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Journal Articles

Application of virtual tour for online training safeguards exercises

Sekine, Megumi; Sukegawa, Hidetoshi; Ishikuro, Yasuhiro; Oyama, Koji; Obata, Takashi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Inoue, Naoko

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Annual Meeting (Internet), 10 Pages, 2021/08

The Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) developed the virtual tour of a reference nuclear facility. The developed virtual tour was applied to the Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ) workshop exercise for the online SSAC course held in November 2020 in connection with the IAEA safeguards-related regional training course. Also, it was applied to the Complementary Access (CA) exercise for the online workshop of the Nuclear Security and Safeguards Project under the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), held in February 2021. The workshop exercises have been implemented for in-person format however due to COVID-19 pandemic, a virtual tour was applied. The virtual tour was found to be a strong tool not only for online training as an alternative for a facility tour, but also considered to be more advantageous even for the in-person training. The developed virtual tour of a reference nuclear facility, going to shut down, can find potentially varied applications. The paper describes how to create a virtual tour of a reference research reactor facility for the DIQ and CA exercises respectively which have different learning objectives. It emphasizes how the features of the reference facility were captured and the challenges encountered to convey to the training participants the importance of providing the required design information while not being physically present at the facility. It also show the advantage of using the same virtual tour to describe the safeguards-related verification activities of a complementary access. Virtual tours can be applied to a variety of training.

Journal Articles

Solid-solution strengthening by Al and Cr in FeCrAl oxide-dispersion-strengthened alloys

Ukai, Shigeharu*; Yano, Yasuhide; Inoue, Toshihiko; Sowa, Takashi*

Materials Science & Engineering A, 812, p.141076_1 - 141076_11, 2021/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nanoscience & Nanotechnology)

FeCrAl oxide dispersion strengthened alloys are promising materials for accident tolerant fuels for light water reactors (LWRs). In these alloys, Al and Cr are key elements with important synergistic effects: enhancement of the formation of oxidation-resistant Al$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ phase by Cr addition and suppression of the formation of the embrittling Cr-rich $$alpha$$' phase by Al addition. The solid-solution strengthening resulting from Al and Cr co-addition was investigated in this study. The solid-solution strengthening resulting from Al and Cr co-addition was investigated in this study. The Al and Cr contents were systematically varied from 9-16 at.% and 10-17 at.%, respectively, and tensile tests were conducted at 298 K, 573 K and 973 K in the as-annealed condition. The solid solution strengthening increased linearly, 20 MPa per 1 at.% Al and 5 MPa per 1 at.% Cr, at the typical LWR operational temperature of 573 K. The conventional Fleischer-Friedel and Labusch theories cannot explain this level of solid-solution strengthening. It was shown that Suzuki's double kink theory for screw dislocations reasonably predicts the solid solution strengthening by Al and Cr as well as the inverse dependency on the absolute temperature and linear dependency on the Al and Cr content.

Journal Articles

Dating of buried wood logs and fragments for high resolution reconstruction of landslide histories; Case studies in the Japanese Alps region in the historical times

Yamada, Ryuji*; Kimura, Takashi*; Kariya, Yoshihiko*; Sano, Masaki*; Tsushima, Akane*; Li, Z.*; Nakatsuka, Takeshi*; Kokubu, Yoko; Inoue, Kimio*

Sabo Gakkai-Shi, 73(5), p.3 - 14, 2021/01

We discuss the applicability of dating methods for determining landslide chronologies in relation to the type of samples and the sampling location. Case studies are carried out with fossil wood samples buried in the colluvial soil of large-scale landslides occurred in two areas of the Japanese Alps region. Ages are determined by accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating and dendrochronological analysis using the oxygen isotope composition of tree ring cellulose. Most of ages for Dondokosawa rock avalanche are concordant with the period of AD 887 Ninna (Goki-Shichido) earthquake. Ages for Ohtsukigawa debris avalanche are not concentrated in a specific period. In order to obtain accurate age of large-scale landslide, utilizing buried large diameter tree trunk or branches with the good preservation condition has a lot of advantages because it allows us to compare the landslide chronology with historical records of heavy rainfall and large earthquakes.

Journal Articles

Dynamics of proteins with different molecular structures under solution condition

Inoue, Rintaro*; Oda, Takashi*; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Taiki*; Saio, Tomohide*; Kawakita, Yukinobu; Shimizu, Masahiro*; Okuda, Aya*; Morishima, Ken*; Sato, Nobuhiro*; et al.

Scientific Reports (Internet), 10, p.21678_1 - 21678_10, 2020/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering (iQENS) is a fascinating technique for investigating the internal dynamics of protein. However, both low flux of neutron beam and absence of analytical procedure for extracting the internal dynamics from iQENS profile have been obstacles for studying it under physiological condition (in solution). Thanks to the recent development of neutron source, spectrometer and computational technique, they enable us to decouple internal dynamics, translational and rotational diffusions from the iQENS profile. The internal dynamics of two proteins: globular domain protein (GDP) and intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) in solution were studied. It was found that the average relaxation rate of IDP was larger than that of GDP. Through the detailed analyses on their internal dynamics, it was revealed that the fraction of mobile H atoms in IDP was much higher than that in GDP. Interestingly, the fraction of mobile H atoms was closely related to the fraction of H atoms on highly solvent exposed surfaces. The iQENS study presented that the internal dynamics were governed by the highly solvent exposed amino acid residues depending upon protein molecular architectures.

Journal Articles

Formation and mobility of soil organic carbon in a buried humic horizon of a volcanic ash soil

Wijesinghe, J. N.*; Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Kokubu, Yoko; Yamaguchi, Noriko*; Sase, Takashi*; Hosono, Mamoru*; Inoue, Yuzuru*; Mori, Yuki*; Hiradate, Shuntaro*

Geoderma, 374, p.114417_1 - 114417_10, 2020/09

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:48.05(Soil Science)

Journal Articles

Ultra-high temperature creep rupture and transient burst strength of ODS steel claddings

Yano, Yasuhide; Sekio, Yoshihiro; Tanno, Takashi; Kato, Shoichi; Inoue, Toshihiko; Oka, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Kaito, Takeji; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 516, p.347 - 353, 2019/04

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:86.66(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

9Cr-ODS steel claddings consisting of tempered martensitic matrix, showed prominent creep rupture strength at 1000 $$^{circ}$$C, which surpassed that of heat-resistant austenitic steels although creep rupture strength of tempered martensitic steels is generally lower than that of austenitic steels at high temperatures. The measured creep rupture strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings at 1000 $$^{circ}$$C was higher than that from extrapolated creep rupture trend curves formulated using data at temperatures from 650 to 850 $$^{circ}$$C. This superior strength seemed to be owing to transformation of the matrix from the $$alpha$$-phase to the $$gamma$$-phase. The transient burst strengths for 9Cr-ODS steel were much higher than those for 11Cr-ferritic/martensitic steel (PNC-FMS). Cumulative damage fraction analyses suggested that the life fraction rule can be used for the rupture life prediction of 9Cr-ODS steel and PNC-FMS claddings in the transient and accidental events with a certain accuracy.

Journal Articles

Radiolysis of mixed solutions of Cl$$^{-}$$ and Br$$^{-}$$ and its effect on corrosion of a low-alloy steel

Hata, Kuniki; Inoue, Hiroyuki*; Kojima, Takao*; Kasahara, Shigeki; Hanawa, Satoshi; Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Tsukada, Takashi; Iwase, Akihiro*

Proceedings of Symposium on Water Chemistry and Corrosion in Nuclear Power Plants in Asia 2017 (AWC 2017) (USB Flash Drive), p.304 - 314, 2017/09

A model simulation of $$gamma$$ radiolysis of mixed solutions of NaCl and NaBr was carried out. The simulation result agreed well with the experimental result, and Br$$^{-}$$ played an important role in determining the amounts of products from water radiolysis. The simulation result also showed that, in highly pure NaCl solutions, the steady-state concentration of a radolytic product, H$$_{2}$$O$$_{2}$$, was mainly controlled by three reactions (Cl$$^{-}$$ + $$^{.}$$OH $$rightarrow$$ ClOH$$^{.-}$$, ClOH$$^{.-}$$ $$rightarrow$$ Cl$$^{-}$$ + $$^{.}$$OH, and ClOH$$^{.-}$$ + H$$^{+}$$ $$rightarrow$$ Cl$$^{.}$$ + H$$_{2}$$O), which indicated that accurate evaluation of the rate constants of these reactions was very important in improving the radiolysis simulation of solutions containing Cl$$^{-}$$. An immersion test using a low-alloy steel, SQV2A, in the mixed solutions was also carried out under irradiation. The corrosion rate increased or decreased depending on the pH or the concentrations of the halide ions in a similar way to the change in concentration of H$$_{2}$$O$$_{2}$$ produced from water radiolysis, which is affected by the presence of Cl$$^{-}$$ and Br$$^{-}$$. However, at high pH values ($$>$$12), the corrosion rate was almost zero even though the concentration of H$$_{2}$$O$$_{2}$$ was high. This could be attributed to enhancement of the passivity of test specimens at higher pH values.

Journal Articles

Ultra-high temperature tensile properties of ODS steel claddings under severe accident conditions

Yano, Yasuhide; Tanno, Takashi; Oka, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Inoue, Toshihiko; Kato, Shoichi; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Kaito, Takeji; Ukai, Shigeharu*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 487, p.229 - 237, 2017/04

 Times Cited Count:26 Percentile:97.92(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Ultra-high temperature ring tensile tests were carried out to investigate the tensile behavior of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel claddings and wrapper materials under severe accident conditions; temperatures ranged from room temperature to 1400$$^{circ}$$C which is near the melting point of core materials. The experimental results showed that tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings was highest in the core materials at the ultra-high temperatures between 900 and 1200$$^{circ}$$C, but that there was significant degradation in tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings above 1200$$^{circ}$$C. This degradation was attributed to grain boundary sliding deformation with $$gamma$$/$$delta$$ transformation, which was associated with reduced ductility. On the other hand, tensile strength of recrystallized 12Cr-ODS and FeCrAl-ODS steel claddings retained its high value above 1200 $$^{circ}$$C unlike the other tested materials. Present study includes the result of "R&D of ODS ferritic steel fuel cladding for maintaining fuel integrity at the high temperature accident condition" entrusted to Hokkaido University by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT).

Journal Articles

A Screening method for prevention of ratcheting strain derived from movement of temperature distribution

Okajima, Satoshi; Wakai, Takashi; Ando, Masanori; Inoue, Yasuhiro*; Watanabe, Sota*

Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 138(5), p.051204_1 - 051204_6, 2016/10

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:18.29(Engineering, Mechanical)

Journal Articles

Hydrogen peroxide production by $$gamma$$ radiolysis of sodium chloride solutions containing a small amount of bromide ion

Hata, Kuniki; Inoue, Hiroyuki*; Kojima, Takao*; Iwase, Akihiro*; Kasahara, Shigeki; Hanawa, Satoshi; Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Tsukada, Takashi

Nuclear Technology, 193(3), p.434 - 443, 2016/03

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:72.4(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Formative mechanism of inhomogeneous distribution of fractures, an example of the Toki Granite, Central Japan

Sasao, Eiji; Yuguchi, Takashi*; Ito, Yasuto*; Inoue, Takashi*; Ishibashi, Masayuki

Proceedings of 10th Asian Regional Conference of International Association for Engineering Geology and the Environment (IAEG ARS 2015) (USB Flash Drive), 6 Pages, 2015/09

Understanding of the fracture network is important for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. We present our hypothesis on the formative mechanism of inhomogeneous distribution of fracture in the Toki Granite. In the Toki Granite, low- and high-angle fractures are abundant at the shallower part, while less at the deeper part where high-angle fracture is dominant. Distribution of the high-angle fracture is inhomogeneous. Thermochronological study revealed that the rapid cooling occurred at the early stage of granite formation. Paleomagnetic directions of the intact granite were dispersed. This suggests granite was plastically deformed during rapid cooling period. The rapid cooling might cause inhomogeneous distribution of cooling strain. When the granite reached to brittle deformation field, inhomogeneous fracture distribution was formed by the inhomogeneous strain. If so, recognition of the cooling history is essential to understand the distribution of the fracture network.

Journal Articles

Design and performance of high-pressure PLANET beamline at pulsed neutron source at J-PARC

Hattori, Takanori; Sano, Asami; Arima, Hiroshi*; Komatsu, Kazuki*; Yamada, Akihiro*; Inamura, Yasuhiro; Nakatani, Takeshi; Seto, Yusuke*; Nagai, Takaya*; Utsumi, Wataru; et al.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 780, p.55 - 67, 2015/04

 Times Cited Count:51 Percentile:98.91(Instruments & Instrumentation)

PLANET is a time-of-flight (ToF) neutron beamline dedicated to high-pressure and high-temperature experiments. The large six-axis multi-anvil high-pressure press designed for ToF neutron diffraction experiments enables routine data collection at high pressures and high temperatures up to 10 GPa and 2000 K, respectively. To obtain clean data, the beamline is equipped with the incident slits and receiving collimators to eliminate parasitic scattering from the high-pressure cell assembly. The high performance of the diffractometer for the resolution ($$Delta$$ $$d$$/$$d$$ $$sim$$ 0.6%) and the accessible $$d$$-spacing range (0.2-8.4 ${AA}$) together with low-parasitic scattering characteristics enables precise structure determination of crystals and liquids under high pressure and temperature conditions.

Journal Articles

FRP insulator column for high current accelerator of ITER; International thermonuclear experimental reactor

Inoue, Takashi

Kyoka Purasuchikkusu, 60(7), p.269 - 270, 2014/07

In ITER as a thermonuclear fusion experimental reactor being conducted by an international project, a large bore insulator ring of about 1.8 m in diameter is required for generation of 1 MeV, 40 A ion beam for plasma heating by Neutral Beam Injector. At JAEA, R&D has been carried out for development of such large bore insulator ring made of ceramics, and in parallel, ion beam experiments have been carried out with insulator rings made of FRP. The experiments have troubled with frequent high voltage breakdowns after outgas from FRP. Finding melt epoxy traces at triple junction (interface of vacuum, metal and FRP as dielectric material), local stress at the triple junction has been mitigated by mounting a large metal structure, so called stress ring. As a result, acceleration of 0.98 MeV, 185 A/m$$^{2}$$ hydrogen negative ion beam has successfully achieved in short pulses, where the requirement by ITER is 1 MeV and 200 A/m$$^{2}$$.

Journal Articles

Proposal of the screening method for prevention of the accumulation of the ratcheting strain derived from the movement of the temperature distribution

Okajima, Satoshi; Wakai, Takashi; Ando, Masanori; Inoue, Yasuhiro*; Watanabe, Sota*

Proceedings of 2014 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (PVP 2014) (DVD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2014/07

Journal Articles

Information on ITER Project, 45

Moriyama, Setsuko; Neyatani, Yuzuru; Inoue, Takashi

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 90(5), p.307 - 308, 2014/05

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Long-pulse beam acceleration of MeV-class H$$^{-}$$ ion beams for ITER NB accelerator

Umeda, Naotaka; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Taniguchi, Masaki; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Dairaku, Masayuki; Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Inoue, Takashi; Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya

Review of Scientific Instruments, 85(2), p.02B304_1 - 02B304_3, 2014/02

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:49.61(Instruments & Instrumentation)

In order to realize neutral beam systems in ITER whose target is to produce D$$^{-}$$ ion beam of 1 MeV, 200 A/m$$^{2}$$ during 3600s, the electrostatic five-stages negative ion accelerator has been developed at JAEA. To extend pulse length, heat load of the acceleration grids was reduced by controlling the ion beam trajectory. Namely, the beam deflection due to the residual magnetic filter in the accelerator was suppressed with the newly developed extractor with a 0.5 mm off-set aperture displacement. The use of new extractor improved the deflection angle from 6 mrad to 1 mrad, resulting in the reduction of direct interception of negative ions from 23% to 15% of the total acceleration power, respectively. As a result, the pulse length of 130 A/m$$^{2}$$, 881 keV H$$^{-}$$ ion beam has been successfully extended from a previous value of 0.4s to 8.7s.

Journal Articles

Development of negative ion extractor in the high-power and long-pulse negative ion source for fusion application

Kashiwagi, Mieko; Umeda, Naotaka; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Atsushi; Yoshida, Masafumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Dairaku, Masayuki; Maejima, Tetsuya; Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; et al.

Review of Scientific Instruments, 85(2), p.02B320_1 - 02B320_3, 2014/02

 Times Cited Count:24 Percentile:76.58(Instruments & Instrumentation)

The negative ion extractor for high power and long-pulse operations is newly developed toward the neutral beam injector (NBI) for heating & current drive of future fusion machines such as ITER, JT-60 Super Advanced (SA) and DEMO reactor. The satisfactory cooling capability is designed in the thermal analysis. A negative ion production and a suppression of electrons are experimentally validated for this new extractor. As the results, the negative ion current shows increases by a factor of 1.3 with suppressing the electron current. The beam divergence angle is also maintained small enough, 4 mrad.

Journal Articles

Voltage holding capability of large-size acceleration grid with multiple-apertures and multiple-stage for negative ion source

Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya; Inoue, Takashi; NB Heating Technology Group; Yamano, Yasushi*; Kobayashi, Shinichi*

Journal of the Vacuum Society of Japan, 56(12), p.502 - 506, 2013/12

Voltage holding capability of a large negative ion source for fusion application is experimentally examined, which is characterized by multiple-stage acceleration with multiple-apertures over 1000 on large-area grids of 2 m$$^{2}$$ for the multiple-beamlet accelerations. From the observation of the vacuum discharge between the grids, it was found that the aperture generated 10 times larger dark current than the flat region and initiated the vacuum discharge associated with the breakdown. As a result, it was found that the sustainable voltages were dominated by not only the surface area but also the number of the apertures. Because these effects were originated in the area effects by weak and strong electric field profiles, these results implied the surface integration of the electric field were the key parameter for the vacuum insulation.

Journal Articles

Origin of non-uniformity of the source plasmas in JT-60 negative ion source

Yoshida, Masafumi; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Inoue, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Grisham, L. R.*; Akino, Noboru; Endo, Yasuei; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; et al.

Plasma and Fusion Research (Internet), 8(Sp.1), p.2405146_1 - 2405146_4, 2013/11

Distributions of H$$^{0}$$ and H$$^{+}$$ in the source plasmas produced at the end-plugs of JT-60 negative ions source were measured by Langmuir probes and emission spectroscopy in order to experimentally investigate the cause of lower density of the negative ions extracted from end-plugs in the source. Densities of H$$^{0}$$ and H$$^{+}$$ in end-plugs of the plasma grid in the source were compared with those in the center regions. As a result, lower density of the negative ion at the edge was caused by lower beam optics due to lower and higher density of the H$$^{0}$$ and H$$^{+}$$.

Journal Articles

Structural analyses of HV bushing for ITER heating NB system

Tobari, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Takashi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Umeda, Naotaka; Dairaku, Masayuki; Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Sakamoto, Keishi; Kuriyama, Masaaki*; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 88(6-8), p.975 - 979, 2013/10

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:12.58(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The HV bushing, one of the ITER NB components, which is to be procured by JADA, is a multi-conductor feed through composed of five-stage double-layered insulator columns with large brazed ceramic ring and fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) ring. The HV bushing is a bulk head between insulation gas at 0.6 MPa and vacuum. The FRP ring is required to sustain the pressure load, seismic load and dead weight. Brazing area of the ceramic ring with Kovar is required to maintain vacuum leak tightness and pressure tightness against the air filled at 0.6 MPa. To design the HV bushing satisfying the safety factor of $$geq$$ 3.5, mechanical analyses were carried out. As for the FRP ring, it was confirmed that isotropic fiber cloth FRP rings should be used for sufficient strength against shear stress. Also, shape and fixation area of the Kovar sleeve were modified to lower the stress at the joint area. As a result, a design of the insulator for the HV bushing was established satisfying the requirement.

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