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Journal Articles

Comparative study of plutonium and minor actinide transmutation scenario

Nishihara, Kenji; Iwamura, Takamichi*; Akie, Hiroshi; Nakano, Yoshihiro; Van Rooijen, W.*; Shimazu, Yoichiro*

Proceedings of 21st International Conference & Exhibition; Nuclear Fuel Cycle for a Low-Carbon Future (GLOBAL 2015) (USB Flash Drive), p.388 - 395, 2015/09

The present study focuses on transmutation of Pu and minor actinide in Japanese case without utilizing Pu as resource. Pu can be transmuted by two groups of technology: conventional ones without reprocessing of spent fuel from transmuter and advanced ones with reprocessing. Necessary number of transmuters, inventory reduction of actinide and impact on repository are revealed by nuclear material balance analysis. As a whole advanced technology performs better in transmutation efficiency, although required number of transmuters is larger.

Journal Articles

Utilization of rock-like oxide fuel in the phase-out scenario

Nishihara, Kenji; Akie, Hiroshi; Shirasu, Noriko; Iwamura, Takamichi*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 51(2), p.150 - 165, 2014/02

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:73.24(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Utilization of rock-like oxide (ROX) fuel in light water reactors for plutonium (Pu) burning was studied by material balance analysis for a case of Japanese phase-out scenario under investigation after the Fukushima accident. For the analysis, the nuclear material balance analysis (NMB) code was developed with features of accurate burn-up calculation, flexible combination of reactors and fuels and an ability to estimate waste and repository. Three scenario-groups of once-through, Pu burning in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and in ROX fuel were analyzed. By construction of two full MOX- or ROX- reactors, Pu amount is reduced to about a half and isotopic vector of Pu is deteriorated as nuclear weapon especially in terms of spontaneous fission neutron. Effects by ROX are more significant than MOX in both amount and vector. Repository footprint and potential radio-toxicity is not reduced by MOX and ROX because heat and toxicity of MOX and ROX spent fuel is considerably high.

Journal Articles

Design study of nuclear power systems for deep space explorers, 1; Criticality of low enriched uranium fueled core

Kugo, Teruhiko; Akie, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Akifumi; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Iwamura, Takamichi; Akimoto, Hajime

Proceedings of 2009 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP '09) (CD-ROM), p.9371_1 - 9371_8, 2009/05

Combining a nuclear reactor with thermoelectric converters is expected to be one of promising options to supply a propulsion power for deep space explorers. One of the key features of the concept is to use low enriched uranium fuels from the viewpoint of nuclear non-proliferation. Fuels of uranium oxide, nitride and metal were examined. Zirconium and yttrium hydrides, beryllium, zirconium beryllide and graphite were considered as moderators. Reflectors of beryllium, beryllium oxide, zirconium beryllide and graphite were taken into consideration. A criticality survey of the core was performed by changing the ratio of the fuel, moderator and structure, and the reflector thickness. As a result from the viewpoint of a smaller mass of reactor, it is better to use thermal spectrum cores than fast ones, and the metal hydride moderators than beryllium or graphite. For example, a combination of uranium nitride, yttrium hydride and beryllium reflector achieves a reactor mass of as low as 500kg.

Journal Articles

Design study of nuclear power systems for deep space explorers, 2; Electricity supply capabilities of solid cores

Yamaji, Akifumi; Takizuka, Takakazu; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Iwamura, Takamichi; Akimoto, Hajime

Proceedings of 2009 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP '09) (CD-ROM), p.9366_1 - 9366_8, 2009/05

This study has been carried out in series with the other study, "Criticality of Low Enriched Uranium Fueled Core" to explore the possibilities of a solid reactor electricity generation system for supplying propulsion power of a deep space explorer. The design ranges of three different systems are determined with respect to the electric power, the radiator mass, and the operating temperatures of the heat-pipes and thermoelectric converters. The three systems are the solid thermal conduction system (STC), core surface cooling with heat-pipe system (CSHP), and the core direct cooling with heat-pipe system (CDHP). The evaluated electric powers widely cover the 1 to 100 kW range, which had long been claimed to be the range that lacked the power sources in space. Therefore, the concepts shown by this study may lead to a breakthrough of the human activities in space. The working temperature ranges of the main components, namely the heat-pipes and thermoelectric converters, are wide and cover down to relatively low temperatures. This is desirable from the viewpoints of broadening the choices, reducing the development needs, and improving the reliabilities of the devices. Hence, it is advantageous for an early establishment of the concept.

Journal Articles

Design and scenario studies on FLWR for effective use of Pu

Iwamura, Takamichi; Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Okubo, Tsutomu

Proceedings of 4th Asian Specialist Meeting on Future Small-Sized LWR Development, p.11_1 - 11_9, 2007/11

An advanced LWR concept of Innovative Water Reactor for Flexible fuel cycle (FLWR) has been established based on the well-experienced LWR technologies. The feature of this concept is that the high conversion type core (HC-FLWR) with small technical gap from current LWR technologies can be proceed to the breeding type FLWR core, named Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) under the same core configuration and reactor systems. This paper describes the investigations on designs and introduction scenario of FLWR.

Journal Articles

Advanced LWR concept of FLWR for TRU recycling

Iwamura, Takamichi; Okubo, Tsutomu; Uchikawa, Sadao

Proceedings of International Conference on Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles and Systems (Global 2007) (CD-ROM), p.1718 - 1724, 2007/09

An advanced LWR concept of FLWR for TRU recycling has been investigated. The design study has shown the promising results for the feasibility of the concept, in conjunction with the investigated results obtained from the related R&D's for some key issues of FLWR development. In order to establish a robust nuclear energy supply system for the future, an appropriate combination of both the LWR and the FBR technologies, i.e. FLWR and Na-FBR, is considered to be preferable and realistic. This type of preferable combination is proposed in this paper.

Journal Articles

Advances in fast reactor cycle technology development project

Iwamura, Takamichi

Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 96(1), p.743 - 744, 2007/06

The Feasibility Study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems was carried out to elucidate prominent fast reactor cycle systems that would respond to various needs of society in the future. As the result of phase-II, the combination of the sodium-cooled fast reactor with oxide fuel, the advanced aqueous reprocessing and the simplified pelletizing fuel fabrication was selected as the most promising concept. In March 2006, CSTP of the cabinet office selected fast reactor cycle technology as one of key technologies of national importance. After this, the action plans on nuclear technology development completed by MEXT and METI stated a start-up of a demonstration fast reactor by 2025 and deployment of a commercial fast reactor cycle before 2050. "Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development Project" (FaCT Project) was launched to realize these targets. In this project, conceptual design study and innovative technologies development will be carried out by 2015.

Journal Articles

Outline of fast reactor cycle technology development; Launch of FaCT project

Mukai, Kazuo; Sagayama, Yutaka; Kondo, Satoru; Iwamura, Takamichi; Sugiyama, Toshihide

Genshiryoku eye, 53(3), p.24 - 33, 2007/03

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Conceptual design of Innovative Water Reactor for Flexible Fuel Cycle (FLWR) and its recycle characteristics

Uchikawa, Sadao; Okubo, Tsutomu; Kugo, Teruhiko; Akie, Hiroshi; Takeda, Renzo*; Nakano, Yoshihiro; Onuki, Akira; Iwamura, Takamichi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 44(3), p.277 - 284, 2007/03

 Times Cited Count:24 Percentile:13.14(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Concept of Innovative Water Reactor for Flexible Fuel Cycle (FLWR)

Iwamura, Takamichi; Uchikawa, Sadao; Okubo, Tsutomu; Kugo, Teruhiko; Akie, Hiroshi; Nakano, Yoshihiro; Nakatsuka, Toru

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 236(14-16), p.1599 - 1605, 2006/08

 Times Cited Count:17 Percentile:19.14(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In order to ensure sustainable energy supply in the future based on the matured Light Water Reactor (LWR) and coming Mixed Oxide (MOX)-LWR technologies, a concept of Innovative Water Reactor for Flexible Fuel Cycle (FLWR) has been investigated in Japan Atomic Energy Research Agency (JAEA). The concept consists of two parts in the chronological sequence. The first part realizes a high conversion type core concept, which is basically intended to keep the smooth technical continuity from current LWR and coming MOX-LWR technologies without significant technical gaps. The second part represents the Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) core concept, which realizes a high conversion ratio over 1.0 being useful for the long-term sustainable energy supply through plutonium multiple recycling based on the well-developed LWR technologies. The key point is that the two core concepts utilize the compatible and the same size fuel assemblies, and hence, the former concept can proceed to the latter in the same reactor system, based flexibly on the future fuel cycle circumstances during the reactor operation period around 60 years. Investigation on the core for both the parts of the FLWR concepts has been performed, including the core conceptual design, the core characteristics under Pu multiple recycling, the thermal hydraulic investigation in the tight-lattice core, and so forth. Up to the present, promising results have been obtained.

Journal Articles

Investigation on Innovative Water Reactor for Flexible Fuel Cycle(FLWR)

Okubo, Tsutomu; Uchikawa, Sadao; Kugo, Teruhiko; Akie, Hiroshi; Iwamura, Takamichi

Proceedings of 3rd Asian Specialist Meeting on Future Small-sized LWR Development, p.9_1 - 9_12, 2005/11

A concept of Innovative Water Reactor for Flexible Fuel Cycle(FLWR) has been investigated in JAEA in order to ensure sustainable energy supply in the future based on the well-developed LWR technologies. The concept aims at effective and flexible utilization of uranium and plutonium resources through plutonium multiple recycling by two steps. In the first step, FLWR core realizes a high conversion type core concept, which is basically intended to keep the smooth technical continuity from current LWR and coming LWR-MOX technologies without significant gaps in technical point of view. The core in the second step represents the RMWR core concept, which realizes a high conversion ratio over 1.0 being useful for the long-term sustainable energy supply through plutonium multiple recycling based on the LWR technologies. The key point is that the core concepts in both steps utilize the compatible and the same size fuel assemblies, and hence during the reactor operation period, the former concept can proceed to the latter in the same reactor system, corresponding flexibly to the expected change in the future circumstances of natural uranium resource, or establishment of economical reprocessing technology for the MOX spent fuel. Detailed investigation have been performed on the core design, in conjunction with the other related studies such as on the thermal hydraulics in the tight-lattice core including the experimental activities, and the results obtained so far have shown that the proposed concept is feasible and promising. For commercial realization of the FLWRs in 2030s, a 400MWe class small reactor is proposed to be constructed in 2010s as a leading demonstration plant.

Journal Articles

Investigation on Innovative Water Reactor for Flexible Fuel Cycle (FLWR), 1; Conceptual design

Uchikawa, Sadao; Okubo, Tsutomu; Kugo, Teruhiko; Akie, Hiroshi; Nakano, Yoshihiro; Onuki, Akira; Iwamura, Takamichi

Proceedings of International Conference on Nuclear Energy System for Future Generation and Global Sustainability (GLOBAL 2005) (CD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2005/10

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Concept of Innovative Water Reactor for Flexible Fuel Cycle (FLWR)

Iwamura, Takamichi; Uchikawa, Sadao; Okubo, Tsutomu; Kugo, Teruhiko; Akie, Hiroshi; Nakatsuka, Toru

Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-13) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2005/05

In order to ensure sustainable energy supply in the future based on the matured Light Water Reactor (LWR) and coming LWR-Mixed Oxide (MOX) technologies, a concept of Innovative Water Reactor for Flexible Fuel Cycle (FLWR) has been investigated in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The concept consists of two parts in the chronological sequence. The first part realizes a high conversion type core concept, which is basically intended to keep the smooth technical continuity from current LWR without significant gaps in technical point of view. The second part represents the Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) core concept, which realizes a high conversion ratio over 1.0 being useful for the long-term sustainable energy supply through plutonium multiple recycling based on the well-experienced LWR technologies. The key point is that the two core concepts utilize the compatible and the same size fuel assemblies, and hence, the former concept can proceed to the latter in the same reactor system, based flexibly on the fuel cycle circumstances.

Journal Articles

Characteristics of severe accidents of Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR)

Yonomoto, Taisuke; Akie, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Noboru; Okubo, Tsutomu; Uchikawa, Sadao; Iwamura, Takamichi

Proceedings of 6th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics, Operations and Safety (NUTHOS-6) (CD-ROM), 11 Pages, 2004/10

Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) is a light-water cooled high-conversion reactor that is being developed by JAERI with collaboration from the Japanese industries. Since RMWR utilizes the highly enriched plutonium, the safety concern for RMWR includes the possibility of recriticality during severe accidents as is the case with the liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor. In order to clarify this concern, characteristics of severe accidents of RMWR are analyzed in this study. The results obtained so far indicate that (1) the mechanical impact of recriticality in the core, if occurs, is supposed to be insignificant due to the absence of water, (2) the mixture of the fuel and cladding debris in the lower plenum does not cause recriticality when they are well mixed and distributed flatly, and (3) if requires, the installation of neutron-absorption material with realistic geometry can effectively prevent recriticality in the lower plenum even for the conservatively-assumed spherical accumulation of core debris.

JAEA Reports

Research and development on reduced-moderation light water reactor with passive safety features (Contract research)

Iwamura, Takamichi; Okubo, Tsutomu; Akie, Hiroshi; Kugo, Teruhiko; Yonomoto, Taisuke; Kureta, Masatoshi; Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Nagaya, Yasunobu; Araya, Fumimasa; Okajima, Shigeaki; et al.

JAERI-Research 2004-008, 383 Pages, 2004/06

JAERI-Research-2004-008.pdf:21.49MB

The present report contains the achievement of "Research and Development on Reduced-Moderation Light Water Reactor with Passive Safety Features", which was performed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Hitachi Ltd., Japan Atomic Power Company and Tokyo Institute of Technology in FY2000-2002 as the innovative and viable nuclear energy technology (IVNET) development project operated by the Institute of Applied Energy (IAE). In the present project, the reduced-moderation water reactor (RMWR) has been developed to ensure sustainable energy supply and to solve the recent problems of nuclear power and nuclear fuel cycle, such as economical competitiveness, effective use of plutonium and reduction of spent fuel storage. The RMWR can attain the favorable characteristics such as high burnup, long operation cycle, multiple recycling of plutonium (Pu) and effective utilization of uranium resources based on accumulated LWR technologies.

JAEA Reports

Neutronic study on seed-blanket type reduced-moderation water reactor fuel assembly

Shelley, A.; Kugo, Teruhiko; Shimada, Shoichiro*; Okubo, Tsutomu; Iwamura, Takamichi

JAERI-Research 2004-002, 47 Pages, 2004/03

JAERI-Research-2004-002.pdf:3.08MB

Neutronic study has been done for a PWR-type reduced-moderation water reactor with seed-blanket fuel assemblies to achieve a high conversion ratio, a negative void coefficient and a high burnup by using a MOX fuel. The results of the precise assembly burnup calculations show that the recommended numbers of seed and blanket layers are 15(S15) and 5(B5), respectively. By the optimization of axial configuration, the S15B5 assembly with the seed of 1000$$times$$2 mm high, internal blanket of 150 mm high and axial blanket of 400$$times$$2 mm high is recommended. In this configuration, the conversion ratio is 1.0 and the core average burnup is 38 GWd/t. The S15B5 assembly can attain the core average burnup of 45 GWd/t by decreasing the height of seed to 500$$times$$2 mm, however, the conversion ratio becomes 0.97. The void and fuel temperature coefficients are negative for both of the configurations. Effect of metal or T-MOX (PuO$$_{2}$$+ThO$$_{2}$$) fuel has been also investigated. Metal improves the conversion ratio but makes the void coefficient worse. T-MOX improves the void coefficient, but decreases the conversion ratio.

Journal Articles

Toward the generation IV nuclear system

Iwamura, Takamichi

Enerugi Rebyu, 24(1), p.24 - 27, 2004/01

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Analysis of MOX fuel behavior in reduced-moderation water reactor by fuel performance code FEMAXI-RM

Suzuki, Motoe; Saito, Hiroaki*; Iwamura, Takamichi

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 227(1), p.19 - 27, 2004/01

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:49.82(Nuclear Science & Technology)

To assess the feasibility of the 31percentPu-MOX fuel rod design of reduced-moderation boiling water reactor in terms of thermal and mechanical behaviors, a single rod which is assumed to be irradiated in the core of RMWR up to 106 GWd/tHM has been analyzed by a fuel performance code FEMAXI-RM which is an extended version of FEMAXI-6 code. In the analysis, design specifications of fuel rod and irradiation conditions have been input, and available models of both MOX fuel and UO$$_{2}$$ fuel have been used complementally. The results are: FGR is several tens of percent, rod internal pressure does not exceed the coolant pressure, and the highest fuel center temperature is 2400K, while cladding diameter increase caused by pellet swelling is within 1percent strain. These predictions suggest that the MOX fuel rod integrity will be held during irradiation in RMWR, though actual behavior of MOX pellet swelling requires to be investigated in detail.

Journal Articles

Optimization of seed-blanket type fuel assembly for reduced-moderation water reactor

Shelley, A.; Shimada, Shoichiro*; Kugo, Teruhiko; Okubo, Tsutomu; Iwamura, Takamichi

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 224(3), p.265 - 278, 2003/10

 Times Cited Count:12 Percentile:32.91

Parametric studies have been done for a PWR-type reduced-moderation water reactor (RMWR) with seed-blanket fuel assembles to achieve a high conversion ratio, negative void reactivity coefficient and a high burnup. It was found that 50 to 60% of seed in a seed-blanket assembly has higher conversion ratio. The number of seed-blanket layers is 20, in which the number of seed layers is 15 and blanket layers is 5. The fuel assembly with the height of seed of 1000mm$$times$$2, internal blanket of 150 mm and axial blanket of 400mm$$times$$2 is recommended. The conversion ratio is 1.0 and the average burnup in core region is 38.2 GWd/t. The enrichment of fissile Pu is 14.6 wt%. The void coefficient is +21.8 pcm/% void, however, it is expected that the void coefficient will be negative if the radial neutron leakage is taken into account. It is also possible to use this fuel assembly for a high core averaged burnup of 45GWd/t, however, the height of seed must be 500mm$$times$$2 to improve the void coefficient. The conversion ratio is 0.97 and void coefficient is +20.8 pcm/%void.

Journal Articles

Subchannel analysis of CHF experiments for tight-lattice core

Nakatsuka, Toru; Tamai, Hidesada; Kureta, Masatoshi; Okubo, Tsutomu; Akimoto, Hajime; Iwamura, Takamichi

Proceedings of International Conference on Global Environment and Advanced Nuclear Power Plants (GENES4/ANP 2003) (CD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2003/09

It is important to evaluate thermal margin of the tight lattice core in the Reduced-Moderation Water reactor (RMWR). In the present study, to assess the applicability of subchannel analysis for tight lattice cores, tight lattice CHF experiments were analyzed with COBRA-TF code. For the axial uniform heated rod bundle, the code gives good prediction of critical power for mass velocity of around 500kg/(m$$^{2}$$s), while the code underestimates it for lower mass velocity and overestimates for higher mass velocity. The predicted BT position was outer channels and differed from the measured position. For the axially double-humped heated bundle, the code gives good prediction for mass velocity of around 200kg/(m$$^{2}$$s), and overestimates for higher mass velocity. It turned out that the two-phase multiplier of friction loss have a large influences on the flow distribution among the subchannels. To improve the calculation accuracy, it is required to predict precisely the flow distribution including the prediction of pressure distribution in a tight lattice bundle.

120 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)