The CLEAR meets double requirements of a cleanroom and for handling of nuclear materials. Much attention was paid to the construction materials of the cleanroom for trace analysis of metal elements using corrosive acids. The air conditioning and purification system, experimental equipment, utilities and safety systems are also demonstrated. The potential contamination from the completed cleanroom atmosphere during the analytical procedure was evaluated. It can be concluded that the CLEAR has provided a suitable condition for reliable analysis of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials in environmental samples.

Journal Articles

Establishment of a clean laboratory for ultra trace analysis of nuclear materials in safeguards environmental samples

Hanzawa, Yukiko; Magara, Masaaki; Watanabe, Kazuo; Esaka, Fumitaka; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Gunji, Katsubumi*; Sakurai, Satoshi; Takano, Seinojo*; Usuda, Shigekazu; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 40(1), p.49 - 56, 2003/01

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:72.6(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The JAERI has established a cleanroom facility with cleanliness of ISO Class 5: the Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research (CLEAR). It was designed to be used for the analysis of nuclear materials in environmental samples for the safeguards, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification and research on environmental sciences. The CLEAR facility was designed to meet double conflicting requirements of a cleanroom and for handling of nuclear materials according to Japanese regulations, i.e., to avoid contamination from outside and to contain nuclear materials inside the facility. This facility has been intended to be used for wet chemical treatment, instrumental analysis and particle handling. A fume-hood to provide a clean work surface for handling of nuclear materials was specially designed. The performance of the cleanroom and analytical background in the laboratory are discussed. It can be concluded that the CLEAR facility enables analysis of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials at the sub-picogram level in environmental samples.

Journal Articles

Radiation measurement for safeguards environmental samples by imaging plate

Yasuda, Kenichiro; Sakurai, Satoshi; Gunji, Hideho; Usuda, Shigekazu

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 39(Suppl.3), p.552 - 555, 2002/11

In order to contribute to the strengthened safeguards system based on the Program 93+2 of the IAEA, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) constructed the CLEAR facility (Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research) and is developing analytical technology for ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials in environmental samples. To avoid cross-contamination among the samples and contamination of the clean rooms, radioactive materials in the samples to be introduced into the CLEAR facility will be limited to a certain amount. For this purpose the authors have examined the feasibility of Imaging-plate method, which is a kind of autoradiography and is suitable for determination on distribution of low-level radioactivity in the samples. Preliminary examination with $$beta$$-ray (K-40), the linearity was obtained in the range of 0.01 - 0.2 Bq. The experiments with $$alpha$$-ray (Sm-147) suggested the detection limit of 0.01 Bq, which was equivalent to 2 $$mu$$g of natural uranium. At the presentation, the results on actual environmental samples will be reported.

Journal Articles

Sorption characteristics of actinium and protactinium onto soils

Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Ishii, Tomoaki*; Inagawa, Satoshi*; Gunji, Yasuyoshi*; Takebe, Shinichi; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Sasaki, Tomozo*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 39(Suppl.3), p.481 - 484, 2002/11

Sorption behavior of 227Ac and 233Pa onto several kinds of soils has been studied with a sequential extraction technique, for safety assessment of shallow land disposal of uranium bearing waste. After a batch sorption experiment, the sorbed form of 227Ac and 233Pa onto the soils was fractionated into ion exchange form (extraction by KCl+CaCl2), association with Fe+Mn oxides (extraction by NH2OH-HCl and oxalic acid), association with organic materials (extraction by H2O2) and fixation into soil (residual). From the results of the sequential extraction, major part of 227Ac sorbed onto the soils was found in the fraction of the ion exchange form and the fixation into the soils. On the other hand, major part of 233Pa was found in the fraction of the association with Fe+Mn oxides and the fixation into the soils. These results suggest that the sorption behavior of 227Ac and 233Pa is related to the irreversible sorption reaction onto the soils.

Journal Articles

Development for ultra-trace analysis method of U and Pu in safeguards environmental samples at the clean facility

Takahashi, Masato; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Kurosawa, Setsumi; Esaka, Fumitaka; Taguchi, Takuji; Takai, Konomi; Fukuyama, Hiroyasu; Lee, C. G.; Yasuda, Kenichiro; et al.

Dai-23-Kai Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nippon Shibu Nenji Taikai Rombunshu, 8 Pages, 2002/09

Based on the strengthen safeguard program of the IAEA to detect undeclared nuclear activities, the method of precise and accurate isotope ratio determination for uranium and plutonium in the environmental samples (cotton swipes) has been developed at JAERI. The samples should be treated in clean environment in order to secure the analytical reliability by eliminating external contamination from the samples containing trace amount of uranium and plutonium. Since the measurement by ICP-MS is favorable to bulk analysis from view points of analytical capacity and operation simplicity, we have studied sample preparation procedures for the trace amount of uranium and plutonium to be applied to ICP-MS. Up to the present, interfering factors involved during analytical processes and the ICP-MS measurement of uranium and plutonium were examined. As a result, uranium and plutonium isotope measurement more than 100 pg and 100 fg, respectively, became possible at JAERI clean facility. At presentation, other progress in the development will be reported.

Journal Articles

Recent status of developments in analytical methods for safeguards environmental samples; Focused on particle analysis

Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Hanzawa, Yukiko; Sakurai, Satoshi; Taguchi, Takuji; Takai, Konomi; Sakakibara, Takaaki; Kurosawa, Setsumi; Takahashi, Masato; Yasuda, Kenichiro; et al.

Dai-22-Kai Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nippon Shibu Nenji Taikai Rombunshu, 8 Pages, 2001/11

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Measurement of distribution coefficients of U series radionuclides on soils under shallow land environment, 2; pH dependence of distribution coefficients

Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Ishii, Tomoaki*; Inagawa, Satoshi*; Gunji, Yasuyoshi*; Takebe, Shinichi; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Sasaki, Tomozo*

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu, 8(1), p.65 - 76, 2001/09

In order to study adsorption behavior of U series radionuclides(Pb, Ra, Th, Ac, Pa and U) in aerated zone environment (loam-rein water system) and aquifer environment(sand-groundwater system) for safety assessment of U bearing waste), pH dependence of distribution coefficients of each element have been obtained. The pH dependence of distribution coefficients of U, Ac, Th, Ra and Pb was analyzed by model calculation of adsorption behavior based on chemical forms of each elements and soil surface characteristics, which are a cation exchange capacity and surface charge. From model calculation of adsorption behavior, the distribution coefficients' values and adsorption behavior of Pb, Ra, Th, Ac and U could be showed by a combination of cation exchange and surface-complexation adsorption model.

Journal Articles

Measurement of distribution coefficients for uranium series radionuclides under shallow land environment condition, 1

Ishii, Tomoaki*; Inagawa, Satoshi*; Gunji, Yasuyoshi*; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Takebe, Shinichi; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Sasaki, Tomozo*

Genshiryoku Bakkuendo Kenkyu, 8(1), p.55 - 64, 2001/09

Distribution coefficients of Uranium series nuclide(Pb,Ra,Ac,Th,Pa and U) were obtained under aerated zone environment and aquifer environment, for the safety evaluation of shallow underground disposal of uranium bearing waste. The distribution coefficients of them on 4 kinds of soil such as the loam in the rain water as for aerated zone environment and on 3 kinds of soil and rock such as the sand in groundwater as for aquifer environment have been measured by batch method. The distribution coefficients in aerated zone environment were one or two orders in magnitude higher than that in aquifer environment, except Ac. And, there was approximately the linear correlation on the relationship between cation exchange capacity and specific surface area, which are representative physical property of the soil, and distribution coefficient of lead, radium and protactinium.

Journal Articles

Development of trace analytical technology for nuclear materials in the clean laboratory for environmental analysis and research

Usuda, Shigekazu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Sakurai, Satoshi; Magara, Masaaki; Hanzawa, Yukiko; Esaka, Fumitaka; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Saito, Yoko; Gunji, Katsubumi*; et al.

KEK Proceedings 2001-14, p.88 - 92, 2001/06

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Current status of JAERI program on development of ultra-trace-analytical technology for safeguards environmental samples

Adachi, Takeo; Usuda, Shigekazu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Sakurai, Satoshi; Magara, Masaaki; Hanzawa, Yukiko; Esaka, Fumitaka; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Saito, Yoko; Takahashi, Masato; et al.

IAEA-SM-367/10/02 (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2001/00

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Sorption behavior of radium and actinium on soils

Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Takebe, Shinichi; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Muraoka, Susumu; Ishii, Tomoaki*; Inagawa, Satoshi*; Gunji, Yasuyoshi*

Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Vol.663, p.1207 - 1214, 2001/00

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Application of a Phoswich detector for simultaneous counting of $$alpha$$- and $$beta$$($$gamma$$)-rays in a rotating drum-cell type monitor

Usuda, Shigekazu; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Sakurai, Satoshi; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Gunji, Hideho*; P.Howarth*

INMM 39th Annual Meeting Proceedings (CD-ROM), 27, 6 Pages, 1998/00

no abstracts in English

22 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)