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Journal Articles

Evaluation of heat removal during the failure of the core cooling for new critical assembly

Eguchi, Yuta; Sugawara, Takanori; Nishihara, Kenji; Tazawa, Yujiro; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi

Proceedings of 26th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-26) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2018/07

In order to investigate the basic neutronics characteristics of the accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS), JAEA has a plan to construct a new critical assembly in the J-PARC project, Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility (TEF-P). This study aims to evaluate the natural cooling characteristics of TEF-P core which has large decay heat by minor actinide (MA) fuel, and to achieve a design that does not damage the core and the fuels during the failure of the core cooling system. In the evaluation of the TEF-P core temperature, empty rectangular lattice tube outer of the core has a significant effect on the heat transfer characteristics. The experiments by using the mockup device were performed to validate the heat transfer coefficient and experimental results were obtained. By using the obtained experimental results, the three-dimensional heat transfer analysis of TEF-P core were performed, and the maximum core temperature was obtained, 294$$^{circ}$$C. This result shows TEF-P core temperature would be less than 327$$^{circ}$$C that the design criterion of temperature.

Journal Articles

Research and development activities for accelerator-driven system in JAEA

Sugawara, Takanori; Takei, Hayanori; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Oizumi, Akito; Nishihara, Kenji; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi

Progress in Nuclear Energy, 106, p.27 - 33, 2018/07

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:81.13(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has investigated an accelerator-driven system (ADS) to transmute minor actinides which will be partitioned from the high level waste. There are various inherent issues for the research and development on the ADS. The recent two activities to realize a feasible and reliable ADS concept are introduced in this paper. For the feasibility, the design of a beam window which is a boundary of the accelerator and the subcritical core, is one of the most important issues. To mitigate the design condition of the beam window, namely to reduce the proton beam current, the subcritical core concept with subcriticality adjustment rods were investigated. For the reliability, the beam-trip is the inherent and serious issue for the ADS design because it induces rapid temperature change to coolant and structures in the subcritical core. To improve the beam-trip frequencies, a double-accelerator concept was proposed and its beam-trip frequency was estimated.

Journal Articles

Reaction rate analyses of accelerator-driven system experiments with 100 MeV protons at Kyoto University Critical Assembly

Pyeon, C. H.*; Vu, T. M.*; Yamanaka, Masao*; Sugawara, Takanori; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nishihara, Kenji; Kim, S. H.*; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki*; Nakajima, Ken*; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 55(2), p.190 - 198, 2018/02

 Times Cited Count:13 Percentile:92.61(Nuclear Science & Technology)

At the Kyoto University Critical Assembly, a series of reaction rate experiments is conducted on the accelerator-driven system (ADS) with spallation neutrons generated by the combined use of 100 MeV protons and a lead and bismuth target in the subcritical state. The reaction rates are measured by the foil activation method to obtain neutron spectrum information on ADS. Numerical calculations are performed with MCNP6.1 and JENDL/HE-2007 for high-energy protons and spallation process, JENDL-4.0 for transport and JENDL/D-99 for reaction rates. The reaction rates depend on subcriticality is revealed by the accuracy of the C/E (calculation/experiment) values. Nonetheless, the accuracy of the reaction rates at high-energy thresholds remains an important issue in the fixed-source calculations.

Journal Articles

Investigation for subcriticality adjustment mechanism of LBE-cooled Accelerator-Driven System

Oizumi, Akito; Sugawara, Takanori; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nishihara, Kenji; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi

NEA/NSC/R(2017)2, p.152 - 160, 2017/06

Journal Articles

Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of lead sample reactivity experiments at Kyoto University Critical Assembly

Pyeon, C. H.*; Fujimoto, Atsushi*; Sugawara, Takanori; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nishihara, Kenji; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki*; Nakajima, Ken*; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi

Nuclear Science and Engineering, 185(3), p.460 - 472, 2017/03

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:70.7(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of lead (Pb) isotope cross sections are conducted with the use of sample reactivity experiments at the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA). With the combined use of the SRAC2006 and MARBLE code systems, attempts are made to precisely examine the contributions of the reactions and energy regions of Pb isotope cross sections to reactivity based on the covariance data of JENDL-4.0. Moreover, the effect of decreasing uncertainty is discussed in terms of the accuracy of sample reactivity by applying the cross section adjustment method to the uncertainty analyses. From the results of the sensitivity and uncertainty analyses, the reliability of Pb isotope cross sections, such as the Pb isotope covariance data of JENDL-4.0, is compared with the JENDL-3.3, ENDF/B-VII.0, and JEFF-3.1 libraries.

JAEA Reports

Fabrication and test results of testing equipment for remote-handling of MA fuel, 3; Testing equipment for fuel loading

Tazawa, Yujiro; Nishihara, Kenji; Sugawara, Takanori; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Sasa, Toshinobu; Eguchi, Yuta; Kikuchi, Masashi*; Inoue, Akira*

JAEA-Technology 2016-029, 52 Pages, 2016/12

JAEA-Technology-2016-029.pdf:5.34MB

Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility (TEF-P) planned in the J-PARC project uses minor actinide (MA) fuels in the experiments. These MA fuels are highly-radioactive, so the fuel handling equipment in TEF-P is necessary to be designed as remote-handling system. This report summarizes fabrication and test results of the testing equipment for fuel loading that is one of components of the testing equipment for remote-handling of MA fuels. The testing equipment which had a remote-handling system for fuel loading was fabricated. And the test in combination with the mock-up core was performed. Through the test, it was confirmed to load/take the dummy fuel pin to/from the mock-up core without failure. It was shown that the concept design of the fuel loading equipment of TEF-P was reasonable.

Journal Articles

Development of three-dimensional reactor analysis code system for accelerator-driven system, ADS3D and its application with subcriticality adjustment mechanism

Sugawara, Takanori; Nishihara, Kenji; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Oizumi, Akito; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 53(12), p.2018 - 2027, 2016/12

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:66.89(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In order to perform the parametric survey for an Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) core with the subcriticality adjustment mechanism, a new calculation code system, ADS3D, was developed on MARBLE which is a comprehensive and versatile framework for reactor analysis. ADS3D can calculate the transportation of neutrons, the burn-up performance and the fuel exchange by deterministic method in three-dimensional calculation models. The application of ADS3D was also presented for the neutronics design of the ADS core with the control rod. Through the neutronics calculation, it was shown that the maximum proton beam current was decreased from 20.5mA to 11.6mA by the installation of control rods.

Journal Articles

Validation of Pb nuclear data by Monte Carlo analyses of sample reactivity experiments at Kyoto University Critical Assembly

Pyeon, C. H.*; Fujimoto, Atsushi*; Sugawara, Takanori; Yagi, Takahiro*; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nishihara, Kenji; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki*; Nakajima, Ken*; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 53(4), p.602 - 612, 2016/04

 Times Cited Count:16 Percentile:90.45(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Sample reactivity experiments on the uncertainty analyses of Pb nuclear data are carried out by substituting Al plates for Pb ones at the Kyoto University Critical Assembly, as part of basic research on Pb-Bi for the coolant. Numerical simulations of sample reactivity experiments are performed with the Monte Carlo calculation code MCNP6.1 together with four nuclear data libraries JENDL-3.3, JENDL-4.0, ENDF/B-VII.0 and JEFF-3.1, to examine the accuracy of cross-section uncertainties of Pb isotopes by comparing measured and calculated sample reactivities. A library update from JENDL-3.3 to JENDL-4.0 is demonstrated by the fact that the difference between Pb isotopes of the two JENDL libraries is dominant in the comparative study, through the experimental analyses of sample reactivity by the MCNP approach. In addition, JENDL-4.0 reveals a slight difference from ENDF/B-VII.0 in all Pb isotopes and $$^{27}$$Al, and from JEFF-3.1 in $$^{238}$$U and $$^{27}$$Al.

JAEA Reports

Fabrication and test results of testing equipment for remote-handling of MA fuel, 2; Evaluation of heat transfer parameter crossing rectangular lattice matrix

Eguchi, Yuta; Sugawara, Takanori; Nishihara, Kenji; Tazawa, Yujiro; Inoue, Akira; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi

JAEA-Technology 2015-052, 34 Pages, 2016/03

JAEA-Technology-2015-052.pdf:5.02MB

Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility (TEF-P) planned in the J-PARC project uses minor actinide (MA) fuel which has large decay heat. So it is necessary to consider the increase of the core temperature when the core cooling system is stopped. This change of the core temperature was evaluated by thermal conduction analysis. It was found that the impact of thermal insulation in the empty rectangular lattice matrix area was large. So it is necessary to verify reliability and accuracy of heat transfer effect used in this area. Testing equipment was fabricated to verify the accuracy of calculation model for the empty lattice matrix which was the free convection model of sealed fluid. By using this equipment, thermal distribution and one dimensional heat flow through the lattice were measured. It was observed that the actual equivalent thermal conductivity in the lattice was larger than the free convection model. It was also confirmed that the insertion of the aluminum block into the empty lattice could achieve the higher equivalent thermal conductivity. These results could be the useful data for the thermal conduction analysis.

JAEA Reports

Fabrication and test results of testing equipment for remote-handling of MA fuel, 1; Testing equipment for fuel cooling

Nishihara, Kenji; Tazawa, Yujiro; Inoue, Akira; Sugawara, Takanori; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Sasa, Toshinobu; Obayashi, Hironari; Yamaguchi, Kazushi; Kikuchi, Masashi*

JAEA-Technology 2015-051, 47 Pages, 2016/03

JAEA-Technology-2015-051.pdf:3.6MB

This report summarizes fabrication and test results of a testing equipment for fuel cooling that is a component of the testing equipment for remote-handling of highly-radioactive MA fuels in the transmutation physics experimental facility (TEF-P) planned in the J-PARC. Evaluation formula of pressure drop and temperature increase used in the design of TEF-P was validated by the test, and, feasibility of cooling concept was confirmed.

Journal Articles

Current activities for research and development on accelerator-driven system in JAEA

Sugawara, Takanori; Nishihara, Kenji; Takei, Hayanori; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Oizumi, Akito; Sasa, Toshinobu; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi

Proceedings of 21st International Conference & Exhibition; Nuclear Fuel Cycle for a Low-Carbon Future (GLOBAL 2015) (USB Flash Drive), p.648 - 656, 2015/09

The JAEA has investigated an accelerator-driven system (ADS) to transmute minor actinides which will be partitioned from the high level waste. There are various inherent issues for the research and development on the ADS. This study introduces the current two activities to get a feasible and reliable ADS concept. For the feasibility, the beam window design is one of the most important issues. To mitigate the design condition of the beam window, namely to reduce the proton beam current, the subcritical core concepts with subcriticality adjustment mechanism were investigated. As the result, the proton beam current reduced from 20mA to 10mA by the installation of the control rods. For the reliability, the two accelerators concept was proposed and the beam trip frequency was estimated by the J-PARC LINAC data and Monte-Carlo method. Through these investigations, it was confirmed that the two accelerators concept was useful to realize reliable accelerator operation for the ADS.

Journal Articles

J-PARC transmutation experimental facility programme

Sasa, Toshinobu; Takei, Hayanori; Saito, Shigeru; Obayashi, Hironari; Nishihara, Kenji; Sugawara, Takanori; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Yamaguchi, Kazushi; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Oigawa, Hiroyuki

NEA/CSNI/R(2015)2 (Internet), p.85 - 91, 2015/06

Nuclear transmutation got much interested as an effective option of nuclear waste management. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) proposes the transmutation of minor actinides (MA) by accelerator-driven system (ADS) using lead-bismuth alloy (Pb-Bi). To obtain the data for ADS design, JAEA plans to build a Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) in the J-PARC project. TEF consists of two buildings, an ADS target test facility (TEF-T) with 400MeV-250kW Pb-Bi target, and a Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility (TEF-P), which set up a fast critical assembly driven by low power proton beam with MA fuel. In TEF-T, irradiation test for materials, and engineering tests for Pb-Bi target operation will be performed. Various research plans such as nuclear data measurements have been proposed and layout of the experimental hall are underway. In the presentation, roadmap to establish the ADS transmutor and latest design activities for TEF construction will be summarized.

Journal Articles

Design study of accelerator-driven system for minor actinide transmutation in JAEA

Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Nishihara, Kenji; Takei, Hayanori; Sugawara, Takanori; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Sasa, Toshinobu

NEA/NSC/R(2015)2 (Internet), p.254 - 261, 2015/06

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting the research and development (R&D) on accelerator-driven system (ADS) as a dedicated transmutation system of long-lived radioactive nuclides. The ADS proposed by JAEA is a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) cooled fast subcritical reactor with thermal output of 800 MW. For ADS to play important roles in the nuclear fuel cycle, several critical issues have to be resolved. The critical issue in the design of the ADS is the engineering feasibility of the beam window for the high power spallation target. Although a feasible concept of the beam window for the ADS was proposed in our previous work. To mitigate the thermal load of the beam window not only in the normal operation but also in the transient situations, the R&D for the mechanism of reactivity adjustment and the accelerator design have been performed in JAEA.

Journal Articles

Transient analysis for lead-bismuth-cooled accelerator-driven system proposed by JAEA

Sugawara, Takanori; Nishihara, Kenji; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi

NEA/NSC/DOC(2015)7 (Internet), p.241 - 251, 2015/04

It is supposed that an Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) is safer than conventional critical reactors since the ADS is driven by the external neutron source in the subcritical state. In this study, the transient analyses for the lead-bismuth cooled ADS proposed by JAEA were performed by using the SIMMER-III and RELAP5/mod3.2 codes to investigate the possibility of the core damage. Three accidents; the protected loss of heat sink, the protected overcooling and the unprotected blockage accident were calculated as the typical ADS accidents. Through these calculations, it was confirmed that all calculation results except the protected loss of heat sink satisfied the no-damage criteria. In the protected loss of heat sink, the cladding tube temperature reached at its melting temperature after 18-21 hours although the calculation condition was very conservative. It is required to design a safety system of the ADS to decrease the frequencies of the accidents and to ease the accidents.

JAEA Reports

Conceptual study of transmutation experimental facility, 5; Investigation of MA fuel handling

Sugawara, Takanori; Nishihara, Kenji; Sasa, Toshinobu; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Tazawa, Yujiro; Oigawa, Hiroyuki

JAEA-Technology 2014-044, 59 Pages, 2015/03

JAEA-Technology-2014-044.pdf:14.46MB

Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility (TEF-P) planned in the J-PARC is a critical assembly with low thermal output and it will treat large amount of highly-radioactive minor actinide (MA) fuels in the experiments. Handling of the MA fuels in each stage of storage, transport and loading/unloading to the core was conceptually investigated, then, criticality, dose and cooling performance were assessed. For the criticality, it was shown that the effective multiplication factors in each step, storage, transport and loading, were sufficiently lower than 1.0. For the dose, the dose for workers will be reduced by installing remote handling devices to treat the MA fuels. For the cooling performance, it was found that the temperature of the core would be kept low in the normal operation. On the other hand, in the case which the air conditioning or the blower for the core stopped for long period, it was shown that there would be a possibility of the MA fuel failure.

JAEA Reports

Effect of experiments using Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility on the reduction of uncertainties in reactor physics parameters of an accelerator-driven system

Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nishihara, Kenji; Katano, Ryota*; Fukushima, Masahiro; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi

JAEA-Research 2014-033, 82 Pages, 2015/03

JAEA-Research-2014-033.pdf:6.53MB

The effect of experiments using Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility (TEF-P) is analysed from the viewpoint of the reduction of uncertainties in reactor physics parameters (criticality and coolant void reactivity) of an accelerator-driven system (ADS). The analysis is conducted by the nuclear-data adjustment method using JENDL-4.0 on the assumption that ve types of reactor physics experiments (a total of 44 experiments) are performed in TEF-P: (1) criticality experiment, (2) lead void reactivity experiment, (3) reaction rate ratio experiment, (4) sample reactivity experiment, and (5) fuel replacement reactivity experiment. As the result, 1.0% of uncertainty in criticality is found to be reduced to approximately 0.4%, and effective experiments for the reduction of uncertainty in criticality and coolant void reactivity are shown to be fuel replacement reactivity experiments and lead void reactivity experiments, respectively. Although these effects depend largely on the composition and amount of minor-actinide (MA) fuels, it is found that a combination of different types of experiments and database of existing experiments is effective in reducing the uncertainties.

Journal Articles

Transmutation scenarios after closing nuclear power plants

Nishihara, Kenji; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Oigawa, Hiroyuki

Nuclear Back-end and Transmutation Technology for Waste Disposal, p.207 - 231, 2015/00

With consideration of the phase-out option from NP utilization in Japan, an ADS for Pu transmutation is designed and scenario analysis is performed. The ADS is designed based on the existing ADS design for MA transmutation, and the 6-batch ADS is selected as a reference design for scenario analysis. In the scenario analysis, once-through scenario of LWR spent fuel is referred as a conventional scenario with a LWR-MOX utilization scenario. As the transmutation scenario, three cases of transmuters that are only-FR, only-ADS and both-FR+ADS are analyzed. The numbers of necessary transmuters are obtained as 15 to 32, and, the necessary period for transmutation as 180 to 240 years. Benefit on repository by reduction of Pu and MA is reduction of repository area by a factor of five and of decay time of toxicity by a magnitude of order. The FR+ADS scenario is considered to be a modest solution, though the ADS scenario is preferable if rapid transmutation is required.

Journal Articles

Research and development activities for transmutation physics experimental facility in J-PARC

Sugawara, Takanori; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nishihara, Kenji; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Sasa, Toshinobu; Oigawa, Hiroyuki

Proceedings of International Conference on the Physics of Reactors; The Role of Reactor Physics toward a Sustainable Future (PHYSOR 2014) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2014/09

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has the plan to construct Transmutation Physic Experimental Facility (TEF-P) under a framework of J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) project. TEF-P is a critical assembly which can load Minor Actinide (MA) fuels to perform reactor physics experiments for transmutation systems such as Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) or Fast Reactor (FR). The facility can also use proton beam from the J-PARC accelerator to investigate the controllability of ADS. Cur-rent status and activities for TEF-P are described.

Journal Articles

Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for a minor-actinide transmuter with JENDL-4.0

Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nishihara, Kenji; Sugawara, Takanori; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi

Nuclear Data Sheets, 118, p.519 - 522, 2014/04

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:51.9(Physics, Nuclear)

Journal Articles

Transmutation experimental facility for research and development of accelerator-driven system in JAEA

Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Sasa, Toshinobu; Nishihara, Kenji; Sugawara, Takanori; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Takei, Hayanori

Proceedings of Joint IGORR 2014 & IAEA Technical Meeting (Internet), 10 Pages, 2014/00

Partitioning and Transmutation technology is expected to be effective to mitigate the burden of the HLW disposal. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting the research and development (R&D) on accelerator-driven system (ADS) as a dedicated transmutation system of long-lived radioactive nuclides. For ADS to play important roles in the nuclear fuel cycle, several critical issues have to be resolved. To foster the R&D for most of above mentioned technical issues, JAEA plans to build the Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) which consists of two buildings: the Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility (TEF-P) and the ADS Target Test Facility (TEF-T). TEF-P is a zero-power critical facility which is operated with a low power proton beam to research the reactor physics and the controllability of ADS. Using this TEF-P facility, many experimental studies are planned.

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