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Journal Articles

Influence of distant scatterer on air kerma measurement in the evaluation of diagnostic X-rays using Monte Carlo simulation

Tominaga, Masahide*; Nagayasu, Yukari*; Sasaki, Motoharu*; Furuta, Takuya; Hayashi, Hiroaki*; Oita, Masataka*; Nishiyama, Yuichi*; Haga, Akihiro*

Radiological Physics and Technology, 14(4), p.381 - 389, 2021/12

Due to recent advance of diagnostic radiology, the increase of diagnostic radiation exposure to patient becomes problem. Diagnostic Reference Levels has been released to optimized the radiation exposure to patients in Japan recently. The evaluation of entrance surface dose (ESD) is recommended to assess the dose level for general X-ray examination. The ESD can be easily evaluated by multiplying the backscatter factor of the patient body on the free-in-air air kerma. The air kerma free-in-air value used to estimate ESD may contain X-rays scattered from obstacles located at the time of measurement, which may induce non-minor error in assessments. We therefore studied the influence of scattered X-rays on air kerma measurement under various environments (distances, field sizes, and materials). It was found that the dependence on the X-ray energy and field size was different for different materials. The X-ray contamination can be ignored for all the materials when the distance to the scatterer exceeds 35 cm.

JAEA Reports

Development of module for ADS nitride fuel performance analysis

Shibata, Hiroki; Saito, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Takano, Masahide

JAEA-Data/Code 2019-023, 138 Pages, 2020/03


Transmutation of minor actinides in the form of nitride fuel by the accelerator driven system has been developed to reduce the radiotoxicity and volume in the radioactive wastes. Nitride fuel behavior under irradiation condition is necessary for its design and development. Nitride fuel performance analysis module based on light water reactor fuel performance code, FEMAXI-7, was developed by introducing fundamental properties of nitride pellet, 9Cr-1Mo ferrite cladding, and Pi-Bi coolant. As a result of test analysis with this module, we have understood that the nitride fuel shows excellent behavior under irradiation due to its high thermal conductivity. We found that, however, it may be a main concern that fuel cladding integrity is maintained during irradiation in which pellet-cladding mechanical interaction is increased by He gas release, low creep rate of nitride pellet at low temperatures, and high creep rate of cladding above 873 K.

Journal Articles

Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements of low dissolved radiocesium concentrations in freshwater using different pre-concentration methods

Kurihara, Momo*; Yasutaka, Tetsuo*; Aono, Tatsuo*; Ashikawa, Nobuo*; Ebina, Hiroyuki*; Iijima, Takeshi*; Ishimaru, Kei*; Kanai, Ramon*; Karube, Jinichi*; Konnai, Yae*; et al.

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 322(2), p.477 - 485, 2019/11

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:42.44(Chemistry, Analytical)

We assessed the repeatability and reproducibility of methods for determining low dissolved radiocesium concentrations in freshwater in Fukushima. Twenty-one laboratories pre-concentrated three of 10 L samples by five different pre-concentration methods (prussian-blue-impregnated filter cartridges, coprecipitation with ammonium phosphomolybdate, evaporation, solid-phase extraction disks, and ion-exchange resin columns), and activity of radiocesium was measured. The z-scores for all of the $$^{137}$$Cs results were within $$pm$$2, indicating that the methods were accurate. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) indicating the variability in the results from different laboratories were larger than the RSDs indicating the variability in the results from each separate laboratory.

Journal Articles

Temperature of thermal spikes induced by swift heavy ions

Matsuzaki, Shota*; Hayashi, Hiroaki*; Nakajima, Kaoru*; Matsuda, Makoto; Sataka, Masao*; Tsujimoto, Masahiko*; Toulemonde, M.*; Kimura, Kenji*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 406(Part B), p.456 - 459, 2017/09

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:40.62(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Journal Articles

Multiple-wavelength neutron holography with pulsed neutrons

Hayashi, Koichi*; Oyama, Kenji*; Happo, Naohisa*; Matsushita, Tomohiro*; Hosokawa, Shinya*; Harada, Masahide; Inamura, Yasuhiro; Nitani, Hiroaki*; Shishido, Toetsu*; Yubuta, Kunio*

Science Advances (Internet), 3(8), p.e1700294_1 - e1700294_7, 2017/08

Journal Articles

Performance of a total absorption clover detector for $$Q_{beta}$$ measurements of neutron-rich nuclei far from the $$beta$$-stability line

Hayashi, Hiroaki*; Shibata, Michihiro*; Asai, Masato; Osa, Akihiko; Sato, Tetsuya; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Kimura, Atsushi; Oshima, Masumi*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 747, p.41 - 51, 2014/05

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:68.92(Instruments & Instrumentation)

To measure $$beta$$-decay energy $$Q_{beta}$$ of short-lived fission products with good accuracy and high efficiency, we have developed a new total absorption clover detector and demonstrated its performance. Using a large-volume clover-type Ge detector having a through-hole in its center, we could measure total absorption spectra of $$beta$$ + $$gamma$$ rays with extremely high efficiency and high energy resolution, and could determine $$Q_{beta}$$ values with $$pm$$30 keV accuracy. Using this detector, we have determined the $$Q_{beta}$$ values of $$^{166}$$Eu and $$^{165}$$Gd for the first time, and of $$^{160-165}$$Eu and $$^{163}$$Gd with better accuracies. In addition, we have observed a new isomeric state in $$^{163}$$Gd, and determined its half-life and excitation energy.

Journal Articles

Ground-state configuration of the $$N=157$$ nucleus $$^{259}$$No

Asai, Masato; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Sakama, Minoru*; Haba, Hiromitsu*; Ichikawa, Takatoshi*; Ishii, Yasuo; Toyoshima, Atsushi; Ishii, Tetsuro; Nishinaka, Ichiro; Nagame, Yuichiro; et al.

Physical Review C, 87(1), p.014332_1 - 014332_6, 2013/01

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:36.33(Physics, Nuclear)

The spin-parity and neutron configuration of the ground state of $$^{259}$$No have been identified through $$alpha$$-decay spectroscopy. The $$^{259}$$No is the nucleus with the largest neutron number whose spin-parities and single-particle configurations have ever been identified. The neutron 9/2$$^{+}$$[615] configuration was assigned to the ground state of $$^{259}$$No as well as to the 231.4 keV level in $$^{255}$$Fm. This allowed us to establish energy spacings and order of the neutron single-particle orbitals in such heaviest nuclear region. The appearance of the 9/2$$^{+}$$[615] ground state at $$N$$=157 implies that the order of the neutron orbitals between the $$N$$=152 and 162 deformed shell gaps should change considerably with increasing neutron number.

Journal Articles

High-energy electron generation via laser wakefield acceleration

Kando, Masaki; Mori, Michiaki; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Yukio; Nishimura, Hiroaki*

Osaka Daigaku Reza Enerugigaku Kenkyu Senta Heisei-23-Nendo Kyodo Riyo, Kyodo Kenkyu Seika Hokokusho, p.13 - 14, 2012/03

This paper reports collaboration work between JAEA and Osaka University on the high energy electron acceleration using the LFEX laser. At JAEA we have examined the conditions for generating stable electrons with a 4-TW laser. We used Ar gas, which was found by us to produce stabler electrons and measured reproducibility at 4.0 TW and 3.6 TW. We found that there is a density threshold; the reproducibility becomes almost 100% when the density is larger than the threshold. We also noticed that the threshold value decreases as increasing the laser power. In addition, we report on the status of a sampling calorimeter, which will be used in the future laser acceleration experiments with LFEX.

Journal Articles

Actinide-handling experience for training and education of future expert under J-ACTINET

Osaka, Masahiko; Konashi, Kenji*; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Li, D.*; Homma, Yoshiya*; Yamamura, Tomoo*; Sato, Isamu; Miwa, Shuhei; Sekimoto, Shun*; Kubota, Takumi*; et al.

Proceedings of International Conference on Toward and Over the Fukushima Daiichi Accident (GLOBAL 2011) (CD-ROM), 5 Pages, 2011/12

Summer schools for future experts have successfully been completed under Japan Actinide Network (J-ACTINET) for the purpose of development of human resources who are expected to be engaged in every areas of actinide-research/engineering. The first summer school was held in Ibaraki-area in August 2009, followed by the second one in Kansai-area in August 2010. Two summer schools have focused on actual experiences of actinides in actinide-research fields for university students and young researchers/engineers as an introductory course of actinide-researches. Several quasi actinide-handling experiences at the actinide-research fields have attracted attentions of participants at the first school in Ibaraki-area. The actual experiments using actinides-containing solutions have been carried out at the second school in Kansai-area. Future summer schools will be held every year for the sustainable human resource development in various actinide-research fields.

Journal Articles

Condition of MeV electron bunch generated from Argon gas-jet target in the self-modulated laser wakefield regime

Mori, Michiaki; Kando, Masaki; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Yukio; Bulanov, S. V.; Koga, J. K.; Kondo, Kiminori; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Nishimura, Hiroaki*; Nagashima, Keisuke

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 80(10), p.105001_1 - 105001_2, 2011/09

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:36.01(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

The effects of plasma density and laser power on the energetic electron bunch generation in an Argon (high-Z) gas-jet target in the self modulated laser wakefield acceleration regime were investigated. A vector potential threshold for electron injection was obtained $$a_{rm th}$$ $$sim$$ 2.8 through a simple analytical model include two-dimensional laser pulse compression by relativistic self-focusing, and it is similar to that after accounting for three-dimensional laser pulse compression in the standard Laser Wakefield acceleration regime.

Journal Articles

Crystal growth procedure of HIV-1 protease-inhibitor KNI-272 complex for neutron structural analysis at 1.9 ${AA}$ resolution

Shimizu, Noriko*; Sugiyama, Shigeru*; Maruyama, Mihoko*; Takahashi, Yoshinori*; Adachi, Motoyasu; Tamada, Taro; Hidaka, Koshi*; Hayashi, Yoshio*; Kimura, Toru*; Kiso, Yoshiaki*; et al.

Crystal Growth & Design, 10(7), p.2990 - 2994, 2010/06

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:73.7(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

We report crystal growth of human immunodeficiency virus 1 protease (HIV PR) in a complex with its inhibitor KNI-272 by six different methods. Comparative analysis indicates that top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) and TSSG combined with the floating and stirring technique (TSSG-FAST) are efficient strategies for rapidly obtaining large single crystals and effectively preventing polycrystallization of the seed crystal. Neutron diffraction analysis confirmed that the crystalobtained by TSSG is a high-quality single crystal. Furthermore, crystal shape was observed to be influenced by solution flow, suggesting that the degree of supersaturation significantly affects the crystal growth direction of HIV PR complex. This finding implies that the shape of the HIV PR complex crystal might be controlled by the solution flow rate.

Journal Articles

Stabilization of laser accelerated electron bunch by the ionization-stage control

Mori, Michiaki; Kando, Masaki; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Yukio; Kawase, Keigo; Bulanov, S. V.; Ogura, Koichi; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Kondo, Kiminori; Sugiyama, Akira; et al.

Proceedings of 1st International Particle Accelerator Conference (IPAC '10) (Internet), p.4062 - 4064, 2010/05

JAEA Reports

Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project research and development plan in Phase 2; H20-21

Iwatsuki, Teruki; Sato, Haruo; Tanai, Kenji; Inagaki, Manabu; Sawada, Atsushi; Niinuma, Hiroaki; Ishii, Eiichi; Maekawa, Keisuke; Tomura, Goji; Sanada, Hiroyuki; et al.

JAEA-Research 2009-002, 156 Pages, 2009/05


The research and development plan for geological investigation, engineering technology and safety assessment during the drilling of a shaft down to intermediate depth are summarized according to the Midterm Plan till 2009 Fiscal year of JAEA. This report describes subject, current status and programme in the "Phase 2: Construction phase" (investigations during construction of the underground facilities). Furthermore regarding R&D plan in next Midterm Plan of JAEA, preliminary ideas are summarized.

Journal Articles

Structure of HIV-1 protease in complex with potent inhibitor KNI-272 determined by high-resolution X-ray and neutron crystallography

Adachi, Motoyasu; Ohara, Takashi; Kurihara, Kazuo; Tamada, Taro; Honjo, Eijiro; Okazaki, Nobuo; Arai, Shigeki; Shoyama, Yoshinari; Kimura, Kaname*; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi*; et al.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(12), p.4641 - 4646, 2009/03

 Times Cited Count:100 Percentile:91.04(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

To further understand the catalytic mechanism and inhibitor recognition of HIV-1 protease, we need to determine the locations of key hydrogen atoms in the catalytic aspartates Asp25 and Asp125. The structure of HIV-1 protease in complex with transition-state analog KNI-272 was determined by combined neutron crystallography at 1.9 ${AA}$ resolution and X-ray crystallography at 1.4 ${AA}$ resolution. The resulting structural data shows that the catalytic residue Asp25 is protonated and that Asp125 is deprotonated. The proton on Asp25 makes a hydrogen bond with the carbonyl group of the allophenylnorstatine group in KNI-272. The deprotonated Asp125 bonds to the hydroxyl proton of Apns. The results provide direct experimental evidence for proposed aspects of the catalytic mechanism of HIV-1 protease; and can therefore contribute substantially to the development of specific inhibitors for therapeutic application.

Journal Articles

Crystallization and preliminary neutron diffraction studies of HIV-1 protease cocrystallized with inhibitor KNI-272

Matsumura, Hiroyoshi*; Adachi, Motoyasu; Sugiyama, Shigeru*; Okada, Shino*; Yamakami, Megumi*; Tamada, Taro; Hidaka, Koshi*; Hayashi, Yoshio*; Kimura, Toru*; Kiso, Yoshiaki*; et al.

Acta Crystallographica Section F, 64(11), p.1003 - 1006, 2008/11

 Times Cited Count:16 Percentile:78.13(Biochemical Research Methods)

This paper reports the crystallization and preliminary neutron diffraction measurements of HIV-1 protease, a potential target for anti-HIV therapy, complexed with an inhibitor (KNI-272). The aim of this neutron diffraction study is to obtain structural information about the H atoms and to determine the protonation states of the residues within the active site. The crystal was grown to a size of 1.4 mm$$^{3}$$ by repeated macroseeding and a slow-cooling method using a two-liquid system. Neutron diffraction data were collected at room temperature using a BIX-4 diffractometer at the JRR-3 research reactor of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The data set was integrated and scaled to 2.3 ${AA}$ resolution in space group P2(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 59.5, b = 87.4, c = 46.8 ${AA}$.

Journal Articles

Precise intensity measurements in the $$^{14}$$N(n,$$gamma$$)$$^{15}$$N reaction as a $$gamma$$-ray intensity standard up to 11 MeV

Miyazaki, Itaru*; Sakane, Hitoshi*; Takayama, Hirokazu*; Kasaishi, Masafumi*; Tojo, Akinori*; Furuta, Masataka*; Hayashi, Hiroaki*; Suematsu, Osamu*; Narasaki, Hiromichi*; Shimizu, Toshiaki*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 45(6), p.481 - 486, 2008/06

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:37.69(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The intensities of the prompt $$gamma$$ rays from the $$^{14}$$N(n,$$gamma$$)$$^{15}$$N reaction have been precisely measured. As the samples, a liquid nitrogen target and a deuterated melamine (C$$_{3}$$D$$_{6}$$N$$_{6}$$) were used. The previous values widely used as intensity standards agreed with those obtained in this study within 4-5% in the 2-11 MeV region, however, showed a monotonous decrease with the increase of $$gamma$$-ray energy.

Journal Articles

Geometric isotope effect on the N$$_2$$H$$_{7}$$$$^{+}$$ cation and N$$_2$$H$$_{5}$$$$^{-}$$ anion by ${it ab initio}$ path integral molecular dynamics simulation

Ishibashi, Hiroaki*; Hayashi, Aiko*; Shiga, Motoyuki; Tachikawa, Masanori*

ChemPhysChem, 9(3), p.383 - 387, 2008/02

 Times Cited Count:22 Percentile:64.33(Chemistry, Physical)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

$$Q_{beta}$$ measurements of $$^{158,159}$$Pm, $$^{159,161}$$Sm, $$^{160-165}$$Eu, $$^{163}$$Gd and $$^{166}$$Tb using a total absorption BGO detector

Hayashi, Hiroaki*; Akita, Yukinori*; Suematsu, Osamu*; Shibata, Michihiro*; Asai, Masato; Sato, Tetsuya; Ichikawa, Shinichi; Nishinaka, Ichiro; Nagame, Yuichiro; Osa, Akihiko; et al.

European Physical Journal A, 34(4), p.363 - 370, 2007/12

 Times Cited Count:16 Percentile:72.91(Physics, Nuclear)

$$Q_{beta}$$ values of $$^{160-165}$$Eu and $$^{163}$$Gd were measured for the first time using a total absorption BGO detector, and the data of $$^{158,159}$$Pm, $$^{159,161}$$Sm, and $$^{166}$$Tb obtained previously were reanalyzed. These nuclei were produced by the proton-induced fission of $$^{238}$$U at the JAEA-Tokai tandem accelerator facility, and separated from the reaction products using an on-line isotope separator. The deduced mass excesses and two-neutron separation energies were compared with those of atomic mass evaluations and theoretical predictions.

Journal Articles

Overview of national centralized tokamak program; Mission, design and strategy to contribute ITER and DEMO

Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Akiba, Masato; Fujii, Tsuneyuki; Fujita, Takaaki; Fujiwara, Masami*; Hamamatsu, Kiyotaka; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Inoue, Nobuyuki; et al.

Journal of the Korean Physical Society, 49, p.S428 - S432, 2006/12

To contribute DEMO and ITER, the design to modify the present JT-60U into superconducting coil machine, named National Centralized Tokamak (NCT), is being progressed under nationwide collaborations in Japan. Mission, design and strategy of this NCT program is summarized.

Journal Articles

Overview of the national centralized tokamak programme

Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Tamai, Hiroshi; Matsukawa, Makoto; Fujita, Takaaki; Takase, Yuichi*; Sakurai, Shinji; Kizu, Kaname; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Kurita, Genichi; Morioka, Atsuhiko; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 46(3), p.S29 - S38, 2006/03

 Times Cited Count:13 Percentile:44.28(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

The National Centralized Tokamak (NCT) facility program is a domestic research program for advanced tokamak research to succeed JT-60U incorporating Japanese university accomplishments. The mission of NCT is to establish high beta steady-state operation for DEMO and to contribute to ITER. The machine flexibility and mobility is pursued in aspect ratio and shape controllability, feedback control of resistive wall modes, wide current and pressure profile control capability for the demonstration of the high-b steady state.

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