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Journal Articles

Development of cation and anion exchange membranes for saline water concentration using high-energy heavy-ion beams

Sawada, Shinichi*; Yasukawa, Masahiro*; Koshikawa, Hiroshi*; Kitamura, Akane; Higa, Mitsuru*; Yamaki, Tetsuya*

Nippon Kaisui Gakkai-Shi, 73(4), p.208 - 216, 2019/08

For applications to saline water concentration by electrodialysis, we prepared nano-structure-controlled cation and anion exchange membranes (CEMs and AEMs) by a so-called ion-track grafting technique. This new technique involves irradiation of a polymer substrate with an MeV-GeV heavy-ion beam to form the nano-sized cylindrical ion tracks and the graft polymerization only into the ion tracks for the creation of one-dimensional transport pathways. A 25-$$mu$$m-thick poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) film was irradiated with 560 MeV $$^{129}$$Xe or 310 MeV $$^{84}$$Kr. The irradiated films were immersed in grafting solutions of ethyl p-styrenesulfonate (EtSS) and chloromethylstyrene (CMS),and then subjected to the hydrolysis of EtSS units and quaternization of CMS units to prepare CEMs and AEMs, respectively. These CEMs and AEMs showed lower resistance than the commercially-available membranes even at the very low water uptake. This would be due to the signifcantly-effcient transport of ions through the unique one-dimensional highly-connected transport pathways. In the saline water concentration experiment, a pair of our CEM and a commercial AEM or vice versa led to a higher salt concentration in the concentration chamber than did a pair of the commercial membranes. This result demonstrated great applicability of our ion-track-grafted CEMs and AEMs for saline water concentration.

Journal Articles

Preparation of nano-structure controlled ion-exchange membranes by ion beams and their application to seawater concentration

Yamaki, Tetsuya*; Goto, Mitsuaki*; Sawada, Shinichi*; Koshikawa, Hiroshi*; Kitamura, Akane; Higa, Mitsuru*

QST-M-8; QST Takasaki Annual Report 2016, P. 35, 2018/03

We prepared ion exchange membranes by a heavy-ion-track grafting method, and then used them for seawater concentration process. Both the water uptake and resistance were lower for our ion-track grafted membranes than for the conventional $$gamma$$-ray-grafted membranes. The results would be because local and high-density energy deposition due to the ion beam enabled us to control the membrane structure in a nanometer scale. We demonstrate our membranes are suitable for this application.

Journal Articles

Assessment of olfactory nerve by SPECT-MRI image with nasal thallium-201 administration in patients with olfactory impairments in comparison to healthy volunteers

Shiga, Hideaki*; Taki, Junichi*; Washiyama, Koshin*; Yamamoto, Jumpei*; Kinase, Sakae; Okuda, Koichi*; Kinuya, Seigo*; Watanabe, Naoto*; Tonami, Hisao*; Koshida, Kichiro*; et al.

PLOS ONE (Internet), 8(2), p.e57671_1 - e57671_8, 2013/02

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:34.63(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Oral presentation

Development of membrane separation method of sodium nitrate from radioactive liquid waste, 4; Development of new anion exchange membranes to inhibit diffuse transmission of nitric acid

Meguro, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Yoko; Kato, Atsushi; Kameyama, Tomokazu*; Sawamura, Mitsutaka*; Nishimura, Megumi*; Higa, Mitsuru*

no journal, , 

no abstracts in English

Oral presentation

Characterization of ion-exchange membranes prepared by ion irradiation graft polymerization method and $$gamma$$-ray irradiation graft polymerization method

Goto, Mitsuaki*; Omori, Masayuki*; Yamaki, Tetsuya; Sawada, Shinichi; Koshikawa, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Akane; Higa, Mitsuru*

no journal, , 

We have prepared cation exchange membranes for applications to electrochemical energy-conversion devices by swift-heavy-ion irradiation, and then investigated their charge density, ${it i.e.}$, a concentration of fixed charge groups, in comparison with that of the conventional $$gamma$$-ray-grafted membranes. Poly(ethylene-${it co}$-tetrafluoroethylene) films with a 25 $$mu$$m thickness were irradiated in a vacuum chamber with 560 MeV $$^{129}$$Xe and subsequently immersed in a grafting solution containing sodium ${it p}$-styrenesulfonate at 60$$^{circ}$$C. The charge density was estimated through the measurement of the membrane potential in an aqueous solution of potassium chloride. Our membranes exhibited higher charge density (reaching 2.40 mol/dm$$^{3}$$ at maximum) than the $$gamma$$-ray-grafted samples probably due to track structures characteristic of the bombarding heavy ions.

Oral presentation

Characterization of ion-exchange membranes prepared by ion irradiation graft polymerization method

Goto, Mitsuaki*; Yamaki, Tetsuya; Koshikawa, Hiroshi; Sawada, Shinichi; Kitamura, Akane; Higa, Mitsuru*

no journal, , 

We have exploited a grafting technique with heavy-ion beams to create ion exchange membranes for various practical applications such as fuel cells and water desalination systems. In this study, instead of styrene that is a common monomer, sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS) was for the first time employed for this so-called ion-track grafting. A 25 $$mu$$m-thick poly(vinylidene fluoride) film was bombarded with 560 MeV $$^{129}$$Xe at a fluence of 3.0$$times$$10$$^{8}$$ or 1.0$$times$$10$$^{9}$$ ions/cm$$^{2}$$, and subsequently immersed in a SSS grafting solution at 60$$^{circ}$$C. The charge density was estimated through the measurement of the membrane potential in an aqueous solution of potassium chloride. Our membranes exhibited higher charge density than the conventional or commercially-available samples probably due to track structures characteristic of the bombarding heavy ions.

Oral presentation

Characterization of transport properties of cation and anion exchange membranes prepared by heavy-ion-track grafting and their application to seawater electrodialysis

Sawada, Shinichi*; Goto, Mitsuaki*; Koshikawa, Hiroshi*; Kitamura, Akane; Higa, Mitsuru*; Yamaki, Tetsuya*

no journal, , 

We prepared cation exchange membranes (CEMs) and anion exchange membranes (AEMs) by a heavy-ion-track grafting method, and then used them for seawater electrodialysis process. The concentration of the obtained seawater was higher than that in the case of the commercial CEM/AEM. This result demonstrates our CEMs and AEMs are suitable for this application.

Oral presentation

Ion and water transport properties of cation exchange membranes prepared by heavy-ion-track grafting technique

Sawada, Shinichi*; Goto, Mitsuaki*; Koshikawa, Hiroshi*; Kitamura, Akane; Higa, Mitsuru*; Yamaki, Tetsuya*

no journal, , 

In this study, we prepared ion exchange membranes (CEMs) by our ion-track-grafting technique and investigated their ion and water transport properties. The CEM preparation involved irradiation of ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene films with 310 MeV Kr beam, grafting of styrene into the resulting latent tracks, and sulfonation of styrene units. Membrane resistance was measured by an AC impedance method. Osmotic-pressure-driven water flux was measured by using a permeation cell containing two compartments filled with pure water and an aqueous 3 mol/L NaCl solution. At higher IEC, the membrane resistance decreased, while the water flux increased. Interestingly, the water flux of the ion-track-grafted CEMs is significantly lower than that of commercially products and a conventional $$gamma$$-ray-grafted CEM. This result demonstrates a great potential for industrial electrodialysis. In conclusion, unique one dimensional ionic channels achieved by the ion-track-grafting can facilitate Na+ transport and hinder water permeation.

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