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Journal Articles

Corrosion property of container using hybrid material for thermal decomposition process of sulfuric acid

Ioka, Ikuo; Kuriki, Yoshiro*; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kawai, Daisuke*; Yokota, Hiroki*; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Kubo, Shinji

Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 5 Pages, 2020/08

A thermochemical water-splitting iodine-sulfur processes (IS process) is one of candidates for the large-scale production of hydrogen using heat from solar power. Severe corrosive environment which is thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid exists in the IS process. A hybrid material with the corrosion-resistance and the ductility was made by a plasma spraying and laser treatment. The specimen had excellent corrosion resistance in the condition of 95 mass% boiling sulfuric acid. This was attributed to the formation of SiO$$_{2}$$ on the surface. The container using the hybrid material was experimentally made. The pre-oxidized container using hybrid technique was prepared for the corrosion test in boiling sulfuric acid to evaluate the corrosion characteristics of the container. There was no detaching of the surface with the weld part and the R processing. We proposed the calculation method of corrosion rate from the ions dissolved in the sulfuric acid solution after the corrosion test.

Journal Articles

Study of container using hybrid technique for sulfuric acid decomposition of thermochemical water-splitting iodine-sulfur process

Ioka, Ikuo; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kuriki, Yoshiro*; Kawai, Daisuke*; Yokota, Hiroki*; Kubo, Shinji; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Sakaba, Nariaki

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00377_1 - 19-00377_11, 2020/06

A thermochemical water-splitting iodine-sulfur processes (IS process) is one of candidates for the large-scale production of hydrogen with high cost performance. Severe corrosive environment which is thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid exists in the IS process. A hybrid material with the corrosion-resistance and the ductility was made by a plasma spraying and laser treatment. The specimen had excellent corrosion resistance in the condition of 95 mass% boiling sulfuric acid. This was attributed to the formation of SiO$$_2$$ on the surface. To confirm the production characteristics of a container using the hybrid material, the container which has a welded part, a chamfer, a curved surface was experimentally made. There was no detachment in the plasma spraying and laser treated layer of the container after the laser treatment. It was confirmed that the construction of the container with high corrosion resistance in sulfuric acid was possible in the hybrid technique.

Journal Articles

Contribution of membrane technology to hydrogen society; Development of membrane IS process

Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Sakaba, Nariaki; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Nomura, Mikihiro*; Sawada, Shinichi*; Yamaki, Tetsuya*

Nippon Kaisui Gakkai-Shi, 73(4), p.194 - 202, 2019/08

The thermochemical IS process is a promising hydrogen production method which can produce hydrogen in a large amount and stably with high efficiency by thermal splitting of water. Research and development on chemical reaction technology with membranes was conducted for the purpose of improving the efficiency of IS process and application of solar heat. The basic technology of ceramic membranes applied to decomposition reactions of hydrogen iodine and sulfuric acid was developed, and it is expected that the conversion rate on decomposition in each reaction can be remarkably improved. The basic technology of a cation exchange membrane applied to Bunsen reaction was developed with radiation-induced grafting technique, it is expected that the amount of iodine can be reduced to about one-fifth compared to the conventional method. These achievements are important technologies for practical use of the IS process.

Journal Articles

Research and development on membrane IS process for hydrogen production using solar heat

Myagmarjav, O.; Iwatsuki, Jin; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Noguchi, Hiroki; Kamiji, Yu; Ioka, Ikuo; Kubo, Shinji; Nomura, Mikihiro*; Yamaki, Tetsuya*; Sawada, Shinichi*; et al.

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 44(35), p.19141 - 19152, 2019/07

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:29.77(Chemistry, Physical)

Journal Articles

Development of container using plasma sprayed and laser treated material for sulfuric acid decomposition of thermochemical water-splitting iodine-sulfur process

Ioka, Ikuo; Kuriki, Yoshiro*; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kubo, Shinji; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Sakaba, Nariaki

Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 5 Pages, 2019/05

A thermochemical water-splitting iodine-sulfur processes (IS process) is one of candidates for the large-scale production of hydrogen using heat from solar power. Severe corrosive environment which is thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid exists in the IS process. A hybrid material with the corrosion-resistance and the ductility was made by a plasma spraying and laser treatment. The specimen had excellent corrosion resistance in the condition of 95 mass% boiling sulfuric acid. This was attributed to the formation of SiO$$_{2}$$ on the surface. To confirm the production characteristics of a container using the hybrid material, the container which has a welded part, a chamfer, a curved surface was experimentally made. There was no detachment in the plasma spraying and laser treated layer of the container after the laser treatment.

Journal Articles

Development of hydrogen production technology by thermal water splitting with solar heat

Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Sakaba, Nariaki

Shokubai, 61(2), p.92 - 96, 2019/04

The outline of the membrane IS process to produce hydrogen by thermochemical water splitting using solar heat at around 650$$^{circ}$$C is described. The membrane technology has been applied to the three main reaction of the IS process to lower the reaction temperature and reduce the amount of circulation materials in the process. The key component technologies such as catalysts, membranes and corrosion resistant materials have been developed. The study was supported in part by the Council for Science, Technology and Innovation, Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program, "Energy Carrier".

Journal Articles

Development of highly efficient hydrogen production process by thermochemical method

Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

Suiso No Seizo, Yuso, Chozo Gijutsu To Zairyo Kaihatsu Jireishu, p.59 - 65, 2019/04

This report describes the outline of the thermochemical hydrogen production process by water splitting related to technologies on production, transport and storage of hydrogen. The report explains the principle of thermochemical process as well as the research and development status on Iodine-Sulfur (IS) process performed in JAEA. As energy for IS process, the outline and the domestic and abroad development status of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor is described.

JAEA Reports

Excellent feature of Japanese HTGR technologies

Nishihara, Tetsuo; Yan, X.; Tachibana, Yukio; Shibata, Taiju; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Kubo, Shinji; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Goto, Minoru; Ueta, Shohei; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2018-004, 182 Pages, 2018/07

JAEA-Technology-2018-004.pdf:18.14MB

Research and development on High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in Japan started since late 1960s. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in cooperation with Japanese industries has researched and developed system design, fuel, graphite, metallic material, reactor engineering, high temperature components, high temperature irradiation and post irradiation test of fuel and graphite, high temperature heat application and so on. Construction of the first Japanese HTGR, High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), started in 1990. HTTR achieved first criticality in 1998. After that, various test operations have been carried out to establish the Japanese HTGR technologies and to verify the inherent safety features of HTGR. This report presents several system design of HTGR, the world-highest-level Japanese HTGR technologies, JAEA's knowledge obtained from construction, operation and management of HTTR and heat application technologies for HTGR.

Journal Articles

Heat transport analysis in a district heating system applying waste heat from GTHTR300, a commercial design of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

Kasahara, Seiji; Murata, Tetsuya*; Kamiji, Yu; Terada, Atsuhiko; Yan, X.; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Mori, Michitsugu*

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 3(3), p.15-00616_1 - 15-00616_16, 2016/06

A district heating system for household heating and road snow melting utilizing waste heat from GTHTR300, a heat-electricity cogeneration design of high temperature gas-cooled reactor, was analyzed. The application area was Sapporo and Ishikari, cities with heavy snowfall in northern Japan. The heat transport analyses were performed by modeling components to estimate heat supply profile; the secondary loops between the GTHTR300s and the heat-application area; heat exchangers connecting the secondary loops to the tertiary loops of the district-heating pipes; and the tertiary loops between the heat exchangers and houses and roads. Though double pipes for the secondary loops were advantageous for having less heat loss and a smaller excavation area, these advantages did not compensate for the higher construct cost of the pipes. To satisfy heat demand in the month of maximum requirement, 520-529 MW of heat were supplied by 3 GTHTR300s and delivered by 6 secondary loops, 3,450 heat exchangers about 90 m long, and 3,450 tertiary loops. Heat loss to the ground from the tertiary loops comprised 80%-90% of the heat loss. More than 90% of the construction cost went into thermal insulators. The thickness and properties of the thermal insulator must be reevaluated for economical heat delivery.

Journal Articles

Characteristics of hybrid tube with Fe-high Si alloy lining by centrifugal casting for thermochemical water-splitting iodine-sulfur process

Ioka, Ikuo; Kuriki, Yoshiro*; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kubo, Shinji; Katsuyama, Jinya; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 3(3), p.15-00619_1 - 15-00619_8, 2016/06

The IS process for hydrogen production has been developed by JAEA as application of a high-temperature gas cooled reactor. The IS process includes a severe corrosion environment which is made to boil and decompose concentrated sulfuric acid. The two-layer pipe consisted of the Fe-high Si alloy with boiling sulfuric acid-resistant and the carbon steel with the ductility was produced by centrifugal casting. The evaluation of characteristics was carried out. The Fe-high Si alloy lining showed enough corrosion resistance in boiling sulfuric acid. As evaluation of the Fe / Fe-high Si alloy interface, thermal cycle test was executed. There was no detachment of the interface though the cracks were generated in the vicinity of the interface. It is believed that the cracks parallel to the interface is attributed to the tensile stress during the thermal cyclic test using FEM analysis and the flake graphite precipitate. It was confirmed that the interface possessed the enough strength.

Journal Articles

Development research of corrosion-resistant structural material using Fe-Si alloy lining centrifugal cast-iron for thermochemical water-splitting iodine-sulfur process

Ioka, Ikuo; Kuriki, Yoshiro*; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kubo, Shinji; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-23) (DVD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2015/05

The thermochemical water-splitting (IS process) for hydrogen production has been developed by JAEA as application of a high-temperature gas cooled reactor. The IS process includes a severe corrosion environment which is made to boil and decompose concentrated sulfuric acid. Two kinds of brittleness materials, SiC and Fe-high Si alloy, are reported as materials having enough corrosion resistance in this corrosion environment. The two-layer pipe consisted of the Fe-high Si alloy with boiling sulfuric acid-resistant and the carbon steel with the ductility was produced by centrifugal casting. The evaluation of characteristics was carried out. The Fe-high Si alloy lining showed enough corrosion resistance in boiling sulfuric acid. As evaluation of the Fe / Fe-high Si alloy interface, thermal cycle test (100$$^{circ}$$C-900$$^{circ}$$C) was executed. There was not the interface detachment and it was confirmed to have enough interfacial strength.

Journal Articles

HTTR demonstration program for nuclear cogeneration of hydrogen and electricity

Sato, Hiroyuki; Sumita, Junya; Terada, Atsuhiko; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Yan, X.; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Tachibana, Yukio; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-23) (DVD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2015/05

This paper explains the outline and schedule of HTTR demonstration program with a plant concept of the heat application system directed at establishing an HTGR cogeneration system with 950$$^{circ}$$C reactor outlet temperature for production of power and hydrogen as recommended by the task force.

Journal Articles

Heat transport analysis in a district heating and snow melting system in Sapporo and Ishikari, Hokkaido applying waste heat from GTHTR300

Kasahara, Seiji; Murata, Tetsuya*; Kamiji, Yu; Terada, Atsuhiko; Yan, X.; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Mori, Michitsugu*

Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-23) (DVD-ROM), 11 Pages, 2015/05

A heat transport analysis of a district heating and snow melting system in Sapporo and Ishikari, Hokkaido was carried out assuming application of waste heat from GTHTR300, a design of high temperature gas-cooled reactor. The following components in the system were modeled; pipelines of the water loops between GTHTR300 and heat demand district and heat exchangers to transport the heat from the water loops to water loops in the district. Double pipes for the pipeline has disadvantage that pumping electricity consumption was 2.74 times to that of single pipes due to pressure loss in annulus channel. On the other hand, the double pipe was advantageous in less heat loss and excavation load. Heat loss was 33% smaller because heat loss from inner tube was recovered in annulus channel. Excavation area was 23% smaller because water loop was made by one double pipe. Total heat loss from the GTHTR300s to the water loop in the district was 4.2% and ratio of pump electricity to power generation from the GTHTR300s was 0.8%. In January, the maximum heat demand in a year, 97.0% of the heat demand was supplied by 2 GTHTRs. Less distance between GTHTR300 and heat demand district from 40 km to 20 km would make cost of the heat transfer system 22% smaller.

Journal Articles

Process evaluation of use of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors to an ironmaking system based on Active Carbon Recycling Energy System

Hayashi, Kentaro*; Kasahara, Seiji; Kurihara, Kohei*; Nakagaki, Takao*; Yan, X.; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Masuro

ISIJ International, 55(2), p.348 - 358, 2015/02

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:72.91(Metallurgy & Metallurgical Engineering)

Reducing coking coal consumption and CO$$_{2}$$ emissions by application of iACRES (ironmaking system based on active carbon recycling energy system) was investigated using process flow modeling to show effectiveness of HTGRs (high temperature gas-cooled reactors) adoption to iACRES. Two systems were evaluated: a SOEC (solid oxide electrolysis cell) system using CO$$_{2}$$ electrolysis and a RWGS (reverse water-gas shift reaction) system using RWGS reaction with H$$_{2}$$ produced by IS (iodine-sulfur) process. Both the effects on saving of the coking coal and reduction of CO$$_{2}$$ emissions were greater in the RWGS system. It was the reason of the result that excess H$$_{2}$$ which was not consumed in the RWGS reaction was used as reducing agent in the BF as well as CO. Heat balance in the HTGR, SOEC and RWGS modules were evaluated to clarify process components to be improved. Optimization of the SOEC temperature was desired to reduce Joule heat input for high efficiency operation of the SOEC system. Higher H$$_{2}$$ production thermal efficiency in the IS process for the RWGS system is effective for more efficient HTGR heat utilization. The SOEC system was able to utilize HTGR heat to reduce CO$$_{2}$$ emissions more efficiently by comparing CO$$_{2}$$ emissions reduction per unit heat of HTGR.

Journal Articles

Process evaluation of use of HTGRs to an ironmaking system based on active carbon recycling energy system (iACRES)

Hayashi, Kentaro*; Kasahara, Seiji; Kurihara, Kohei*; Nakagaki, Takao*; Yan, X.; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Masuro

Tanso Junkan Seitetsu Kenkyukai Saika Hokokusho; Tanso Junkan Seitetsu No Tenkai, p.42 - 62, 2015/02

Reducing coking coal consumption and CO$$_{2}$$ emissions by application of HTGRs (high temperature gas-cooled reactors) to iACRES (ironmaking system based on active carbon recycling energy system) was investigated using process flow modeling. Two systems were evaluated: a SOEC (solid oxide electrolysis cell) system using CO$$_{2}$$ electrolysis and a RWGS (reverse water-gas shift reaction) system using RWGS reaction with H$$_{2}$$ produced by IS (iodine-sulfur) process. Coking coal consumption was reduced from a conventional BF (blast furnace) steelmaking system by 4.3% in the SOEC system and 10.3% in the RWGS system. CO$$_{2}$$ emissions were decreased by 3.4% in the SOEC system and 8.2% in the RWGS system. Remaining H$$_{2}$$ from the RWGS reactor was used as reducing agent in the BF in the RWGS system. This was the reason of the larger reduction of coking coal consumption and CO$$_{2}$$ emissions. Electricity generation for SOEC occupied most of HTGR heat usage in the SOEC system. H$$_{2}$$ production in the IS process used most of the HTGR heat in the RWGS system. Optimization of the SOEC temperature for the SOEC system and higher H$$_{2}$$ production thermal efficiency in the IS process for the RWGS system will be useful for more efficient heat utilization. One typical-sized BF required 0.5 HTGRs and 2 HTGRs for in the SOEC system and RWGS system, respectively. CO$$_{2}$$ emissions reduction per unit heat input was larger in the SOEC system. Recycling H$$_{2}$$ to the RWGS will be useful for smaller emissions per unit heat in the RWGS system.

JAEA Reports

HTTR demonstration test plan for industrial utilization of nuclear heat

Sato, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Yan, X.; Kubo, Shinji; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Tachibana, Yukio; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

JAEA-Technology 2014-031, 30 Pages, 2014/09

JAEA-Technology-2014-031.pdf:17.95MB

In the present study, identification of test items to be validated in the HTTR demonstration test to accomplish a formulation of safety requirement and design consideration for coupling a hydrogen production plant to a nuclear facility as well as confirmation of overall performance of helium gas turbine system. In addition, a plant concept for the heat utilization system to be connected with the HTTR is clarified.

JAEA Reports

Economic evaluation of HTGR IS process hydrogen production system

Iwatsuki, Jin; Kasahara, Seiji; Kubo, Shinji; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Masuro

JAEA-Review 2014-037, 14 Pages, 2014/09

JAEA-Review-2014-037.pdf:8.84MB

Thermochemical iodine-sulfur (IS) process is one of the promising technologies, which harnesses heat energy of high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). An economic estimation of hydrogen production by a future commercial HTGR-IS process hydrogen production system was performed on the basis of economic evaluation data of an existing commercial hydrogen production plant using fossil fuel as a raw material. Hydrogen production cost was estimated at 25.4 JPY/Nm$$^{3}$$ under this estimation conditions. Capital cost and energy cost account for 13% and 78% of the total hydrogen production cost, respectively. To decrease HTGR construction cost, to increase HTGR availability, to improve hydrogen production thermal efficiency are important for cost reduction of hydrogen. The cost will be competitive with estimated costs by fossil fuel hydrogen production methods. It is appropriate that the hydrogen production cost is set for a goal of present R&Ds.

Journal Articles

Development of strength evaluation method for high-pressure ceramic components

Takegami, Hiroaki; Terada, Atsuhiko; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 271, p.253 - 256, 2014/05

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:77.62(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Japan Atomic Energy Agency is conducting R&D on nuclear hydrogen production by the Iodine-Sulfur (IS) process. Since highly corrosive materials such as sulfuric and hydriodic acids are used in the IS process, we have been developing a sulfuric acid decomposer made of a ceramic material, that is, silicon carbide (SiC), which shows excellent corrosion resistance to sulfuric acid. In this paper, the minimum strength of SiC components was calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, and the minimum strength evaluation method of SiC components was developed by using the results of simulation. The method was confirmed by fracture test of tube model and reference data.

Journal Articles

Components development for sulfuric acid processing in the IS process

Noguchi, Hiroki; Kubo, Shinji; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kasahara, Seiji; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Terada, Atsuhiko; Takegami, Hiroaki; Kamiji, Yu; Onuki, Kaoru; et al.

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 271, p.201 - 205, 2014/05

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:51.32(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been conducting research and development on a thermochemical iodine-sulfur (IS) process. An examination is planned to verify the integrity of the components in the sulfuric acid decomposition section. A bayonet-type sulfuric acid decomposer made of SiC ceramics, a key component in the section, was test-fabricated. In parallel, a direct-contact heat exchanger (DCHX) is contemplated for use in the sulfuric acid decomposition section to simplify the process. Although the concept is very attractive, little is known about the heat and mass transfer behavior in the DCHX. Therefore, a test apparatus was constructed to measure the gas-phase mass transfer coefficients required for the optimal design of the DCHX. These coefficients of water were acquired and compared with an empirical correlation. The experimental data were in good agreement with those obtained from empirical correlation, and thus, the apparatus was confirmed to be reasonable.

Journal Articles

Process flow sheet evaluation of a nuclear hydrogen steelmaking plant applying very high temperature reactors for efficient steel production with less CO$$_{2}$$ emissions

Kasahara, Seiji; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Masuro

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 271, p.11 - 19, 2014/05

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:68.08(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Nuclear hydrogen steelmaking (NHS) system was evaluated by flow sheet analysis using very high temperature reactors (VHTRs) and thermochemical hydrogen production IS process. Heat input and CO$$_{2}$$ emissions including material production, material transportation, and power generation were evaluation criteria. Though total heat input to the NHS system was 130-142% of a conventional blast furnace steelmaking system, CO$$_{2}$$ emissions were 13-21%. Pre-heating of hydrogen by coal combustion before blowing to a shaft furnace was effective to decrease heat input although CO$$_{2}$$ emissions increased. Direct nuclear pre-heating was also effective without increase of CO$$_{2}$$ emissions if close location of the nuclear reactor to the steelmaking plant was publicly accepted. Hydrogen production thermal efficiency had a significant influence on the heat input. Conceptual design of a plant unit of the NHS system producing steel of 1.47 $$times$$ 10$$^{6}$$ t/y with 2 VHTRs of 600MW heat and one shaft furnace and electric arc furnace was proposed. This article is revised from a proceeding presented in HTR2012.

195 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)