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Journal Articles

Application of InGaP space solar cells for a radiation dosimetry at high dose rates environment of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

Okuno, Yasuki; Okubo, Nariaki; Imaizumi, Mitsuru*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(9-10), p.851 - 858, 2019/09

Decommissioning the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F) after the accident caused by a tsunami in 2011 requires characterization of the fuel debris by dose distribution measurement. This paper describes the experimental and theoretical behavior of a radiation detector applied with InGaP solar cells is investigated and allow the localization and characterization of the fuel debris. In the irradiation test, it was observed that the radiation-induced current output of the InGaP solar cells increases linearly with increasing dose rates of $$^{60}$$Co $$gamma$$-ray. For measurements at low dose rates, it becomes clear that the minimum detectable dose rate and resolution can be determined by analyzing the noise characterization. The maximum detection limit of radiation dosimetry for the InGaP solar cell was found to be higher than the highest $$gamma$$-ray dose rate observable at the reactor core for 1F plants. Additionally, as an analysis of the radiation-induced current, it is attempted to express a relational expression between the absorbed dose rate and the creation of radiation-induced current pairs in the solar cells. The experimental and simulation results suggest that solar cells can be powerful tools for radiation dosimetry in high dose rate environments near the debris of the 1F plant.

Journal Articles

Recovery of radiation degradation on inverted metamorphic triple-junction solar cells by light soaking

Shibata, Yuichi*; Imaizumi, Mitsuru*; Sato, Shinichiro; Oshima, Takeshi; Ooka, Sachiyo*; Takamoto, Tatsuya*

Proceedings of 11th International Workshop on Radiation Effects on Semiconductor Devices for Space Applications (RASEDA-11) (Internet), p.65 - 68, 2015/11

Radiation response is one of the important properties for space solar cells. It should be well understood so as to accurately predict their degradation in orbit and also to improve their radiation tolerance. Recently, a phenomenon, recovery from the radiation degradation by light soaking, on inverted metamorphic (IMM) triple-junction (3J) solar cells was found out. In this work, the light soaking annealing effects on electron irradiated IMM 3J solar cells are reported. IMM 3J solar cells irradiated with 1 MeV electrons with the fluence of 3$$times$$10$$^{15}$$ e$$^-$$/cm$$^2$$ showed the recovery of open-circuit voltage, Voc, up to 43 mV after light (AM0, 1 sun) soaking of 3 hours. The increment of the electroluminescence intensity for InGaP in the IMM 3J cells due to the light soaking suggests that the Voc recovery occurs in InGaP top-cell rather than GaAs middle-cell or InGaAs bottom-cell.

Journal Articles

Measurement of ion beam induced current in quantum dot solar cells

Nakamura, Tetsuya*; Imaizumi, Mitsuru*; Sato, Shinichiro; Sugaya, Takeyoshi*; Mochizuki, Toru*; Okano, Yoshinobu*; Oshima, Takeshi

Proceedings of 11th International Workshop on Radiation Effects on Semiconductor Devices for Space Applications (RASEDA-11) (Internet), p.73 - 76, 2015/11

The radiation effect on GaAs p-i-n solar cells with quantum dot (QD) in the i-layer was investigated. In a previous work, we particularly noted the degradation of fill-factor (FF) for the QD cells. In this work, to clarify the reason of the FF degradation in QD cells, generation current due to low-energy proton irradiation, which we call ion beam induced current (IBIC), was observed to characterize behavior of the generated minority carrier by the protons in the depletion region where QDs are located. The energy of protons was adjusted to damage the depletion region, and decrease of generation current was measured during the proton irradiation. The results suggest that the serious degradation of FF is caused by a decrease of the carrier collection efficiency in the depletion region due to proton damage.

Journal Articles

Effect of irradiation on gallium arsenide solar cells with multi quantum well structures

Maximenko, S.*; Lumb, M.*; Hoheisel, R.*; Gonz$'a$lez, M.*; Scheiman, D.*; Messenger, S.*; Tibbits, T. N. D.*; Imaizumi, Mitsuru*; Oshima, Takeshi; Sato, Shinichiro; et al.

Proceedings of 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC-40) (CD-ROM), p.2144 - 2148, 2014/06

In this paper, a complex analysis of the radiation response of GaAs solar cells with multi quantum wells (MQW) incorporated in the i-region of the device is presented. Electronic transport properties of the MQW i-region were assessed experimentally by the electron beam induced current (EBIC) technique. A 2-D EBIC diffusion model was applied to simulate EBIC line scans across device structure for different radiation doses. The results are interpreted using numerical modeling of the electrical field distribution at different radiation levels. Type conversion from n- to p-type was found in MQW i-region at displacement damage dose as low as low as 1$$times10^{-8}$$ MeV MeV/g. This is supported by experimental and simulated EBIC and electric field distribution results.

Journal Articles

First flight demonstration of glass-type space solar sheet

Shimazaki, Kazunori*; Kobayashi, Yuki*; Takahashi, Masato*; Imaizumi, Mitsuru*; Murashima, Mio*; Takahashi, Yu*; Toyota, Hiroyuki*; Kukita, Akio*; Oshima, Takeshi; Sato, Shinichiro; et al.

Proceedings of 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC-40) (CD-ROM), p.2149 - 2154, 2014/06

The electrical performance of a glass-type space solar sheet (G-SSS) was demonstrated in space. G-SSS comprises InGaP/GaAs dual-junction and InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs triplejunction solar cells. It is lightweight solar generation sheet, less than 0.5 mm thick. It is mounted on the "HISAKI" (SPRINT-A) small scientific satellite, which was launched on September 14, 2013. The initial flight data were successfully acquired and this flight demonstration was a world-first experiment for G-SSS using III-V multi-junction thin-film solar cells. The cells demonstrated superior performance and the electrical outputs matched the flight prediction.

Journal Articles

Quantum-well solar cells for space; The Impact of carrier removal on end-of-life device performance

Hoheisel, R.*; Gonz$'a$lez, M.*; Lumb, M.*; Scheiman, D.*; Messenger, S. R.*; Bailey, C. G.*; Lorentzen, J.*; Tibbits, T. N. D.*; Imaizumi, Mitsuru*; Oshima, Takeshi; et al.

IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 4(1), p.253 - 259, 2014/01

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:53.77(Energy & Fuels)

Analysis on the radiation response of solar cells with multi quantum wells (MQW) included in the quasi-intrinsic region between the emitter and the base layer is presented. We found that in the case of MQW devices, carrier removal (CR) effects are also observed. Experimental measurements and numerical simulations reveal that with increasing radiation dose, CR can cause the initially quasi-intrinsic background doping of the MQW region to become specifically n- or p-type. This can result in a significant narrowing and even the collapse of the electric field between the emitter and the base where the MQWs are located. The implications of the CR-induced modification of the electric field on the current-voltage characteristics and on the collection efficiency of carriers generated within the emitter, the MQW region, and the base are discussed for different radiation dose conditions. This paper concludes with a discussion of improved radiation hard MQW device designs.

Journal Articles

Temperature influence on performance degradation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells irradiated with protons

Sato, Shinichiro; Sai, Hitoshi*; Oshima, Takeshi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru*; Shimazaki, Kazunori*; Kondo, Michio*

Progress in Photovoltaics; Research and Applications, 21(7), p.1499 - 1506, 2013/11

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:73.07(Energy & Fuels)

Proton degradation behaviors of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells irradiated with protons at 331 K are compared with that at 298 K (room temperature). Variations with time in the post-irradiation electrical properties are also investigated. It is found that the radiation degradation of the electrical properties at 331 K is significantly smaller than that at room temperature. Also, all the electrical properties (short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage, output maximum, and fill factor) recover with time after irradiation even at room temperature. The characteristic time of thermal annealing of short-circuit current is larger as the temperature is higher. These results indicate that temperature during irradiation and elapsed time from irradiation to measurement is an important parameter for radiation degradation of a-Si:H solar cells. Therefore, these parameters should be controlled in conducting the ground radiation tests.

Journal Articles

Comparative study on degradation characteristics of component subcells in IMM triple-junction solar cells irradiated with high-energy electrons and protons

Imaizumi, Mitsuru*; Nakamura, Tetsuya*; Tajima, Michio*; Sato, Shinichiro; Oshima, Takeshi

Proceedings of 39th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC-39) (CD-ROM), p.3243 - 3248, 2013/06

Radiation response of InGaP, GaAs, InGaAs (In=20%) and InGaAs (In=30%) single-junction solar cells, which are the component sbcells of IMM3J cells, were comparatively studied. High-energy electrons (1 MeV) and protons (10 MeV) were irradiated to the four types of the cells. The InGaP cell has the highest radiation resistance to both electrons and protons amongst the four cells as expected. On the other hand, the InGaAs cells have less resistant for Isc compared to InGaP and GaAs cells. However, the resistance of Voc of InGaAs cells is comparable to that of the other two cells. As a general result, InGaAs cells have less radiation resistance to electrons, while they have the resistance against protons equivalent to GaAs cell. These radiation response properties of InGaAs cells are thought to be useful to design radiation resistant IMM3J space solar cells.

Journal Articles

Estimation of subcell photocurrent in IMM3J using LED bias light

Nakamura, Tetsuya*; Imaizumi, Mitsuru*; Sato, Shinichiro; Oshima, Takeshi

Proceedings of 39th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC-39) (CD-ROM), p.0696 - 0700, 2013/06

The estimation method of subcell photocurrent (I$$_{photo}$$) in multi-junction solar cells using not external quantum efficiency (EQE) but light current-voltage (LIV) characteristics after irradiation is proposed. To obtain I$$_{photo}$$ of each subcell, it is necessary to estimate the reverse saturation current density (J$$_0$$) and shunt resistance (R$$_{sh}$$) of each subcell using EL and LED bias light (LBL) method. Since estimated I$$_{photo}$$ is in agreement with experimental LIV characteristics under illumination of AM0 solar simulator, we can evaluate of complicated maximum power (Pmax) of the inverted metamorphic triple-junction (IMM3J) solar cell after irradiation.

Journal Articles

A Study on the artifact external quantum efficiency of Ge bottom subcells in triple-junction solar cells

Sugai, Mitsunobu*; Harada, Jiro*; Imaizumi, Mitsuru*; Sato, Shinichiro; Oshima, Takeshi

Proceedings of 39th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC-39) (CD-ROM), p.0715 - 0720, 2013/06

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Radiation study in quantum well III-V multi-junction solar cells

Gonz$'a$lez, M.*; Hoheisel, R.*; Lumb, M.*; Scheiman, D.*; Bailey, C. G.*; Lorentzen, J.*; Maximenko, S.*; Messenger, S. R.*; Jenkins, P. P.*; Tibbits, T. N. D.*; et al.

Proceedings of 39th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC-39) (CD-ROM), p.3233 - 3236, 2013/06

The radiation response of multi quantum wall (MQW) triple junction and component cells was analyzed. Initial results show that for 1MeV electron irradiation the middle MQW cell governs the degradation of the triple junction. This is attributed the specific middle cell design, in particular the thick 0.98 $$mu$$m depletion region, and alternative, more radiation hard, designs are presented. Additionally, characterization studies, including dark IV, external quantum efficiency, electroluminescence, as well as defect characterization were investigated.

Journal Articles

Radiation effects in solar cells

Imaizumi, Mitsuru*; Oshima, Takeshi

Proceedings of SPIE, Vol.8725 (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2013/06

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:16.27

Radiation effects in solar cells are described. Degradation behavior of space solar cells, such as silicon solar cells and InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells, due to high-energy electrons and protons are elaborated in the presentation. Space solar cell design technology is also explained. In addition, technologies for practical application of solar cells in space including methodology for radiation protection and degradation prediction are interpreted. Furthermore, recent development status of state-of-the-art space solar cells is introduced.

Journal Articles

Change in the electrical performance of GaAs solar cells with InGaAs quantum dot layers by electron irradiation

Oshima, Takeshi; Sato, Shinichiro; Imaizumi, Mitsuru*; Nakamura, Tetsuya*; Sugaya, Takeyoshi*; Matsubara, Koji*; Niki, Shigeru*

Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 108, p.263 - 268, 2013/01

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:44.92(Energy & Fuels)

GaAs solar cells which have a PiN structure with 50 self-organized In$$_{0.4}$$Ga$$_{0.6}$$As Quantum Dot (QD) layers were irradiated with 1 MeV electrons up to 1$$times$$10$$^{16}$$ /cm$$^{2}$$. After irradiation at 1$$times$$10$$^{16}$$/cm$$^{2}$$, the remaining factor of I$$_{rm SC}$$, V$$_{rm OC}$$ and P$$_{rm MAX}$$ for the InGaAs 50 QD solar cell becomes 80, 90 and 55% of the initial values, respectively. On the other hand, those values for non QD GaAs solar cells decrease to 95, 80 and 63% of the initial values, respectively. Since the i-layer for the 50 QD solar cells (1.1 $$mu$$m) is thicker than the non QD solar cells (660 nm), the larger degradation of I$$_{rm SC}$$ for the 50 QD solar cells than the non QD ones can be interpreted in terms that the carrier recombination in the i-layer for the 50 QD solar cells is larger than that for the non QD solar cells. For V$$_{rm OC}$$, the 50 QD solar cells showes better radiation resistance than the non QD solar cells. Furthermore, the annealing behavior of the electrical characteristics for the 50 QD and the non QD solar cells was investigated at RT under AM 0 immediately after the irradiation. As a result, the recovery of the electrical characteristics for both solar cells was observed, and the GaAs solar cells shows relatively larger recovery compared to the 50 QD solar cells. Although the mechanism of this recovery has not yet been clarified, the origin of this recovery is thought not to come from the existence of QDs because the GaAs solar cell without QD layers also shows the recovery.

Journal Articles

Estimation method for radiation resistance of multi-junction solar cells using I-V characteristics of subcells

Nakamura, Tetsuya*; Imaizumi, Mitsuru*; Sugai, Mitsunobu*; Sato, Shinichiro; Oshima, Takeshi

Proceedings of 10th International Workshop on Radiation Effects on Semiconductor Devices for Space Applications (RASEDA-10) (Internet), p.48 - 51, 2012/12

Recently a new method was proposed that estimating the current-voltage (IV) characteristics of subcells in a multi-junction (MJ) solar cell by using electroluminescence (EL). The estimated IV characteristics of electron-irradiated MJ solar cell from the IV curve obtained from each subcell agreed well with the actual dark IV (DIV) and light IV (LIV) characteristics, except for series resistance ($$R_s$$) and shunt resistance ($$R_{sh}$$). $$R_s$$ of a MJ cells and $$R_{sh}$$ of subcells can be also clarified through measurement LIV characteristics using color bias lights and circuit simulation program. In this work, we applied this method to InGaP/GaAs dual-junction (2J) solar cells irradiated with electrons. As a result, we succeeded to predict the degradation curve of maximum power of the 2J solar cell where the current-limiting subcell changes from InGaP to GaAs subcell using degradation curve of each parameter.

Journal Articles

Temporal electric conductivity variations of hydrogenated amorphous silicon due to high energy protons

Sato, Shinichiro; Sai, Hitoshi*; Oshima, Takeshi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru*; Shimazaki, Kazunori*; Kondo, Michio*

Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 358(17), p.2039 - 2043, 2012/09

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:65.04(Materials Science, Ceramics)

Electrical conductivity variations of undoped, n-type and p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films irradiated with various energy protons are systematically investigated in this study. Dark conductivity (DC) and photoconductivity (PC) of the undoped samples increased at first due to proton irradiation and then decrease dramatically with increasing proton fluence. However, increased PC was metastable and gradually decreased with time. Similar results were observed in the n-type a-Si:H, whereas the monotonic decrease was observed in the p-type one. The degrees of the DC and the PC decreases became lower as the irradiated proton energy was higher. The increases of both DC and PC are attributed to the temporal donor like center generation, although the additional proton irradiation decrease both the DC and PC by the accumulation of radiation-induced defects, which are act as deep traps and compensate carriers.

Journal Articles

Anomalous enhancement in radiation induced conductivity of hydrogenated amorphous silicon semiconductors

Sato, Shinichiro; Sai, Hitoshi*; Oshima, Takeshi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru*; Shimazaki, Kazunori*; Kondo, Michio*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 286, p.29 - 34, 2012/09

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:37.16(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Electric conductivity variations of undoped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) semiconductors induced by swift protons are investigated. The results show that the conductivity drastically increases at first and then decreases on further irradiation. The conductivity enhancement observed only in the low fluence regime lasts for a prolonged period of time when proton irradiation stops in this fluence regime. On the other hand, the photosensitivity has a minimum value around the conductivity peak. This fact indicates that non-equilibrium carriers do not play a dominant role in the electric conduction in this fluence regime. It is found that the anomalous conductivity enhancement is dominated by donor center generation in the low fluence regime. At higher fluences the variation in electric conductivity becomes dominated by non-equilibrium carriers as the generated donor centers disappear. This is a general interpretation of radiation induced conductivity in semiconductors.

Journal Articles

Electric properties of undoped hydrogenated amorphous silicon semiconductors irradiated with self-ions

Sato, Shinichiro; Sai, Hitoshi*; Oshima, Takeshi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru*; Shimazaki, Kazunori*; Kondo, Michio*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 285, p.107 - 111, 2012/08

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:42.4(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Journal Articles

Innovative technologies on proton irradiation ground tests for space solar cells

Imaizumi, Mitsuru*; Yuri, Yosuke; Bolton, P.; Sato, Shinichiro; Oshima, Takeshi

Proceedings of 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC-38) (CD-ROM), p.002831 - 002834, 2012/00

High-energy proton irradiation tests were performed on InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction (3J) solar cells with a variety of beam conditions. Irradiation area of about 80 mm $$times$$ 80 mm was achieved by two different techniques, namely, the spot beam scanning and the defocused beam uniformization using multi-pole magnets. Degradation trend of the cells irradiated with the defocused uniform beam under a variety of doze rates exhibited no significant difference compared to the trend irradiated with the scanned beam under a constant dose rate. This result is consistent with our previous fundamental study, and indicates possibility of reduction of irradiation test duration. Irradiation experiment with a multiple energy proton beam is planned, and generation of such proton beam is now under development. Once a proton beam with energy spectrum similar to space environment, a number of irradiation tests with different proton energies and also an energy equivalent fluence calculation using relative damage coefficients or displacement damage dose will be unnecessary.

Journal Articles

Change in I-V characteristics of subcells in a multi-junction solar cell due to radiation irradiation

Nakamura, Tetsuya*; Imaizumi, Mitsuru*; Sato, Shinichiro; Oshima, Takeshi

Proceedings of 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC-38) (CD-ROM), p.002846 - 002850, 2012/00

Roensch et al. recently proposed a new method of estimating the current-voltage (IV) characteristics of subcells in a multi-junction (MJ) solar cell by using electroluminescence (EL). The estimated IV characteristics of a proton-irradiated MJ solar cell from the IV curve obtained from each subcell agreed well with the actual dark IV (DIV) and light IV (LIV) characteristics, except for series resistance ($$R$$$$_{s}$$) and shunt resistance ($$R$$$$_{sh}$$). This method can also clarify $$R$$$$_{s}$$ of a MJ cells and Rsh of subcells through circuit simulation program. In this work, we applied this method to InGaP/GaAs dual-junction (2J) solar cells in order to obtain the IV characteristics of the InGaP top subcells and GaAs bottom subcells before and after proton irradiation with various fluences. In addition, we succeeded to predict the degradation curve of maximum power ($$P$$$$_{max}$$) of the 2J solar cell where the current-limiting subcell changes from InGaP to GaAs subcell.

Journal Articles

First flight demonstration of film-laminated InGaP/GaAs and CIGS thin-film solar cells by JAXA's small satellite in LEO

Morioka, Chiharu*; Shimazaki, Kazunori*; Kawakita, Shiro*; Imaizumi, Mitsuru*; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi*; Takamoto, Tatsuya*; Sato, Shinichiro; Oshima, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yosuke*; Hirako, Keiichi*; et al.

Progress in Photovoltaics; Research and Applications, 19(7), p.825 - 833, 2011/11

 Times Cited Count:12 Percentile:43.27(Energy & Fuels)

137 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)