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JAEA Reports

Biosphere assessment methodology commonly applicable to varouis disposal concepts

Kato, Tomoko; Fukaya, Yukiko*; Sugiyama, Takeshi*; Nakai, Kunihiro*; Oda, Chie; Oi, Takao

JAEA-Data/Code 2019-002, 162 Pages, 2019/03

JAEA-Data-Code-2019-002.pdf:2.78MB

The radioactive waste generated from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident have features such as wide range of contamination level (from low to high) and huge amount etc. It would be necessary for the waste from the FDNPP accident to construct suitable disposal concept and dispose safely and reasonably. To develop suitable disposal concepts for the waste from the FDNPP accident, applicability of the present disposal concepts (deep geological disposal, sub-surface disposal, near-surface disposal (trench type and concrete pit type), etc) is being discussed. For such disucssion it would be expected to be able to use common scenarios, models and parameter sets for various disposal concepts. Therefore, as a preliminary study to standardize such scenarios, models and parameter sets, a standardized biosphere model and parameter set which are applicable to the biospohere assessment for various disposal concepts were developed as an example refering to the existing biosphere models, parameters defined for present disposal concepts and latest findings. And, a set of flux-to-dose conversion factors calculated with the standardized biosphere model and parameter set was also demonstrated.

JAEA Reports

Progress of general control system for Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility at J-PARC

Sakai, Kenji; Oi, Motoki; Takada, Hiroshi; Kai, Tetsuya; Nakatani, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Yasuo*; Watanabe, Akihiko*

JAEA-Technology 2018-011, 57 Pages, 2019/01

JAEA-Technology-2018-011.pdf:4.98MB

For safely and efficiently operating a spallation neutron source and a muon target, a general control system (GCS) operates within Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF). GCS administers operation processes and interlocks of many instruments. It consists of several subsystems such as an integral control system (ICS), interlock systems (ILS), shared servers, network system, and timing distribution system (TDS). Although GCS is an independent system that controls the target stations, it works closely with the control systems of the accelerators and other facilities in J-PARC. Since the first beam injection, GCS has operated stably without any serious troubles after modification based on commissioning for operation and control. Then, significant improvements in GCS such as upgrade of ICS by changing its framework software and function enhancement of ILS were proceeded until 2015. In this way, many modifications have been proceeded in the entire GCS during a period of approximately ten years after start of beam operation. Under these situation, it is important to comprehend upgrade history and present status of GCS in order to decide its upgrade plan. This report summarizes outline, structure, roles and functions of GCS in 2017.

Journal Articles

Recent progress of radiation physicochemical process (third part)

Kai, Takeshi; Yokoya, Akinari*; Fujii, Kentaro*; Watanabe, Ritsuko*

Hoshasen Kagaku (Internet), (106), p.21 - 29, 2018/11

It is thought to that the biological effects such as cell death or mutation are induced by complex DNA damage which are formed by several damage sites within a few nm. As the prediction of complex DNA damage at an electron track end, we report our outcomes. These results indicate that DNA damage sites comprising multiple nucleobase lesions with a single strand breaks can be formed by multiple collisions of the electrons within 1 nm. This multiple damage site cannot be processed by base excision repair enzymes. Pre-hydrated electrons can also be produced resulting in an additional base lesion over a few nm from the multi-damage site. This clustered damage site may be finally converted into a double strand break. These DSBs include another base lesion(s) at their termini that escape from the base excision process and which may result in biological effect. Our simulation is useful to reveal phenomena involved in radiation physico-chemistry as well as the DNA damage prediction.

Journal Articles

Spatial resolution test targets made of gadolinium and gold for conventional and resonance neutron imaging

Segawa, Mariko; Oikawa, Kenichi; Kai, Tetsuya; Shinohara, Takenao; Hayashida, Hirotoshi*; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro*; Parker, J. D.*; Nakatani, Takeshi; Hiroi, Kosuke; Su, Y.; et al.

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 22, p.011028_1 - 011028_8, 2018/11

Journal Articles

Occupation sites and valence states of Co dopants in (La, Co)-codoped M-type Sr ferrite; $$^{57}$$Fe and $$^{59}$$Co nuclear magnetic resonance studies

Sakai, Hironori; Hattori, Taisuke; Tokunaga, Yo; Kambe, Shinsaku; Ueda, Hiroaki*; Tanioku, Yasuaki*; Michioka, Chishiro*; Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi*; Takao, Kenta*; Shimoda, Aiko*; et al.

Physical Review B, 98(6), p.064403_1 - 064403_10, 2018/08

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:59.26(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

To specify preferential occupation sites of Co substituents and to clarify charge and spin states of Co ions in (La, Co)-cosubstituted hexagonal magnetoplumbite-type (M-type) Sr ferrite, $$^{57}$$Fe and $$^{59}$$Co nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra are measured under zero and external magnetic fields using powdered and single crystalline specimens. To a considerable degree, the charge compensation between La$$^{3+}$$ and Co$$^{2+}$$ works in the equal (La, Co)-codoped case, where more than half of the Co ions are considered to be present in the minority spin $$4f_1$$ sites at the center of the oxygen tetrahedra, with the $$S$$ = 3/2 state carrying a small orbital moment owing to spin-orbit interaction. The remaining small number of high-spin Co$$^{2+}$$ ($$S$$ = 3/2, $$L$$ = 1) ions with unquenched orbital moments would be distributed to the other octahedral $$12k$$, $$2a$$, and $$4f_2$$ sites.

Journal Articles

Features of particle and heavy ion transport code system (PHITS) version 3.02

Sato, Tatsuhiko; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Furuta, Takuya; Abe, Shinichiro; Kai, Takeshi; Tsai, P.-E.; Matsuda, Norihiro; Iwase, Hiroshi*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 55(6), p.684 - 690, 2018/06

 Times Cited Count:40 Percentile:0.03(Nuclear Science & Technology)

We have upgraded many features of the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) and released the new version as PHITS3.02. The accuracy and the applicable energy ranges of the code were greatly improved and extended, respectively, owing to the revisions to the nuclear reaction models and the incorporation of new atomic interaction models. In addition, several user-supportive functions were developed, such as new tallies to efficiently obtain statistically better results, radioisotope source-generation function, and software tools useful for applying PHITS to medical physics. In this paper, we summarize the basic features of PHITS3.02, especially those of the physics models and the functions implemented after the release of PHITS2.52 in 2013.

Journal Articles

A Significant role of non-thermal equilibrated electrons in the formation of deleterious complex DNA damage

Kai, Takeshi; Yokoya, Akinari*; Ukai, Masatoshi*; Fujii, Kentaro*; Toigawa, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Ritsuko*

Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 20(4), p.2838 - 2844, 2018/01

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:37.68(Chemistry, Physical)

It is thought that complex DNA damage which induces in radiation biological effects is formed at radiation track end. Thus, the earliest stage of water radiolysis at the electron track end was studied to predict DNA damage. These results indicate that DNA damage sites comprising multiple nucleobase lesions with a single strand breaks can therefore be formed by multiple collisions of the electrons within three base pairs (3bp) of a DNA strand. This multiple damage site cannot be processed by base excision repair enzymes. However, pre-hydrated electrons can also be produced resulting in an additional base lesion more than 3bp away from the multi-damage site. This clustered damage site may be finally converted into a double strand break (DSB) when base excision enzymes process the additional base lesions. These DSBs include another base lesion(s) at their termini that escape from the base excision process and which may result in biological effects such as mutation in surviving cells.

Journal Articles

Modern radiation chemistry (Applications), 16; Computer simulation study of initial process of radiation biological effect

Watanabe, Ritsuko*; Kai, Takeshi; Hattori, Yuya*

Radioisotopes, 66(11), p.525 - 530, 2017/11

To understand the mechanisms of radiation biological effects, modeling and simulation studies are important. In particular, simulation approach is powerful tool to evaluate modeling of mechanisms and the relationship among experimental results in different spatial scale of biological systems such as DNA molecular and cell. This article summarizes our approach to evaluate radiation action on DNA and cells by combination of knowledge in radiation physics, chemistry and biology. It contains newly theoretical approach to estimate physico-chemical process of DNA damage induction in addition to typical method of DNA damage prediction. Outline of the mathematical model for dynamics of DNA damage and cellular response is also presented.

Journal Articles

Recent improvements of particle and heavy ion transport code system: PHITS

Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji*; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Furuta, Takuya; Abe, Shinichiro; Kai, Takeshi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Okumura, Keisuke; et al.

EPJ Web of Conferences (Internet), 153, p.06008_1 - 06008_6, 2017/09

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:14.04

Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, has been developed under the collaboration of several institutes in Japan and Europe. It can deal with the transport of nearly all particles up to 1 TeV (per nucleon for ion) using various nuclear reaction models and data libraries. More than 2,500 researchers and technicians have used the code for a variety of applications such as accelerator design, radiation shielding and protection, medical physics, and space and geosciences. This paper briefly summarizes physics models and functions newly implemented in PHITS between versions 2.52 and 2.82.

Journal Articles

Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, 3; Neutron devices and computational and sample environments

Sakasai, Kaoru; Sato, Setsuo*; Seya, Tomohiro*; Nakamura, Tatsuya; To, Kentaro; Yamagishi, Hideshi*; Soyama, Kazuhiko; Yamazaki, Dai; Maruyama, Ryuji; Oku, Takayuki; et al.

Quantum Beam Science (Internet), 1(2), p.10_1 - 10_35, 2017/09

Neutron devices such as neutron detectors, optical devices including supermirror devices and $$^{3}$$He neutron spin filters, and choppers are successfully developed and installed at the Materials Life Science Facility (MLF) of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), Tokai, Japan. Four software components of MLF computational environment, instrument control, data acquisition, data analysis, and a database, have been developed and equipped at MLF. MLF also provides a wide variety of sample environment options including high and low temperatures, high magnetic fields, and high pressures. This paper describes the current status of neutron devices, computational and sample environments at MLF.

Journal Articles

Reliability estimation of neutron resonance thermometry using tantalum and tungsten

Kai, Tetsuya; Hiroi, Kosuke; Su, Y.; Shinohara, Takenao; Parker, J. D.*; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro*; Hayashida, Hirotoshi*; Segawa, Mariko; Nakatani, Takeshi; Oikawa, Kenichi; et al.

Physics Procedia, 88, p.306 - 313, 2017/06

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:8.64

Journal Articles

Features of PHITS version 2.88

Sato, Tatsuhiko; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Furuta, Takuya; Abe, Shinichiro; Kai, Takeshi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Iwase, Hiroshi*; Niita, Koji*

Hoshasen, 43(2), p.55 - 58, 2017/05

Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, has been developed under the collaboration of several institutes in Japan and Europe. It can deal with the transport of nearly all particles up to 1 TeV (per nucleon for ion) using various nuclear reaction models and data libraries. More than 2,500 registered researchers and technicians have used this system for various applications such as accelerator design, radiation shielding and protection, medical physics, and space- and geo-sciences. This paper summarizes the physics models and functions recently implemented in PHITS, between versions 2.52 and 2.88.

Journal Articles

Benchmark study of the recent version of the PHITS code

Iwamoto, Yosuke; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Furuta, Takuya; Abe, Shinichiro; Kai, Takeshi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Hosoyamada, Ryuji*; Niita, Koji*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 54(5), p.617 - 635, 2017/05

 Times Cited Count:14 Percentile:0.82(Nuclear Science & Technology)

We performed a benchmark study for 58 cases using the recent version 2.88 of the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) in the following fields: particle production cross-sections for nuclear reactions, neutron transport calculations, and electro-magnetic cascade. This paper reports details for 22 cases. In cases of nuclear reactions with energies above 100 MeV and electro-magnetic cascade, overall agreements were found to be satisfactory. On the other hand, PHITS did not reproduce the experimental data for an incident proton energy below 100 MeV, because the intranuclear cascade model INCL4.6 in PHITS is not suitable for the low-energy region. For proton incident reactions over 100 MeV, PHITS did not reproduce fission product yields due to the problem of high-energy fission process in the evaporation model GEM. To overcome these inaccuracies, we are planning to incorporate a high-energy version of the evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-4.0/HE, and so on.

Journal Articles

Dynamic behavior of secondary electrons produced by a high-energy electron in liquid water

Kai, Takeshi; Yokoya, Akinari*; Fujii, Kentaro*; Watanabe, Ritsuko*

Yodenshi Kagaku, (8), p.11 - 17, 2017/03

It is thought to that the biological effects such as cell death or mutation are induced by complex DNA damage which are formed by several damage sites within a few nm. We calculated dynamic behavior of secondary electrons produced by primary electron and positon of high energy in water whose composition ratio is similar to biological context. The secondary electrons induce the ionization or electronic excitation near the parent cations. The decelerated electrons about 10% are distributed to their parent cations by the attractive Coulombic force. From the results, we predicted the following formation mechanism for the complex DNA damage. The electrons ejected from DNA could induce the ionization or the electronic excitation within the DNA. The electrons attracted by the Coulombic force are pre-hydrated in water layer of the DNA. The pre-hydrated electrons could induce to the DNA damage by dissociative electron transfer. As the results, the complex DNA damage with 1 nm could be formed by the interaction of not only the primary electron or positon but also the secondary electrons.

Journal Articles

Irradiation test of semiconductors components on the shelf for nuclear robots based on Fukushima Accidents

Kawatsuma, Shinji; Nakai, Koji; Suzuki, Yoshiharu; Kase, Takeshi

QST-M-2; QST Takasaki Annual Report 2015, P. 81, 2016/12

Radiation Tolerance of semiconductor components on the shelf, utilized on the robots for emergency response or decommissioning in nuclear facilities, should be estimated. Just after the Fukushima Daiichi NPPs accidents occurred, a guideline, of irradiation tolerance estimation and management method of semiconductor components on the shelf, was tried to be made based on the old database developed in the course of Bilateral Servo Manipulator under the high radiation and high contamination environments. The estimation was conservative, because the data in the database were old and mainly based on the test results of silicon semiconductors. Ga-As Semiconductors are coming major recently, and expected to be higher radiation tolerance. For those reason, present semiconductor devices have irradiated and the irradiation tolerance have estimated.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of DNA damage induced by Auger electrons from $$^{137}$$Cs

Watanabe, Ritsuko; Hattori, Yuya; Kai, Takeshi

International Journal of Radiation Biology, 92(11), p.660 - 664, 2016/11

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:76.09(Biology)

To understand the effect of internal exposure of $$^{137}$$Cs, we focus on estimation of microscopic energy deposition pattern and DNA damage induced by directly emitted electrons (beta-rays, internal conversion electrons, Auger electrons) from $$^{137}$$Cs. Monte Carlo track simulation method was used to calculate the microscopic energy deposition pattern. To simulate the energy deposition by directly emitted electrons, we considered the multiple ejections of electrons after internal conversion. Induction process of DNA strand breaks and base lesions was modeled and simulated using Monte Carlo methods for cell mimetic condition. The yield and spatial distribution of simple and complex DNA damage were calculated for the cases of $$gamma$$-rays and electrons from $$^{137}$$Cs. The simulation showed that significant difference of DNA damage spectrum was not caused by the difference between secondary electron spectrum by $$gamma$$-rays and directly ejected electron spectrum. The result support that the existing evaluation that internal exposure and external exposure are almost equivalent.

Journal Articles

Deceleration processes of secondary electrons produced by a high-energy Auger electron in a biological context

Kai, Takeshi; Yokoya, Akinari; Ukai, Masatoshi; Fujii, Kentaro; Watanabe, Ritsuko

International Journal of Radiation Biology, 92(11), p.654 - 659, 2016/11

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:76.09(Biology)

Journal Articles

Dynamic behavior of secondary electrons in liquid water at the earliest stage upon irradiation; Implications for DNA damage localization mechanism

Kai, Takeshi; Yokoya, Akinari*; Ukai, Masatoshi*; Fujii, Kentaro*; Watanabe, Ritsuko*

Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 120(42), p.8228 - 8233, 2016/10

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:82.37(Chemistry, Physical)

Low energy secondary electrons produced by an ionizing radiation in a living cell may involve in formation of complexed DNA damage. We performed theoretical study for numerical calculation of dynamic behavior of the electrons to imply a formation of radiation damage to DNA. The decelerating electrons are gradually attracted to their parent cations by the Coulombic force within hundreds of fs, and about 12.6 % of electrons are finally distributed within 2 nm from the cations. The collision fraction of the ionization and excitation within 1 nm from the cation was estimated to be about 40 %. From those analyses, we suggested a process of DNA damage that the secondary electrons may cause highly localized lesions around a cation in DNA molecule through additional dissociative electron transfer as well as the ionization or the excitation if the electrons are ejected from DNA. The localized damage may involve ultimately in biological effects such as cell death or mutation induction.

Journal Articles

Overview of the PHITS code and application to nuclear data; Radiation damage calculation for materials

Iwamoto, Yosuke; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji*; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Furuta, Takuya; Abe, Shinichiro; Kai, Takeshi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Iwase, Hiroshi*; et al.

JAEA-Conf 2016-004, p.63 - 69, 2016/09

A general purpose Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, is being developed through the collaboration of several institutes. PHITS can deal with the transport of nearly all particles, including neutrons, protons, heavy ions, photons, and electrons, over wide energy ranges using various nuclear reaction models and data libraries. PHITS users apply the code to various research and development fields such as nuclear technology, accelerator design, medical physics, and cosmic-ray research. This presentation briefly summarizes the physics models implemented in PHITS, and introduces some new models such as muon-induced nuclear reaction model and a $$gamma$$ de-excitation model EBITEM. We will also present the radiation damage cross sections for materials, PKA spectra and kerma factors calculated by PHITS under the IAEA-CRP activity titled "Primary radiation damage cross section."

Journal Articles

Feasibility study of technology for Pu solution monitoring including FP; Composition research of high active liquid waste and radiation measurement results on the surface of cell

Matsuki, Takuya; Masui, Kenji; Sekine, Megumi; Tanigawa, Masafumi; Yasuda, Takeshi; Tsutagi, Koichi; Ishiyama, Koichi; Nishida, Naoki; Horigome, Kazushi; Mukai, Yasunobu; et al.

Proceedings of INMM 57th Annual Meeting (Internet), 9 Pages, 2016/07

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has proposed in its long-term research and development (R&D) plan, development of a real-time measurement technology to monitor and verify nuclear material movement continuously as part of an advanced approach to effectively and efficiently conduct safeguards for reprocessing facilities. Since the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) has solutions containing both Pu and fission products (FP), a new detector development project to monitor Pu with FP is being carried out from 2015 to 2017. This project is mainly conducted in the High Active Liquid Waste Storage (HALWS) in the TRP. For the first step of this project, as the confirmation of composition of high active liquid waste (HALW) to evaluate neutron/$$gamma$$-ray emitted from solution in the selected HALW tank which has the most amount of Pu in HALW tanks at the TRP, we took HALW sample and conducted $$gamma$$-ray spectrum measurement for HALW. As a study of detector setting location, to survey the available neutron/$$gamma$$-ray (i.e. intensity) at the outside surface of the cell where HALW tank is located, we implemented continuous measurement by neutron/$$gamma$$-ray detector. In this paper, we report three $$gamma$$-ray peaks related with $$^{238}$$Pu and $$^{239}$$Pu measured in the composition research of HALW, which is needed to identify Pu amount by the new detector that we are developing and the result of radiation measurement on the surface of the cell.

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