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Journal Articles

Internal doses from radionuclides and their health effects following the Fukushima accident

Ishikawa, Tetsuo*; Matsumoto, Masaki*; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Yamaguchi, Ichiro*; Kai, Michiaki*

Journal of Radiological Protection, 38(4), p.1253 - 1268, 2018/12

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:31.63(Environmental Sciences)

The current knowledge on internal dose estimation and its health effect were reviewed in this paper. The goals were to discuss the uncertainty of current dose coefficients, to compare the effects of external and internal exposures, and to review recent epidemiological studies. Radionuclides focused on in this study were caesium-137 ($$^{137}$$Cs), caesium-134 ($$^{134}$$Cs), and iodine-131 ($$^{131}$$I), which primarily contributed to internal effective thyroid doses after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. Current knowledge suggests that the risk of internal exposure could be generally the same as or less than that of external exposure, when they are compared at the same effective dose.

Journal Articles

Calculating disability-adjusted life years (DALY) as a measure of excess cancer risk following radiation exposure

Shimada, Kazumasa; Kai, Michiaki*

Journal of Radiological Protection, 35(4), p.763 - 775, 2015/12

AA2014-0479.pdf:1.53MB

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:51.6(Environmental Sciences)

This paper has proposed that disability-adjusted life year (DALY) can be used as a measure of radiation health risk. DALY is calculated as the sum of years of life lost (YLL) and years lived with disability (YLD). This multidimensional concept can be expressed as a risk index without a probability measure to avoid the misuse of the current radiation detriment at low doses. In this study, we calculated YLL and YLD using Japanese population data by gender. DALY for all cancers in Japan per 1 Gy per person was 0.84 year in men and 1.34 year in women. When we calculated the ICRP detriment from the same data, DALYs for the cancer sites were similar to the radiation detriment in the cancer sites, excluding leukemia, breast and thyroid cancer. A big advantage over the ICRP detriment is that DALY can calculate the risk components for non-fatal diseases without the data of lethality. This study showed that DALY is a practical tool that can compare many types of diseases encountered in public health.

Journal Articles

Numerical analysis of organ doses delivered during computed tomography examinations using Japanese adult phantoms with the WAZA-ARI dosimetry system

Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sato, Kaoru; Endo, Akira; Ono, Koji*; Ban, Nobuhiko*; Hasegawa, Takayuki*; Katsunuma, Yasushi*; Yoshitake, Takayasu*; Kai, Michiaki*

Health Physics, 109(2), p.104 - 112, 2015/08

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:51.6(Environmental Sciences)

A dosimetry system, named WAZA-ARI, is developed to assess accurately radiation doses to persons from Computed Tomography (CT) examination patients in Japan. Organ doses were prepared to application to dose calculations in WAZA-ARI by numerical analyses using average adult Japanese human models with the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS). Experimental studies clarified the radiation configuration on the table for some multi-detector row CT (MDCT) devices. Then, a source model in PHITS could specifically take into account for emissions of X-ray in each MDCT device based on the experiment results. Numerical analyses with PHITS revealed a concordance of organ doses with human body size. The organ doses by the JM phantoms were compared with data obtained using previously developed systems. In addition, the dose calculation in WAZA-ARI were verified with previously reported results by realistic NUBAS phantoms and radiation dose measurement using a physical Japanese model. The results implied that analyses using the Japanese phantoms and PHITS including source models can appropriately give organ dose data with consideration of the MDCT device and physiques of typical Japanese adults.

Journal Articles

WAZA-ARI; A Dose assessment system for patients in CT scan

Sato, Kaoru; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Endo, Akira; Ono, Koji*; Hasegawa, Takayuki*; Katsunuma, Yasushi*; Yoshitake, Takayasu*; Ban, Nobuhiko*; Kai, Michiaki*

RIST News, (58), p.25 - 32, 2015/01

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) are now developing WAZA-ARI for improvement of management of exposure doses due to CT examination under the joint research with the Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences. The trial version of WAZA-ARI has been released on 21 December 2012. In trial version, users can perform dose assessment by using organ dose database based on the average adult Japanese male (JM-103) and female (JF-103) voxel phantoms and a 4 years old female voxel phantom (UFF4). The homepage of WAZA-ARI has been accessed over 1000 times per month and 28421 times by the end of September 2014. We are developing WAZA-ARI version 2 as the extension version of dose calculation functions of WAZA-ARI. WAZA-ARI version 2 will be released by the end of March 2015. In WAZA-ARI version 2. Users can upload dose calculation results to WAZA-ARI version 2 server, and utilize improvement of the dose management of patients and the optimization of CT scan conditions.

Journal Articles

Current status and future prospects of "J-KAREN"; High contrast, high intensity laser for studying relativistic laser-matter interactions

Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Mori, Michiaki; Okada, Hajime; Shimomura, Takuya; Nakai, Yoshiki*; Tanoue, Manabu; Kondo, Shuji; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Yogo, Akifumi; Sagisaka, Akito; et al.

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 1, p.015095_1 - 015095_5, 2014/03

We present the design and characterization of a high-contrast, petawatt-class Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) laser system. Two saturable absorbers and low-gain optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) preamplifier in the double CPA laser chain have improved the temporal contrast to 1.4$$times$$10$$^{12}$$ on the subnanosecond time scale at 70 terawatt level. Final uncompressed broadband pulse energy is 28 J, indicating the potential for reaching peak power near 600 terawatt. We also discuss our upgrade to over petawatt level at a 0.1 Hz repetition rate briefly.

Journal Articles

Observation of preformed plasma generated from a thin-foil target for laser-driven proton acceleration

Sagisaka, Akito; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Ogura, Koichi; Sakaki, Hironao; Yogo, Akifumi; Mori, Michiaki; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Okada, Hajime; Kanazawa, Shuhei; et al.

Reza Kenkyu, 42(2), p.160 - 162, 2014/02

High-intensity laser and thin-foil interactions produce high-energy particles, hard X-ray, high-order harmonics, and terahertz radiation. A proton beam driven by a high-intensity laser has received attention as a compact ion source for medical and other applications. We have measured the proton yield from thin-foil targets irradiated with a high-intensity Ti:sapphire laser (J-KAREN) at JAEA. The longitudinal extent of the preformed plasma protruding from the front surface of the target is reduced by decreasing the duration of the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) before the main pulse. The maximum proton energy in the target normal direction increases when the size of the preformed plasma is controlled.

Journal Articles

Ultra-intense, high spatio-temporal quality petawatt-class laser system and applications

Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Shimomura, Takuya; Mori, Michiaki; Nakai, Yoshiki*; Tanoue, Manabu; Kondo, Shuji; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Esirkepov, T. Z.; Hayashi, Yukio; et al.

Applied Sciences (Internet), 3(1), p.214 - 250, 2013/03

 Times Cited Count:12 Percentile:43.56(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

This paper reviews techniques for improving the temporal contrast and spatial beam quality in an ultra-intense laser system that is based on chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). We describe the design, performance, and characterization of our laser system, which has the potential for achieving a peak power of 600 TW. We also describe applications of the laser system in the relativistically dominant regime of laser-matter interactions and discuss a compact, high efficiency diode-pumped laser system.

Journal Articles

Splash plasma channels produced by picosecond laser pulses in argon gas for laser wakefield acceleration

Mizuta, Yoshio*; Hosokai, Tomonao*; Masuda, Shinichi*; Zhidkov, A.*; Makito, Keigo*; Nakanii, Nobuhiko*; Kajino, Shohei*; Nishida, Akinori*; Kando, Masaki; Mori, Michiaki; et al.

Physical Review Special Topics; Accelerators and Beams, 15(12), p.121301_1 - 121301_10, 2012/12

 Times Cited Count:16 Percentile:29.55(Physics, Nuclear)

Journal Articles

Temporal contrast enhancement of petawatt-class laser pulses

Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Shimomura, Takuya; Sasao, Hajime; Nakai, Yoshiki*; Tanoue, Manabu; Kondo, Shuji; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Mori, Michiaki; Fukuda, Yuji; et al.

Optics Letters, 37(16), p.3363 - 3365, 2012/08

 Times Cited Count:32 Percentile:12.33(Optics)

We demonstrate the temporal contrast enhancement in a petawatt-class Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) laser system. An extra saturable absorber, introduced downstream a low gain optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) preamplifier, has improved the temporal contrast in the system to 1.4$$times$$10$$^{12}$$ on the sub-nanosecond time scale at 70 TW power level. We have achieved 28 J of uncompressed broadband output energy with this system, indicating the potential for reaching peak powers near 600 TW.

Journal Articles

Complementary characterization of radioactivity produced by repetitive laser-driven proton beam using shot-to-shot proton spectral measurement and direct activation measurement

Ogura, Koichi; Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Hayakawa, Takehito; Yogo, Akifumi; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Orimo, Satoshi; Sagisaka, Akito; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Mori, Michiaki; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; et al.

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 51(4), p.048003_1 - 048003_2, 2012/04

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:88.88(Physics, Applied)

A proton beam driven by a repetitive high-intensity-laser is utilized to induce a $$^{7}$$Li(p,n)$$^{7}$$Be nuclear reaction. The total activity of $$^{7}$$Be are evaluated by two different methods. The activity obtained measuring the decay $$gamma$$-rays after 1912 shots at 1 Hz is 1.7$$pm$$0.2 Bq. This is in good agreement with 1.6$$pm$$0.3 Bq evaluated from the proton energy distribution measured using a time-of-flight detector and the nuclear reaction cross-sections. We conclude that the production of activity can be monitored in real time using the time-of-flight-detector placed inside a diverging proton beam coupled with a high-speed signal processing system.

Journal Articles

Effects of human model configuration in Monte Carlo calculations for organ doses from CT examinations

Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sato, Kaoru; Endo, Akira; Ono, Koji*; Yoshitake, Takayasu*; Hasegawa, Takayuki*; Katsunuma, Yasushi*; Ban, Nobuhiko*; Kai, Michiaki*

Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 2, p.153 - 159, 2011/10

Computed Tomography (CT) is one of the most useful tools for medical diagnosis, and is becoming a major source of medical exposure in developed countries. Appropriate radiation protection in CT examinations is emphasized by international organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), because the patients receive higher radiation doses than in conventional radiography. Medical staffs can acquire dose information on the conditions of some CT examinations with available dosimetry systems, which had been already developed. These systems utilize datasets of organ and tissue doses, which were derived with Monte Carlo calculations. Methods in computational analyses, however, have been improved, since these calculations had been performed. Then, our new dosimetry system for CT examination, WAZA-ARI, is being developed to estimate radiation dose based upon the state-of-art numerical analyses. Our analysis adopts Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) coupled with a voxel-type phantom, JM phantom, for the organ dose calculation. PHITS has advantageous to define the model of photon emission from X-ray tube in a CT device for radiation transport calculations. The physique and mass of organs for JM phantom are similar to those for average Japanese male adults. Since the goal of WAZA-ARI is to provide dosimetric information of arbitrary patient, it is important to evaluate uncertainty due to different configurations in human bodies between JM phantom and individual patients. For this purpose, the organ doses are calculated and compared for different human models; another Japanese male adult voxel phantom and the ICRP reference voxel phantom, which is constructed on the basis of Caucasian data.

Journal Articles

Development of a web-based CT dose calculator; WAZA-ARI

Ban, Nobuhiko*; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sato, Kaoru; Endo, Akira; Ono, Koji*; Hasegawa, Takayuki*; Yoshitake, Takayasu*; Katsunuma, Yasushi*; Kai, Michiaki*

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 147(1-2), p.333 - 337, 2011/09

 Times Cited Count:16 Percentile:17.24(Environmental Sciences)

A web-system of WAZA-ARI is being developed to assess radiation dose to a patient in a Computed Tomography (CT) examination. The databases of organ doses for WAZA-ARI were derived by the Japanese adult Male phantom (JM phantom) combined with the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS. In the Monte Carlo simulation, the phantoms were irradiated with a 5 mm-thick fan-shaped photon beam, which was moved every 5 mm along the body axis from the upper leg to the top of head. The attenuation by the beam-shaping filter (bow-tie filter) was also taken into account here. The MIRD-type phantom was also applied to the calculations. The MIRD phantom sometimes showed step changes for organ doses, while smoother curves were obtained for JM phantom. The dose data by JM phantom were incorporated into the WAZA-ARI system, which has been implemented on a Linux server. With regard to the system implementation, the system has achieved a high degree of flexibility without commercial software.

Journal Articles

WAZA-ARI; Computational dosimetry system for X-ray CT examinations, 1; Radiation transport calculation for organ and tissue doses evaluation using JM phantom

Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sato, Kaoru; Endo, Akira; Ono, Koji*; Yoshitake, Takayasu*; Hasegawa, Takayuki*; Katsunuma, Yasushi*; Ban, Nobuhiko*; Kai, Michiaki*

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 146(1-3), p.241 - 243, 2011/07

 Times Cited Count:14 Percentile:20.5(Environmental Sciences)

A web-system of WAZA-ARI is being developed to assess radiation dose to a patient in a Computed Tomography (CT) examination. WAZA-ARI utilizes a set of organ and tissue doses in a database for the dose assessment, according to the given resources with a consideration of the examination condition. The organ and tissue doses in the database have been derived with the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS. Modeling of the patient was a significant issue in the radiation transport calculation. JM phantom, whose height (171 cm) and weight (65 kg) are near to those averaged over Japanese male adults, was incorporated to PHITS as a human model. Since JM phantom consisted of about 1 mm$$^{3}$$ size voxel, the shapes could be realistically reproduced even for small organs such as thyroid, adrenals. Masses of most organs could be also adjusted to the averaged values of Japanese male adults. In addition, our calculations introduced a new phantom without arms based upon JM phantom, because the patient usually puts arms toward the head direction in a torso examination. Some of organ doses calculated by JM phantom were compared with results, which were derived with a MIRD-type phantom. Differences could be seen in some organ doses between the phantoms, if photon attenuations in a shaping (Bow-tie) filter were taken into account to a source model in PHITS.

Journal Articles

WAZA-ARI; Computational dosimetry system for X-ray CT examinations, 2; Development of web-based system

Ban, Nobuhiko*; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Ono, Koji*; Hasegawa, Takayuki*; Yoshitake, Takayasu*; Katsunuma, Yasushi*; Sato, Kaoru; Endo, Akira; Kai, Michiaki*

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 146(1-3), p.244 - 247, 2011/07

 Times Cited Count:14 Percentile:20.5(Environmental Sciences)

We are developing a web-based system, WAZA-ARI, for the dose calculation of patients undergoing X-ray CT examinations. Tissue doses were calculated in a Japanese adult male phantom (JM phantom) using a Monte Carlo code, PHITS, and the normalized dose coefficient data are stored as XML files. The system is implemented in Java on a Linux server running Apache Tomcat, which is accessed via a web browser over a network. Users are requested to choose scanning options and to input parameters in the data entry screen. The corresponding dose data are called upon input, and they are summed over the scan range specified by the user to estimate unit tissue doses. Tissue doses are computed based on the radiographic exposure (mAs), the beam pitch and air kerma at the beam center on the axis of rotation. Users can also use their own air kerma, CTDI vol and DLP values for the dose computation instead of the default setting. Although the dose coefficients are prepared for only limited CT scanner models currently, our system has achieved high usability and easy maintenance without commercial software. Possibility of further expansion for the practical application is also discussed.

Journal Articles

Laser-driven proton generation with a thin-foil target

Sagisaka, Akito; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Mori, Michiaki; Yogo, Akifumi; Ogura, Koichi; Orimo, Satoshi; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Ma, J.*; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Kanazawa, Shuhei; et al.

NIFS-PROC-85, p.30 - 33, 2011/02

The experiment of proton generation is performed for developing the laser-driven ion source. We observe proton signals in the laser-plasma interaction by using a thin-foil target. To get higher energy protons the size of the preformed plasma is reduced by changing the laser contrast level. In the high-contrast laser pulse case the maximum energy of the protons generated at rear side of the target increases.

Journal Articles

Analysis of organ doses from Computed Tomography (CT) examination by the radiation transport calculation to develop the dosimetry system, WAZA-ARI

Takahashi, Fumiaki; Endo, Akira; Sato, Kaoru; Hasegawa, Takayuki*; Katsunuma, Yasushi*; Ono, Koji*; Yoshitake, Takayasu*; Ban, Nobuhiko*; Kai, Michiaki*

Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 1, p.517 - 520, 2011/02

Several dose assessment system were developed to avoid unnecessary exposure for a patient in a Computed Tomography (CT) examination. Most of these systems contain datasets of organ doses, which had been calculated with mathematical phantoms. The numerical analyses for radiation dosimetry and CT machines have progressed in recent years. Thus, a project is being carried out to develop a new dosimetry system, named WAZA-ARI. The basic data of organ doses are calculated with a male voxel phantom (JM phantom), which defines configurations of the human body more precisely than the mathematical model. The radiation transports in CT examination can be simulated with the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS. A source model can be set up for emissions of photons from the X-ray tube with a subroutine, including the helical scanning. Thus, the WAZA-ARI system can assess radiation dose based upon the organ doses, which are calculated with the appropriate source and human models.

Journal Articles

Development of a high-contrast, high beam-quality, high-intensity laser

Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Mori, Michiaki; Nakai, Yoshiki*; Shimomura, Takuya; Sasao, Hajime*; Tanaka, Momoko; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Tanoue, Manabu*; Kondo, Shuji; Kanazawa, Shuhei; et al.

Reza Kenkyu, 38(9), p.669 - 675, 2010/09

This paper reviews the temporal contrast and spatial beam quality improvement techniques in a high intensity Ti:sapphire laser system that is based on chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). We describe a low gain optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) preamplifier that uses high energy, clean pulse seeding and is shown to significantly improve the contrast to better than 10$$^{-10}$$-10$$^{-11}$$ relative to the peak of the main femtosecond pulse. We also report the use of a diffractive optical element for beam homogenization of a 100 J level Nd:glass green pump laser, achieving a flat-topped spatial profile with a filling factor near 80 %.

Journal Articles

Proton generation and terahertz radiation from a thin-foil target with a high-intensity laser

Sagisaka, Akito; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Mori, Michiaki; Yogo, Akifumi; Ogura, Koichi; Orimo, Satoshi; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Ma, J.*; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Kanazawa, Shuhei; et al.

Reza Kenkyu, 38(9), p.702 - 705, 2010/09

High-intensity laser and thin-foil interactions produce high-energy particles, hard X-ray, high-order harmonics, and terahertz (THz) radiation. A proton beam driven by a high-intensity laser has received attention as a compact ion source for medical applications. In this study we have tested simultaneous generation of protons and THz radiation from a thin-foil target. We use a Ti:sapphire laser system (J-KAREN) at JAEA. A laser beam is focused by an off-axis parabolic mirror at the thin-foil target. We observed the high-energy proton in the rear side of the target and THz radiation in the reflected direction. Next, high energy protons are observed by reducing the size of preformed plasma.

Journal Articles

Measured and simulated transport of 1.9 MeV laser-accelerated proton bunches through an integrated test beam line at 1 Hz

Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Sakaki, Hironao; Hori, Toshihiko; Bolton, P.; Ogura, Koichi; Sagisaka, Akito; Yogo, Akifumi; Mori, Michiaki; Orimo, Satoshi; Pirozhkov, A. S.; et al.

Physical Review Special Topics; Accelerators and Beams, 13(7), p.071304_1 - 071304_7, 2010/07

 Times Cited Count:25 Percentile:16.1(Physics, Nuclear)

A laser-driven repetition-rated 1.9 MeV proton beam line composed of permanent quadrupole magnets (PMQs), a radio frequency (rf) phase rotation cavity, and a tunable monochromator is developed to evaluate and to test the simulation of laser-accelerated proton beam transport through an integrated system for the first time. In addition, the proton spectral modulation and focusing behavior of the rf phase rotationcavity device is monitored with input from a PMQ triplet. In the 1.9 MeV region we observe very weakproton defocusing by the phase rotation cavity. The final transmitted bunch duration and transverse profile are well predicted by the PARMILA particle transport code. The transmitted proton beam duration of 6 ns corresponds to an energy spread near 5% for which the transport efficiency is simulated to be 10%. The predictive capability of PARMILA suggests that it can be useful in the design of future higher energy transport beam lines as part of an integrated laser-driven ion accelerator system.

Journal Articles

High-contrast (10$$^{10}$$), high-intensity (500 TW) J-KAREN laser system

Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Mori, Michiaki; Nakai, Yoshiki; Shimomura, Takuya; Sasao, Hajime; Tanaka, Momoko; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Tanoue, Manabu*; Okada, Hajime; Kondo, Shuji; et al.

JAEA-Conf 2010-002, p.18 - 21, 2010/06

We have developed a femtosecond high intensity laser system, which combines both Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) and optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) techniques, that produces more than 30 J broadband output energy, indicating the potential for achieving peak powers in excess of 500 TW. With a cleaned high-energy seeded OPCPA preamplifier as a front-end in the system, for the final compressed pulse (without pumping the booster amplifier) we found that the temporal contrast in this system exceeds 10$$^{10}$$ on the sub-nanosecond timescale, and is near 10$$^{12}$$ on the nanosecond timescale before the main femtosecond pulse. Using diffractive optical elements for beam homogenization of 100-J level high-energy Nd:glass green pump laser in a Ti:sapphire final amplifier, we have successfully generated broadband high-energy output with near-perfect top-hat intensity distributions.

135 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)