Horai, Sawako*; Murakami, Shoichi*; Sakoda, Akihiro; Nakashita, Rumiko*; Kunisue, Tatsuya*; Ishimori, Yuu
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 194(6), p.415_1 - 415_25, 2022/06
This study conducted an investigation of trace element behavior at a former uranium (U) mining site and evaluated environmental impacts to biota. Concentrations of trace elements were determined in sediments, water, and three organism types (insects, frogs, and newts) from three zones in the former U mining site. Concentrations of As and U in the sediments and water samples were the highest at the mill tailings pond site, where post-U extraction remnants have been accumulated. Additionally, among the organisms analyzed the highest levels of these elements/isotopes were found in newts from MP. Considering data analyses of the whole-body element concentrations, bioaccumulation factors, and N values for the organisms, it was concluded that newts might be the most vulnerable species in this location. Further monitoring and more accurate evaluation of the ecological impacts are preferred for this former U mining site.
Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu; Kanzaki, Norie; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Takahiro*; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro*; Yamaoka, Kiyonori*
Journal of Radiation Research (Internet), 62(4), p.634 - 644, 2021/07
It is held that the skin dose from radon progeny is not negligibly small and that introducing cancer is a possible consequence under normal circumstances, while there are a number of uncertainties in terms of related parameters such as activity concentrations in air, target cells in skin, skin covering materials, and deposition velocities. Meanwhile, an interesting proposal emerged in that skin exposure to natural radon-rich thermal water as part of balneotherapy can produce an immune response to induce beneficial health effects. The goal of the present study was to obtain generic dose coefficients with a focus on the radon progeny deposited on the skin in air or water in relation to risk or therapeutic assessments. We thus first estimated the skin deposition velocities of radon progeny in the two media based on data from the latest human studies. Using the optimized velocities, skin dosimetry was then performed under different assumptions regarding alpha-emitting source position and target cell (i.e., basal cells or Langerhans cells). Furthermore, the impact of the radon progeny deposition on effective doses from all exposure pathways relating to "radon exposure" was assessed using various possible scenarios. It was found that in both exposure media, effective doses from radon progeny inhalation are one to four orders of magnitude higher than those from the other pathways. In addition, absorbed doses on the skin can be the highest among all pathways when the radon activity concentrations in water are two or more orders of magnitude higher than those in air.
Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu; Kanzaki, Norie; Tanaka, Hiroshi
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 191(4), p.383 - 390, 2020/10
Estimation of the effective inhalation dose of short half-life radon progeny requires the quantification of radon equilibrium equivalent activity concentrations (EEC). The aim of the present study is to develop new methodology that focuses on spot measurements to determine EEC from single gross alpha counts and determine an optimized protocol. The core of the approach is to measure alpha particles over time when the radon progeny attached to the sampling filter are significantly disintegrated. The calibration curve of single counts to EEC is theoretically deduced and validated by a comparison test. The advantage of the present method is its minimal requirements, including the use of common instruments and simple sampling, alpha counting, and analysis procedures. This approach offers an option for radon practitioners working in a variety of fields, as well as the possibility for non-experts to easily measure EEC.
Kobashi, Yusuke*; Kataoka, Takahiro*; Kanzaki, Norie; Ishida, Tsuyoshi*; Sakoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ishimori, Yuu; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro*; Yamaoka, Kiyonori*
Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 59(3), p.473 - 482, 2020/08
Radon therapy has been traditionally performed globally for oxidative stress-related diseases. Many researchers have studied the beneficial effects of radon exposure in living organisms. However, the effects of thoron, a radioisotope of radon, have not been fully examined. In this study, we aimed to compare the biological effects of radon and thoron inhalation on mouse organs with a focus on oxidative stress. Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 15 groups: sham inhalation, radon inhalation at a dose of 500 Bq/m or 2000 Bq/m, and thoron inhalation at a dose of 500 Bq/m or 2000 Bq/m were carried out. Immediately after inhalation, mouse tissues were excised for biochemical assays. The results showed a significant increase in superoxide dismutase and total glutathione, and a significant decrease in lipid peroxide following thoron inhalation under several conditions. Additionally, similar effects were observed for different doses and inhalation times between radon and thoron. Our results suggest that thoron inhalation also exerts antioxidative effects against oxidative stress in organs. However, the inhalation conditions should be carefully analyzed because of the differences in physical characteristics between radon and thoron.
Sakoda, Akihiro; Murakami, Shoichi*; Ishimori, Yuu; Horai, Sawako*
Journal of Radiation Research (Internet), 61(2), p.207 - 213, 2020/03
Tanaka, Masaru*; Kawara, Osami*; Ishizaka, Kaoru*; Ohata, Yuki*; Fukuike, Iori*; Kawase, Keiichi; Tokizawa, Takayuki; Miyagawa, Hiroshi*; Ishimori, Yuu
JAEA-Research 2018-001, 98 Pages, 2018/06
In the 2016 fiscal year, communication cases on general waste disposal facility construction plans in recent years were surveyed. Results suggested as follows: (1) Existing long-term relationships or agreements in local area promote local accepting. (2) An operator needs to consider alternative plans and explain reasons for the decision making to local stakeholders. (3) Even after first announcement of a new plan, an operator needs to review the plan depending on local concerns. (4) Announcement of a new plan will activate communications on local development including the site redevelopment.
Sakoda, Akihiro; Nakatsuka, Yoshiaki; Ishimori, Yuu; Nakashima, Shinichi; Komeda, Masao; Ozu, Akira; Toh, Yosuke
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 55(6), p.605 - 613, 2018/06
For better nuclear material accountancy, we had developed a non-destructive assay system dedicated to uranium waste drums (JAWAS-N: JAEA Waste Assay System at Ningyo-toge). The system is based on a fast neutron direct interrogation (FNDI) method. To clarify the characteristics of the FNDI method and the performance of JAWAS-N, experimental and computational mock-up tests were carried out using various dry materials that contained known amounts of natural uranium. As a result, linearity between the die-away time () and the counts of fast neutrons attributed to U fission was confirmed experimentally and analytically. Moreover, the MCNP simulation was performed to discuss the radial and axial dependences of U fission probability, neutron detection efficiency, and sensitivity on uranium distributions in the drum. The simulation results agreed with the empirical results reported in a previous paper, providing valuable information on the practice of FNDI-based uranium determination. Furthermore, the nominal detection limits of natural uranium in JAWAS-N were estimated to be 15, 4, and 2 g for = 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 msec, respectively. The findings obtained here will contribute to the implementation of the FNDI method to assess the quantities of U in actual uranium waste drums.
Sasaoka, Kaori*; Kataoka, Takahiro*; Kanzaki, Norie; Kobashi, Yusuke*; Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu; Yamaoka, Kiyonori*
Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 50(3), p.1157 - 1170, 2018/06
Cisplatin (CDDP) is widely used for treating solid cancers; however, it induces nephrotoxicity caused by oxidative stress. Here, we investigated whether radon inhalation has different effects against CDDP induced renal injury in two mouse strains differing in radiosensitivity, and determined the appropriate dose of CDDP combined with radon inhalation for highly radiosensitive mice. CDDP was administered at 20 mg/kg weight to C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice after radon inhalation at 1000 Bq/m and 2000 Bq/m for 24 h. Radon inhalation had a slight positive effect against CDDP toxicity in C57BL/6J mice with respect to improved hair condition, whereas radon inhalation exacerbated CDDP-induced toxicity in BALB/c mice. When BALB/c mice were treated with a lower dose of CDDP (15 mg/kg) after 1000 Bq/m radon inhalation, the creatinine level was reduced and the superoxide dismutase content was increased. The supportive effect of radon inhalation shows its good potential as a candidate treatment to alleviate CDDP-induced renal damage.
Ono, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Satoru; Ishimori, Yuu; Ando, Masaki
JAEA-Review 2017-044, 13 Pages, 2018/03
The Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency performs the environmental monitoring around the Ningyo-toge and the waste rock sites according to the agreements with local governments, Okayama and Tottori prefectures. Each prefectural committee on the environmental monitoring evaluates the monitoring data annually. This report summarized the results of the environmental monitoring in Tottori prefecture in the fiscal year 2016. The results show that the levels of the radiation doses and the radioactive concentrations in the environment were within natural variations, and the waste rock sites have been well maintained. The committee concluded that the environmental impacts from the sites were negligible.
Ono, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Satoru; Ishimori, Yuu; Ando, Masaki
JAEA-Review 2017-043, 39 Pages, 2018/03
The Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA Ningyo-toge) performs the environmental monitoring around the Ningyo-toge and the waste rock sites according to the agreements with local governments, Okayama and Tottori prefectures. Environmental monitoring of plutonium has been also performed around the Ningyo-toge regarding the practical application study on the reprocessed uranium conversion, which was carried out from 1994 to 1999 at the Ningyo-toge. Each prefectural committee on the environmental monitoring evaluates the monitoring data annually. This report summarized the results of the environmental monitoring in Okayama prefecture in the fiscal year 2016. The results show that the levels of the radiation doses and the radioactive concentrations in the environment were within natural variations, and the committee concluded that the environmental impacts from the sites were negligible. Therefore, the site of the JAEA Ningyo-toge has been well operated, and the waste rock sites have been well maintained.
Kanzaki, Norie; Kataoka, Takahiro*; Kobashi, Yusuke*; Yunoki, Yuto*; Ishida, Tsuyoshi*; Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu; Yamaoka, Kiyonori*
Radioisotopes, 67(2), p.43 - 57, 2018/02
We previously reported that low-dose radiation induces the anti-oxidative function in many organ systems of mice. This results in the suppression of several kinds of oxidative stress-induced damage. This study was conducted with the objective of revealing the health effects of low-dose radiation obtained from our previous reports and searching for a new treatment based on low-dose radiation, such as radon therapy. We extracted the characteristics of the effects of low dose radiation suppressing diseases and enhancing the anti-oxidative function using fuzzy answer by self-organizing map (SOM) based on mutual knowledge. The relationship between the suppressive effect and increased antioxidative function was shown in our result, and the concentration dependence of the effect against pain was shown on the output map. Although the effect against other organs depending on concentration was unpredictable, our results indicate that low-dose radiation may also be suitable for treatment of liver disease and brain disease.
Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu
Hoken Butsuri, 52(4), p.296 - 306, 2017/12
Radon emanation means the escape of radon atoms from solid grains into pore space; it is the very first process that may lead to radon exposure in the environment. Experimental and numerical studies of radon emanation have been diligently carried out since its recognition as a carcinogen. Our previous review of the measured data showed a wide range of radon emanation fractions from natural substances, and then we discussed the effects of environmental factors such as pore water. The present paper provides an overview of the approaches and progress of radon emanation modeling that may be useful for the interpretation of measured data. Recoil and/or diffusion of radon in solid following alpha decay of radium, which underlies the mechanisms of radon emanation, have been incorporated into numerical models. In the calculation based on recoil-based emanation, radium distribution and pore size were the most important parameters, which govern the magnitudes of radon ejections from the birth grain and of radon embedding into another solid surface, respectively. The solid diffusion appeared significant only at a temperature higher than a few hundred degrees Celsius. A model is now desired to be developed that incorporates the transport process of radon atoms that are still settled in solid after alpha recoil, considering radiation damage and its resulting inner path network.
Tanaka, Masaru*; Aoyama, Isao*; Ishizaka, Kaoru*; Ohata, Yuki*; Fukuike, Iori*; Kawase, Keiichi; Watanabe, Masanori; Tokizawa, Takayuki; Miyagawa, Hiroshi*; Ishimori, Yuu
JAEA-Research 2017-003, 65 Pages, 2017/06
JAEA Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center and Fukushima Environmental Safety Center have same challenges in risk communication. As reference, similar domestic cases were investigated by our two Centers, and requirements for building long-term relationship were clarified. As follows; (1) Develop new relationship with various stakeholders in the region. (2) Make better use of existing resources (personnel, land and facilities, etc.). (3) Make a concerted effort to create new values with local stakeholders. (4) Make an opportunity which local stakeholders confirm safety and build confidence to the project. These efforts will enhance the opportunities for operators and residents to learn about environment management and environmental protection.
Etani, Reo*; Kataoka, Takahiro*; Kanzaki, Norie*; Sakoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ishimori, Yuu; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro*; Taguchi, Takehito*; Yamaoka, Kiyonori*
Journal of Radiation Research, 58(5), p.614 - 625, 2017/05
Radon therapy using radon (Rn) gas is classified into two types of treatment: inhalation of radon gas and drinking water containing radon. Although short- or long-term intake of spa water is effective in increasing gastric mucosal blood flow, and spa water therapy is useful for treating chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer, the underlying mechanisms for and precise effects of radon protection against mucosal injury are unclear. In the present study, we examined the protective effects of hot spring water drinking and radon inhalation on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in mice. Mice inhaled radon at a concentration of 2000 Be/m for 24 h or were provided with hot spring water for 2 weeks. The activity density of Rn ranged from 663 Bq/l (start point of supplying) to 100 Bq/l (end point of supplying).Mice were then orally administered ethanol at three concentrations. The ulcer index (UI), an indicator of mucosal injury, increased in response to the administration of ethanol; however, treatment with either radon inhalation or hot spring water inhibited the elevation in the UI due to ethanol. Although no significant differences in antioxidative enzymes were observed between the radon-treated groups and the non-treated control groups, lipid peroxide levels were significantly lower in the stomachs of mice pre-treated with radon or hot spring water. These results suggest that hot spring water drinking and radon inhalation inhibit ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury.
Ishimori, Yuu; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Akihiro; Kataoka, Takahiro*; Yamaoka, Kiyonori*; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro*
Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 56(2), p.161 - 165, 2017/05
In order to investigate the biokinetics of inhaled radon, radon concentrations in mouse tissues and organs were determined after mice had been exposed to about 1 MBq/m of radon in air. Radon concentrations in mouse blood and in other tissues and organs were measured with a liquid scintillation counter and with a well-type HP Ge detector, respectively. Radon concentration in mouse blood was 0.4100.016 Bq/g when saturated with 1 MBq/m of radon concentration in air. In addition, average partition coefficients obtained were 0.740.19 for liver, 0.460.13 for muscle, 9.090.49 for adipose tissue, and 0.220.04 for other organs. With these results, a value of 0.414 for the blood-to-air partition coefficient was calculated by means of our physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. The time variation of radon concentration in mouse blood during exposure to radon was also calculated. All results are compared in detail with those found in the literature.
Proceedings of 2017 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2017) (CD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2017/04
This paper illustrates the current status of decommissioning activities at four facilities in the Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency. (1) The Test milling facility was dismantled from 1999 to 2002. The dismantled materials are stored, and surveyed to determine the quantities of contaminants in the Dismantled materials storage facility. (2) Major equipment at the Refining and conversion facility was dismantled and removed from 2008 to 2013. About 530 t of dismantled materials were generated. Measures of other materials and equipment are taken for easier area managements. (3) A part of centrifuges in the Enrichment engineering facility was decontaminated with 5% of dilute sulfuric acid, and some of them were reused after clearance. Major equipment except centrifuges at the facility has been dismantled and removed since 2014. Dismantling activity will end in 2022. So far, about 270 t of dismantled materials were generated. (4) Centrifuges in the Uranium enrichment demonstration plant have been flushed by gas since 2002 before dismantling. Decontamination efficiencies for DOP-1 and for DOP-2 were about 91% and 99%, respectively. Further plans for dismantling of centrifuges are under review. (5) Related techniques such as measurements are also explained.
Hata, Haruhi; Ishimori, Yuu
Radioisotopes, 66(4), p.149 - 158, 2017/04
For the estimation of radioactive inventory, the radioactive waste drums should be classified based on their radioactive composition. We compared the classification performances between random forests and support vector machine, both of which are machine learning methods. The tested uranium in waste drums included natural uranium from uranium ore, reprocessed uranium from nuclear fuel, and natural uranium with rich radium from the impurities in yellow cake. A total of 75 data in 1037 -ray spectral data of these drums were trained, and 962 data were applied in the classification models. It was found that the random forests were advantageous in the shift of the channels.
Ema, Akira; Ishimori, Yuu
JAEA-Review 2016-034, 84 Pages, 2017/03
The Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency has managed the decommissioning projects since 2013. In 2015, Enforcement Management System (EMS) was established to enforce the project management systematically. The project management based on EMS was started in 2015. This report summarized the state of management activities in FY 2015.
Ishimori, Yuu; Yokoyama, Kaoru*; Hayakawa, Tomoya; Hata, Haruhi; Sakoda, Akihiro; Naganuma, Masaki
Dekomisshoningu Giho, (55), p.36 - 44, 2017/03
This paper gives an outline of the current status of uranium measurements and their related techniques at the Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The JAWAS-N and the Q system have been adopted to evaluate uranium contents in the wastes. About 10 g or more of uranium in a 200 drum can be evaluated by these systems. The equivalent model developed to correct the evaluation results with Q system is not available to less than dozens of grams of uranium in a 200 L drum. The paper illustrates the advantage of use of the improved equivalent model which evaluates uranium content from full energy peak of 1001 keV and its Compton spectrum in order to correct the inhomogeneous distribution of uranium in measuring objects. The use of model achieved the limit of uranium quantitative determination under one tenth of those of previous evaluation methods. To determine U, it was demonstrated that the shielding factor, for evaluation of 1001 keV -ray is also possible to use for evaluation of 186 keV -ray. The measurement systems adopting the model have been introduced to other nuclear operators in Japan. In addition, it is also examined to use for clearance. As a related technique, feasibility studies on machine learning algorithms have been performed to classify the waste drums depending on their -ray spectrum.
Yokoyama, Kaoru; Suzuki, Atsuo*; Ishimori, Yuu
Radioisotopes, 66(3), p.117 - 125, 2017/03
Decontamination wastes contaminated with radioactive cesium (Cs, Cs) are housed in the flexible container bags. Canberra manufactured flexible container concentration measurement car has been developed for the radioactivity measurement of decontamination waste. For reduction of background, the flexible container bags is mounted to the frame, it is measured from the lower side. In the flexible container bag, if there is uneven distribution of the source, it is estimated that quantification error increases. We proposed the method quantifying the shielding situation of rays. Then, it demonstrated that quantification accuracy of radioactivity can be improved.