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Journal Articles

Tolerance of anhydrobiotic eggs of the tardigrade ${it Ramazzottius varieornatus}$ to extreme environments

Horikawa, Daiki*; Yamaguchi, Ayami*; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Daisuke*; Hamada, Nobuyuki*; Yukuhiro, Fumiko*; Kuwahara, Hirokazu*; Kunieda, Takekazu*; Watanabe, Masahiko*; Nakahara, Yuichi*; et al.

Astrobiology, 12(4), p.283 - 289, 2012/04

 Times Cited Count:22 Percentile:70.96(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

We examined the hatchability of hydrated and anhydrobiotic eggs of the tardigrade ${it Ramazzottius varieornatus}$ to hatch after ionizing irradiation (helium ions), extremely low and high temperatures, and high vacuum. Anhydrobiotic eggs (50% lethal dose; 1690 Gy) were substantially more radioresistant than hydrated ones (50% lethal dose; 509 Gy). Anhydrobiotic eggs also have a broader temperature resistance compared with hydrated ones. Over 70% of the anhydrobiotic eggs treated at high and low temperatures, but all of the hydrated eggs failed to hatch. After exposure to high vacuum conditions, the hatchability of the anhydrobiotic eggs was comparable to that of untreated control eggs.

Journal Articles

Establishment of a rearing system of the extremotolerant tardigrade ${it Ramazzottius varieornatus}$; A New model animal for astrobiology

Horikawa, Daiki*; Kunieda, Takekazu*; Abe, Wataru*; Watanabe, Masahiko*; Nakahara, Yuichi*; Yukuhiro, Fumiko*; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Hamada, Nobuyuki*; Wada, Seiichi*; Funayama, Tomoo; et al.

Astrobiology, 8(3), p.549 - 556, 2008/06

 Times Cited Count:77 Percentile:89.44(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

We report the successful rearing of the herbivorous tardigrade, ${it Ramazzottius varieornatus}$, by supplying the green alga ${it Chlorella vulgaris}$ as food. The life span was 35 d, deposited eggs required 5.7 d to hatch, and animals began to deposit eggs 9 d after hatching. The reared individuals of this species had an anhydrobiotic capacity throughout their life cycle in egg, juvenile, and adult stages. Furthermore, the reared adults in an anhydrobiotic state were tolerant of temperatures of 90$$^{circ}$$C and -196$$^{circ}$$C and exposure to 99.8% acetonitrile or irradiation with 4000 Gy $$^{4}$$He ions. Based on their life history traits and tolerance to extreme stresses, ${it R. varieornatus}$ might be a suitable model for astrobiological studies of multicellular organisms.

Journal Articles

Food-NaCl associative learning in response of ${it C. elegans}$ to $$gamma$$-ray irradiation

Sakashita, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Michiyo; Fukamoto, Kana; Funayama, Tomoo; Wada, Seiichi*; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Horikawa, Daiki*; Bolige, A.*

JAEA-Review 2007-060, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2006, P. 110, 2008/03

We investigated the effects of $$gamma$$ rays on the salt chemotaxis learning in ${it C. elegans}$. We observed no decrease of performance of the salt chemotaxis learning following 500 Gy $$gamma$$ irradiation. Also, ${it C. elegans}$ showed the normal chemotaxis to benzaldehyde, whereas the salt chemotaxis learning were affected by irradiation during learning.

Journal Articles

Radiation tolerance linked to anhydrobiosis in ${it Polypedilum vanderplanki}$

Nakahara, Yuichi*; Watanabe, Masahiko*; Kikawada, Takahiro*; Fujita, Akihiko*; Horikawa, Daiki*; Okuda, Takashi*; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Funayama, Tomoo; Hamada, Nobuyuki*; Wada, Seiichi*; et al.

JAEA-Review 2007-060, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2006, P. 113, 2008/03

We have shown that anhydrobiotic larvae of ${it Polypedilum vanderplanki}$ have higher tolerance against both high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation than hydrated larvae. We therefore examined effects of high-LET radiation on four kinds of larvae: (1) normal hydrated (intact) larva, (2) intermediates between the anhydrobiotic and normal hydrated state, (3) almost completely dehydrated (anhydrobiotic) larvae, and (4) immediately rehydrated larvae that are assumed to have a similar molecular profile to anhydrobiotic larvae. The intermediates and immediately rehydrated larvae survived longer after high-LET radiation than intact larvae, indicating that radiation tolerance could be enhanced even in hydrated larvae. Physiological changes toward anhydrobiosis, e.g. accumulation of protectants or increasing damage repair capacity, correlate with improved radiation tolerance in hydrated larvae.

Journal Articles

Physiological changes leading to anhydrobiosis improve radiation tolerance in ${it Polypedilum vanderplanki}$ larvae

Watanabe, Masahiko*; Nakahara, Yuichi*; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Kikawada, Takahiro*; Fujita, Akihiko*; Hamada, Nobuyuki*; Horikawa, Daiki*; Wada, Seiichi*; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Okuda, Takashi*

Journal of Insect Physiology, 53(6), p.573 - 579, 2007/06

 Times Cited Count:20 Percentile:68.05(Entomology)

We examined effects of high-LET radiation on 4 kinds of larvae: (1) normal hydrated (intact) larva, (2) intermediates between the anhydrobiotic and normal hydrated state, (3) almost completely dehydrated (anhydrobiotic) larvae, and (4) immediately-rehydrated larvae that are assumed to have a similar molecular profile to anhydrobiotic larvae. The intermediates and immediately-rehydrated larvae survived longer after high-LET radiation than intact larvae, indicating that radiation tolerance could be enhanced even in hydrated larvae. Physiological changes toward anhydrobiosis, e.g. accumulation of protectants or increasing damage repair capacity, correlate with improved radiation tolerance in hydrated larvae. In addition, almost complete desiccation further enhanced radiation tolerance, possibly in a different way from the hydrated larvae.

Journal Articles

Effects of heavy ions and $$gamma$$-ray on the tardigrade ${it Milnesium tardigradum}$

Horikawa, Daiki*; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Katagiri, Chihiro*; Watanabe, Masahiko*; Kikawada, Takahiro*; Nakahara, Yuichi*; Hamada, Nobuyuki*; Wada, Seiichi*; Funayama, Tomoo; Higashi, Seigo*; et al.

JAEA-Review 2006-042, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2005, P. 116, 2007/02

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Radiation tolerance in the tardigrade ${it Milnesium tardigradum}$

Horikawa, Daiki*; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Katagiri, Chihiro*; Watanabe, Masahiko*; Kikawada, Takahiro*; Nakahara, Yuichi*; Hamada, Nobuyuki*; Wada, Seiichi*; Funayama, Tomoo; Higashi, Seigo*; et al.

International Journal of Radiation Biology, 82(12), p.843 - 848, 2006/12

 Times Cited Count:118 Percentile:99.19(Biology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Estimation of radiation tolerance to high LET heavy ions in an anhydrobiotic insect, ${it Polypedilum vanderplanki}$

Watanabe, Masahiko*; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Fujita, Akihiko*; Kikawada, Takahiro*; Nakahara, Yuichi*; Hamada, Nobuyuki*; Horikawa, Daiki*; Wada, Seiichi*; Funayama, Tomoo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; et al.

International Journal of Radiation Biology, 82(12), p.835 - 842, 2006/12

 Times Cited Count:15 Percentile:72.61(Biology)

The aim of this study is to characterize the tolerance to high-LET radiations of${it P. vanderplanki}$. Larval survival and subsequent metamorphoses were compared between anhydrobiotic (dry) and non-anhydrobiotic (wet) samples after exposure to 1 to 7000 Gy of three types of heavy ions with LET values ranging from 16.2 to 321 keV/$$mu$$m. At all LET values measured, dry larvae consistently showed greater radiation tolerance than hydrated larvae, due to the disaccharide trehalose in anhydrobiotic animals. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values based on the median inhibitory doses reached a maximum at 116 keV/$$mu$$m ($$^{12}$$C). Anhydrobiosis potentiates radiation tolerance in terms of larval survival, pupation and adult emergence of ${it P. vanderplanki}$ exposed to high-LET radiations. ${it P. vanderplanki}$ larvae might have more efficient DNA damage repair after radiation than other chironomid species.

Journal Articles

Biological effects of anhydrobiosis in an African chironomid, ${it Polypedilum vanderplanki}$ on radiation tolerance

Watanabe, Masahiko*; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Fujita, Akihiko*; Kikawada, Takahiro*; Horikawa, Daiki*; Nakahara, Yuichi*; Wada, Seiichi*; Funayama, Tomoo; Hamada, Nobuyuki*; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; et al.

International Journal of Radiation Biology, 82(8), p.587 - 592, 2006/08

 Times Cited Count:32 Percentile:89.71(Biology)

The present study aims to evaluate effects of anhydrobiosis on radiation tolerance in an anhydrobiotic insect, Polypedilum vanderplanki. Larval survival (48 h), anhydrobiotic ability, metamorphosis and reproduction after exposure to 1 to 9000 Gy of $$gamma$$-rays at the larval stage were comparedbetween anhydrobiotic (dry) and normal (wet) phases. Wet larvae were killed in a dose-dependent manner at doses higher than 2000 Gy, and all died within 8 h after 4000 Gy exposure. In contrast, dry larvae survived even 5000 Gy, and some of them still tolerated 7000 Gy and were alive at 48 h after rehydration. Moreover, greater radiotolerance of dry larva, compared to wet ones, was demonstrated interms of metamorphoses. However, anhydrobiosis did not protect against radiation damage in terms of producing viable offspring. These results indicate that anhydrobiosis enhances radiotolerance, resulting in increases of successful metamorphoses.

Oral presentation

Radiation tolerance in water bears

Horikawa, Daiki*; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Katagiri, Chihiro*; Watanabe, Masahiko*; Nakahara, Yuichi*; Okuda, Takashi*; Hamada, Nobuyuki*; Wada, Seiichi*; Funayama, Tomoo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

no journal, , 

no abstracts in English

Oral presentation

Energetic heavy-ion beams and $$gamma$$-rays tolerance in water bears

Horikawa, Daiki*; Watanabe, Masahiko*; Nakahara, Yuichi*; Kikawada, Takahiro*; Okuda, Takashi*; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Funayama, Tomoo; Hamada, Nobuyuki*; Wada, Seiichi*; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; et al.

no journal, , 

no abstracts in English

Oral presentation

Radiation tolerance in tardigrades

Horikawa, Daiki*; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Katagiri, Chihiro*; Watanabe, Masahiko*; Nakahara, Yuichi*; Kikawada, Takahiro*; Hamada, Nobuyuki*; Wada, Seiichi*; Funayama, Tomoo; Higashi, Seigo*; et al.

no journal, , 

no abstracts in English

Oral presentation

Radiation tolerance and anhydrobiosis in African chironomid, ${it Polypedilum vanderplanki}$

Nakahara, Yuichi*; Watanabe, Masahiko*; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Hamada, Nobuyuki*; Gusev, O.*; Fujita, Akihiko*; Kikawada, Takahiro*; Horikawa, Daiki*; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Okuda, Takashi*

no journal, , 

The present study aims to evaluate effects of anhydrobiosis on radiation tolerance in an anhydrobiotic insect, ${it Polypedilum vanderplanki}$. Wet larvae were killed in a dose-dependent manner at doses higher than 2000 Gy, and all died within 8 h after 4000 Gy exposure. However, anhydrobiosis did not protect against radiation damage in terms of producing viable offspring. These results indicate that anhydrobiosis enhances radiotolerance in larvae, but not in the delayed effects of development.

Oral presentation

The Tardigrade ${it Ramazzottius varieornatus}$; A Model for astrobiological studies

Horikawa, Daiki*; Kunieda, Takekazu*; Abe, Wataru*; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki*; Nakahara, Yuichi*; Watanabe, Masahiko*; Iwata, Kenichi*; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Hamada, Nobuyuki*; Higashi, Seigo*; et al.

no journal, , 

We report the first successful rearing of the herbivorous tardigrade, ${it Ramazzottius varieornatus}$, by supplying a green alga ${it Chlorella vulgaris}$ as a food. The reared individuals of this species had an anhydrobiotic capacity throughout their life cycle, from eggs, to juveniles, and to adults. Reared adults, while in an anhydrobiotic state, were tolerant to temperatures -196$$^{circ}$$C and 100$$^{circ}$$C. Furthermore, they were shown to be tolerant to the exposure to 99.8% acetonitrile, 1 GPa of hydrostatic pressure, or 5000 Gy of He ion radiation. We will report the details of these results, along with the description of their life history. Due to the observed tolerance to such extreme environmental conditions, we propose R. varieornatus to be included as a suitable model for astrobiological studies of multicellular organisms.

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